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Journal Article

Pressure Based Sensing Approach for Front Impacts

2011-04-12
2011-01-1443
This study demonstrates the use of pressure sensing technology to predict the crash severity of frontal impacts. It presents an investigation of the pressure change in the front structural elements (bumper, crush cans, rails) during crash events. A series of subsystem tests were conducted in the laboratory that represent a typical frontal crash development series and provided empirical data to support the analysis of the concept. The pressure signal energy at different sensor mounting locations was studied and design concepts were developed for amplifying the pressure signal. In addition, a pressure signal processing methodology was developed that relies on the analysis of the air flow behavior by normalizing and integrating the pressure changes. The processed signal from the pressure sensor is combined with the restraint control module (RCM) signals to define the crash severity, discriminate between the frontal crash modes and deploy the required restraint devices.
Journal Article

Legibility: Back to the Basics

2011-04-12
2011-01-0597
The objective for this study was to revisit some of the known factors that affect legibility including font characteristics, as well as, contrast polarity, luminance contrast, and color contrast under high ambient conditions as specified in SAE J1757. The study focused on older drivers due to their increased visual needs and limitations. The study was conducted in 2 phases: 1) a study of font characteristics; character height, character width, and stroke width using a central composite design. Subjects read a group of letters and numerals displayed on a laptop display using occlusion goggles. The reading time (Total Shutter Open Time or TSOT), reading errors, and a subjective Readability Rating (using a 4 point scale "Very Easy," "Easy," "Difficult," "Very Difficult") were recorded. Licensed drivers in three age groups, 25 to 44 yrs, 45 to 59 yrs, and 61 to 91 yrs participated. The response surfaces were generated and compared to the character sizes recommended in ISO 15008.
Journal Article

Vehicle Safety Communications - Applications: Multiple On-Board Equipment Testing

2011-04-12
2011-01-0586
The United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) and the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership-Vehicle Safety Communications 2 (CAMP-VSC2) Consortium (Ford, General Motors, Honda, Mercedes-Benz, and Toyota) initiated, in December 2006, a three-year collaborative effort in the area of wireless-based safety applications under the Vehicle Safety Communications-Applications (VSC-A) Project. The VSC-A Project developed and tested Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communications-based safety systems to determine if Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) at 5.9 GHz, in combination with vehicle positioning, would improve upon autonomous vehicle-based safety systems and/or enable new communications-based safety applications.
Journal Article

Vehicle Safety Communications - Applications: System Design & Objective Testing Results

2011-04-12
2011-01-0575
The USDOT and the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership-Vehicle Safety Communications 2 (CAMP-VSC2) Consortium (Ford, GM, Honda, Mercedes, and Toyota) initiated, in December 2006, a three-year collaborative effort in the area of wireless-based safety applications under the Vehicle Safety Communications-Applications (VSC-A) Project. The VSC-A Project developed and tested communications-based vehicle safety systems to determine if Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) at 5.9 GHz, in combination with vehicle positioning, would improve upon autonomous vehicle-based safety systems and/or enable new communications-based safety applications.
Technical Paper

A Technical Analysis of a Proposed Theory on Tire Tread Belt Separation-Induced Axle Tramp

2011-04-12
2011-01-0967
Recently, papers have been published purporting to study the effect of rear axle tramp during tread separation events, and its effect on vehicle handling [1, 2]. Based on analysis and physical testing, one paper [1] has put forth a mathematical model which the authors claim allows vehicle designers to select shock damping values during the development process of a vehicle in order to assure that a vehicle will not experience axle tramp during tread separations. In the course of their work, “lumpy” tires (tires with rubber blocks adhered to the tire's tread) were employed to excite the axle tramp resonance, even though this method has been shown not to duplicate the physical mechanisms behind an actual tread belt separation. This paper evaluates the theories postulated in [1] by first analyzing the equations behind the mathematical model presented. The model is then tested to see if it agrees with observed physical testing.
Technical Paper

FMVSS 226 Ejection Mitigation: A Review

2013-04-08
2013-01-0469
In January 2011, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) published a final rule establishing Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 226 Ejection Mitigation, with the intent of reducing the occurrence of complete and partial ejections of vehicle occupants during crashes, especially rollover events. FMVSS 226 requires component-level tests to be conducted on ejection mitigation countermeasures (e.g., rollover-activated side curtain airbags). A guided, linear impactor is used to propel a headform into a rollover-activated countermeasure at up to four locations for each side daylight opening in the vehicle, for up to three seating rows. The impact tests are conducted at two energy levels (speeds) and associated impact times: 278 J (20 km/h) at 1.5 s after curtain activation and 178 J (16 km/h) at 6 s. The FMVSSS 226 compliance criterion is that the headform cannot travel more than 100 mm past the inside surface of the side window plane.
Technical Paper

A Computational Investigation of the Effects of Swirl Ratio and Injection Pressure on Mixture Preparation and Wall Heat Transfer in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1105
In a recent study, quantitative measurements were presented of in-cylinder spatial distributions of mixture equivalence ratio in a single-cylinder light-duty optical diesel engine, operated with a non-reactive mixture at conditions similar to an early injection low-temperature combustion mode. In the experiments a planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) methodology was used to obtain local mixture equivalence ratio values based on a diesel fuel surrogate (75% n-heptane, 25% iso-octane), with a small fraction of toluene as fluorescing tracer (0.5% by mass). Significant changes in the mixture's structure and composition at the walls were observed due to increased charge motion at high swirl and injection pressure levels. This suggested a non-negligible impact on wall heat transfer and, ultimately, on efficiency and engine-out emissions.
Technical Paper

Development of Universal Brake Test Data Exchange Format and Evaluation Standard

2010-10-10
2010-01-1698
Brake system development and testing is spread over vehicle manufacturers, system and component suppliers. Test equipment from different sources, even resulting from different technology generations, different data analysis and report tools - comprising different and sometimes undocumented algorithms - lead to a difficult exchange and analysis of test results and, at the same time, contributes to unwanted test variability. Other studies regarding the test variability brought up that only a unified and unambiguous data format will allow a meaningful and comparative evaluation of these data and only standardization will reveal the actual reasons of test variability. The text at hand illustrates that a substantial part of test variability is caused by a misinterpretation of data and/or by the application of different algorithms.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Groan and Grind Noise in Brake Systems

2011-09-18
2011-01-2364
Low frequency brake system noise has been a systemic and ongoing issue for several automakers. The noise is a combined effect of brake and suspension systems working with each other. The noise transmission path is also important. The latest warranty and quality indicators on this has resulted in high degree of dissatisfaction for several vehicles. The customer complaints have been for grind noise, grunt and groan. The team focused on a multi-level integrated approach for this problem. The first step was deep diving and dissecting the customer complaint data. The low frequency noise for grind and groan can be reduced to several contributors. One of the main issues was the movement of pads over the rotor fins resulting in dynamic groan type of noise. It was important to relate this to the customer complaint for grind. In association with that, the grind noise was also caused by in-stop grunt type of noise.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Diesel Liquid Spray Penetration Fluctuations under Vaporizing Conditions

2012-04-16
2012-01-0455
Diesel combustion and emissions formation is largely spray and mixing controlled and hence understanding spray parameters, specifically vaporization, is key to determine the impact of fuel injector operation and nozzle design on combustion and emissions. In this study, an eight-hole common rail piezoelectric injector was tested in an optically accessible constant volume combustion vessel at charge gas conditions typical of full load boosted engine operation. Liquid penetration of the eight sprays was determined via processing of images acquired from Mie back scattering under vaporizing conditions by injecting into a charge gas at elevated temperature with 0% oxygen. Conditions investigated included a charge temperature sweep of 800 to 1300 K and injection pressure sweep of 1034 to 2000 bar at a constant charge density of 34.8 kg/m₃.
Technical Paper

A Matrix Array Technique for Evaluation of Adhesively Bonded Joints

2012-04-16
2012-01-0475
Adhesive bonding technology is playing an increasingly important role in automotive industry. Ultrasonic evaluation of adhesive joints of metal sheets is a challenging problem in Non-Destructive Testing due to the large acoustic impedance mismatch between metal and adhesive, variability in the thickness of metal and adhesive layers, as well as variability in joint geometry. In this paper, we present the results from a matrix array of small flat ultrasonic transducers for evaluation of adhesively bonded joints in both laboratory and production environments. The reverberating waveforms recorded by the array elements are processed to obtain an informative parameter, whose two-dimensional distribution can be presented as a C-scan. Energy of the reflected waveform, normalized with respect to the energy obtained from an area with no adhesive, is a robust parameter for discriminating "adhesive/no-adhesive" regions.
Technical Paper

Passenger Air Bag Linear Impactor Dynamic Testing Method and Data Analysis

2007-04-16
2007-01-0351
In order to quantify the dynamic restraint capability of a passenger airbag, a sub-system test method has been developed. The sub-system included a passenger airbag, an adjustable generic instrument panel (IP) and an adjustable windshield. The test was called the Passenger Air Bag Linear Impactor Test (PABLIT). This test method could be used for not only A to B comparisons, but also to evaluate the performance of any PAB module design in general, including performance variability of airbag systems. A variety of impactor, pendulum and drop tower test methods are currently used by inflatable restraint suppliers. PABLIT was aimed to standardize airbag testing and data analysis. Various production hardware designs were tested to investigate the characteristics of the sub-assemblies that provide restraint capability.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Neck Tension Force in IIHS Rear Impact Test

2007-04-16
2007-01-0368
This paper examines the neck tension force (Fz) of the BioRid II dummy in the IIHS (Insurance Institute of Highway Safety) rear impact mode. The kinematics of the event is carefully reviewed, followed by a detailed theoretical analysis, paying particular attention to the upper neck tension force. The study reveals that the neck tension should be approximately 450N due to the head inertia force alone. However, some of the tests conducted by IIHS had neck tension forces as high as 1400N. The theory of head hooking and torso downward pulling is postulated in the paper, and various publicly available IIHS rear impact tests are examined against the theory. It is found in the analysis that in many of those tests with high neck tension forces, the locus of the head restraint reaction force travels on the dummy's skull cap, and eventually moves down underneath the skull cap, which causes “hooking” of the head on the stacked-up head restraint foam.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Glass Design Optimization Using a CFD/SEA Model

2007-05-15
2007-01-2306
A new methodology to predict vehicle interior wind noise using CFD results has been developed. The CFD simulation replaces wind tunnel testing for providing flow field information around vehicle greenhouse. A loadcase model based on the CFD results is used to excite an SEA vehicle model. This new approach has been demonstrated on a production vehicle with success for the frequency range of 250-10K Hz. The CAE prediction of interior wind noise agrees within 0.2 sones from wind tunnel testing. The model has been used to evaluate wind noise performance with different door glass design parameters. A glass thickness change from 3.8 mm to 4.8 mm results in 1.1 sones improvement, which agrees well to 1.4 sones improvement from testing. Laminated glass with about 3 times higher damping results in 2.5 sones improvement. This methodology using CFD results can be used in the early stage of product development to impact designs.
Technical Paper

Design of Roof-Rack Crossbars for Production Automobiles to Reduce Howl Noise using a Lattice Boltzmann Scheme

2007-05-15
2007-01-2398
A computational design study, performed in conjunction with experiments, to reduce the howl noise caused by the roof rack crossbars of a production automobile is presented. This goals were to obtain insight into the flow phenomenon causing the noise, and to do a design iteration study that would lead to a small number of cross-section recommendations for crossbars that would be tested in the wind tunnel. The flow condition for this study is 0 yaw at 30 mph inlet speed, which experimentally gives the strongest roof rack howl for the vehicle considered for this study. The numerical results have been obtained using the commercial CFD/CAA software PowerFLOW. The simulation kernel of this software is based on the numerical scheme known as the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM), combined with a two-equation RNG turbulence model.
Technical Paper

SAE Standard Procedure J2747 for Measuring Hydraulic Pump Airborne Noise

2007-05-15
2007-01-2408
This work discusses the development of SAE procedure J2747, “Hydraulic Pump Airborne Noise Bench Test”. This is a test procedure describing a standard method for measuring radiated sound power levels from hydraulic pumps of the type typically used in automotive power steering systems, though it can be extended for use with other types of pumps. This standard was developed by a committee of industry representatives from OEM's, suppliers and NVH testing firms familiar with NVH measurement requirements for automotive hydraulic pumps. Details of the test standard are discussed. The hardware configuration of the test bench and the configuration of the test article are described. Test conditions, data acquisition and post-processing specifics are also included. Contextual information regarding the reasoning and priorities applied by the development committee is provided to further explain the strengths, limitations and intended usage of the test procedure.
Technical Paper

Low Volatility ZDDP Technology: Part 2 - Exhaust Catalysts Performance in Field Applications

2007-10-29
2007-01-4107
Phosphorus is known to reduce effectiveness of the three-way catalysts (TWC) commonly used by automotive OEMs. This phenomenon is referred to as catalyst deactivation. The process occurs as zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) decomposes in an engine creating many phosphorus species, which eventually interact with the active sites of exhaust catalysts. This phosphorous comes from both oil consumption and volatilization. Novel low-volatility ZDDP is designed in such a way that the amounts of volatile phosphorus species are significantly reduced while their antiwear and antioxidant performances are maintained. A recent field trial conducted in New York City taxi cabs provided two sets of “aged” catalysts that had been exposed to GF-4-type formulations. The trial compared fluids formulated with conventional and low-volatility ZDDPs. Results of field test examination were reported in an earlier paper (1).
Technical Paper

Practical Approach for Fast Durability Analysis & Iterations

2006-04-03
2006-01-0784
The highly competitive auto industry is looking for ways to reduce product development cycle time while meeting the corporate and government stringent vehicle performance requirements. Quasi-static or dynamic analytical fatigue life assessment of automotive structures consumes more time because of the use of long proving ground time histories and large finite element models with more than a million elements. A representative static load case that highlights all the durability concern locations is needed for making fast design iterations. This paper describes a simple technique to extract a static load case that correlates to minimum fatigue life at various locations of the body structure and the method of using this load case for fast iterations before validating the final design with fatigue analysis using full proving ground loads. The usefulness of this static load case in solving sheet metal and spot weld fatigue issues is demonstrated with an example.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Vehicle Kinematics in Laboratory-based Rollover Test Modes1

2006-04-03
2006-01-0724
A two-dimensional analytical model is developed by solving the differential equations which describe the motion of a vehicle in laboratory-based rollover events. The model is based on a rigid-body kinematics assumption for the entire vehicle. Three cases are studied: the first case deals with determination of the Critical Sliding Velocity of a vehicle rolls over from a tilt table, the second case considers rollover of a vehicle which sits on a platform traveling at a velocity V which is suddenly stops, and the third one repeats the second problem except that the platform is brought to stop according to a given deceleration profile, thus simulating the SAE J2114 rollover test procedure. For the SAE J2114 rollover test procedure simulation, the analytical results are compared with those obtained from MADYMO-based rollover model.
Technical Paper

CAE Prediction and Test Correlation for Body Sheet Metal

2006-04-03
2006-01-0828
Finite element based stress analysis and fatigue predictions are practiced routinely in automotive body structural design and development. The accuracy of these simulation results is not fully understood or at least not well documented. Automotive body structures have many kinds of notches, metal thinning due to stamping and cold working etc. Modern fatigue assessment tools do take into account many of these complexities by Neuber corrections, mean-stress correction, critical plane selection, etc. Other challenges exist in the sensitivity to element quality, including warpage, size, element type, interpretation of results, etc. This case study is based on static loading and accelerated fatigue test conducted on a front-end body buck. The stress and fatigue correlations are designed to build confidence in the model and load inputs. The fatigue results are intended to reproduce durability issues that developed during a proving ground test and were then used to verify potential fixes.
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