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Technical Paper

Magnetic Tape and Servo-Hydraulics Applied to Truck Frame Testing

This paper discusses the possible impact of the FM tape recorder and servo-hydraulic actuators on the testing of automotive structures. The use of tape recorders and automatic data reduction systems will permit more accurate definition of service conditions and properly “set-the-stage” for laboratory testing. Servo-hydraulic strokers should encourage better laboratory simulation because of their great flexibility. Test set-up time is reduced, fixtures can be simplified and load control is more precise. Simultaneous multiple inputs can be controlled as to amplitude and phase relationships.
Technical Paper

Instrument Panel Design The “Control Center” of the Car

The design of an automotive instrument panel has become an increasingly complex job as product evolution in terms of customer safety, mechanical improvements, optional features and customer wants have altered the content of the automotive vehicle, and added substantially to the design requirements that must be observed in this area of the vehicle. To provide a perspective of the total job required to accommodate the changing and diverse standards and engineering requirements, this report will tell the story of the Ford Motor Company instrument panel design process. The report will cover all of the major considerations that affect the finished appearance of the design as well as the considerations required for customer convenience, and instrument panel serviceability.
Technical Paper

The Use of Discrete Wavelet Transform in Road Loads Signals Compression

Wavelets are a powerful mathematical tool used to multi-resolution time-frequency decomposition of signals, in order to analyze them in different scales and obtain different aspects of the information. Despite being a relatively new tool, wavelets have being applied in several areas of human knowledge, especially in signal processing, with emphasis in encoding and compression of image, video and audio. Based on a previous successful applications (FRAZIER, 1999) together a commitment to quality results, this paper evaluates the use of the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) as an compression algorithm to reduce the amount of data collected in road load signals (load history) which are used by the durability engineering teams in the automotive industry.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Error Assessment of Response Time Histories (EEARTH) Metric and Calibration Process

Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) has become a vital tool for product development in automotive industry. Increasing computer models are developed to simulate vehicle crashworthiness, dynamic, and fuel efficiency. Before applying these models for product development, model validation needs to be conducted to assess the validity of the models. However, one of the key difficulties for model validation of dynamic systems is that most of the responses are functional responses, such as time history curves. This calls for the development of an objective metric which can evaluate the differences of both the time history and the key features, such as phase shift, magnitude, and slope between test and CAE curves. One of the promising metrics is Error Assessment of Response Time Histories (EARTH), which was recently developed. Three independent error measures that associated with physically meaningful characteristics (phase, magnitude, and slope) were proposed.
Technical Paper

Communication Requirements for Plug-In Electric Vehicles

This paper is the second in the series of documents designed to record the progress of a series of SAE documents - SAE J2836™, J2847, J2931, & J2953 - within the Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Communication Task Force. This follows the initial paper number 2010-01-0837, and continues with the test and modeling of the various PLC types for utility programs described in J2836/1™ & J2847/1. This also extends the communication to an off-board charger, described in J2836/2™ & J2847/2 and includes reverse energy flow described in J2836/3™ and J2847/3. The initial versions of J2836/1™ and J2847/1 were published early 2010. J2847/1 has now been re-opened to include updates from comments from the National Institute of Standards Technology (NIST) Smart Grid Interoperability Panel (SGIP), Smart Grid Architectural Committee (SGAC) and Cyber Security Working Group committee (SCWG).
Technical Paper

A Technical Analysis of a Proposed Theory on Tire Tread Belt Separation-Induced Axle Tramp

Recently, papers have been published purporting to study the effect of rear axle tramp during tread separation events, and its effect on vehicle handling [1, 2]. Based on analysis and physical testing, one paper [1] has put forth a mathematical model which the authors claim allows vehicle designers to select shock damping values during the development process of a vehicle in order to assure that a vehicle will not experience axle tramp during tread separations. In the course of their work, “lumpy” tires (tires with rubber blocks adhered to the tire's tread) were employed to excite the axle tramp resonance, even though this method has been shown not to duplicate the physical mechanisms behind an actual tread belt separation. This paper evaluates the theories postulated in [1] by first analyzing the equations behind the mathematical model presented. The model is then tested to see if it agrees with observed physical testing.
Technical Paper

Using Virtual Seat Prototyping to Understand the Influence of Craftsmanship on Safety, and Seating Comfort

Traditional automotive seat development has relied on a series of physical prototypes that are evaluated and refined in an iterative fashion. Costs are managed by sharing prototypes across multiple attributes. To further manage costs, many OEMs and Tier 1s have, over the past decade, started to investigate various levels of virtual prototyping. The change, which represents a dramatic paradigm shift, has been slow to materialize since virtual prototyping has not significantly reduced the required number of physical prototypes. This is related to the fact virtual seat prototyping efforts have been focused on only selected seat attributes - safety / occupant positioning and mechanical comfort are two examples. This requires that physical prototypes still be built for seat attributes like craftsmanship, durability, and thermal comfort.
Technical Paper

Statistical Energy Analysis Applications for Structureborne Vehicle NVH

Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) is an established high-frequency analysis technique for generating acoustic and vibration response predictions in the automotive, aerospace, machinery, and ship industries. SEA offers unique NVH prediction and target-setting capabilities as a design tool at early stages of vehicle design where geometry is still undefined and evolving and no prototype hardware is available yet for testing. The exact frequencies at which SEA can be used effectively vary according to the size and the amount of damping in the vehicle subsystems; however, for automotive design the ability to predict acoustic and vibration responses due to both airborne and structure-borne sources has been established to frequencies of 500 Hz and above. This paper presents the background, historical use, and current industrial applications of structure-borne SEA. The history and motivation for the development of structure-borne SEA are discussed.
Technical Paper

Energy Efficiency as Industrial Management Practice: The Ford Production System and Institutionalizing Energy Efficiency

Industrial motor-driven systems consume more than 70% of global manufacturing electricity annually and offer one of the largest opportunities for energy savings. System optimization techniques through the application of existing, commercially available technologies and accepted engineering practices typically achieve energy savings of 20% or more for these systems across all industrial sectors. The optimization opportunities for steam systems are at least equal or greater. Despite the potential benefits, energy savings from these industrial systems have remained largely unrealized by US industry. This paper presents the argument that unless energy efficiency is institutionalized, it will be viewed by corporate managers as something different than the effective and efficient use of labor and material resources. If this institutionalization does not occur, the potential benefits will never be achieved or sustained.
Technical Paper

Achievements and Exploitation of the AUTOSAR Development Partnership

Reductions of hardware costs as well as implementations of new innovative functions are the main drivers of today's automotive electronics. Indeed more and more resources are spent on adapting existing solutions to different environments. At the same time, due to the increasing number of networked components, a level of complexity has been reached which is difficult to handle using traditional development processes. The automotive industry addresses this problem through a paradigm shift from a hardware-, component-driven to a requirement- and function-driven development process, and a stringent standardization of infrastructure elements. One central standardization initiative is the AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture (AUTOSAR). AUTOSAR was founded in 2003 by major OEMs and Tier1 suppliers and now includes a large number of automotive, electronics, semiconductor, hard- and software companies.
Technical Paper

Update on Emissions Measurement Performance of a PZEV Test Cell

In Fall of 2001, a new emissions test cell was installed at Ford Motor Company that was specifically designed for precise low-level measurements (as described in Reference 6). The primary design focus for this cell was to ensure that optimal measurement capability was available to test vehicles that meet the stringent Partial Zero Emission Vehicle (PZEV) tailpipe requirements (NMOG = 10 mg/mile, NOx = 20 mg/mile). Over the past four years, there have been numerous improvements to the operational and Quality Assurance (QA) practices used in the PZEV Test Cell. Several investigations have also been performed to demonstrate the quality of its emissions measurements. Finally, a number of “lessons learned” have been documented from our experiences with PZEV measurements and with testing hybrid-electric vehicles. This paper summarizes these findings as a reference for others interested in low-level emissions measurements.
Technical Paper

The USAMP Magnesium Powertrain Cast Components Project

Over the past five years, the US Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) has brought together representatives from DaimlerChrysler, General Motors, Ford Motor Company and over 40 other participant companies from the Mg casting industry to create and test a low-cost, Mg-alloy engine that would achieve a 15 - 20 % Mg component weight savings with no compromise in performance or durability. The block, oil pan, and front cover were redesigned to take advantage of the properties of both high-pressure die cast (HPDC) and sand cast Mg creep- resistant alloys. This paper describes the alloy selection process and the casting and testing of these new Mg-variant components. This paper will also examine the lessons learned and implications of this pre-competitive technology for future applications.
Technical Paper

Crush Behaviors of Aluminum Honeycombs of Different Cell Geometries Under Compression Dominant Combined Loads

The influence of cell geometries on the quasi-static crush behaviors of aluminum honeycombs is explored by experiments. Aluminum 5052-H38 honeycomb specimens with different in-plane orientation angles, cell wall thicknesses and cell sizes were tested under compression dominant combined loads. The load histories of these specimens were obtained. A quadratic and a linear phenomenological yield criteria are used to fit the obtained experimental normal crush and shear strengths for three types of honeycomb specimens under compression dominant combined loads. The quadratic yield criterion is used to fit the experimental results for two types of honeycomb specimens with low relative densities. The linear yield criterion is used to fit the experimental results for one type of honeycomb specimens with a high relative density.
Technical Paper

Development of Experimental Methods to Validate Residual Stress Models for Cast Aluminum Components

The prediction of residual stresses due to manufacturing is of high importance in product development. For the accurate prediction of residual stresses in metallic components, an understanding of the quenching process that occurs in many heat treatments is required. In this paper, the experimental techniques developed to quantify the temperature fields during quenching and to quantify the residual stresses in the quenched part are presented. The temperature fields were quantified using thermocouples embedded in the components. The residual stresses were quantified using a newly developed strain gauging, sectioning and dynamic data acquisition technique. The techniques were verified using thermal histories and residual stresses for an engine cylinder head quenched at two different quenchant temperatures. The measurements obtained were incorporated into an analytical program (finite element) to study the residual stresses produced during the quenching process.
Technical Paper

Aqueous Corrosion of Experimental Creep-Resistant Magnesium Alloys

This paper presents a comparison of aqueous corrosion rates in 5% NaCl solution for eight experimental creep-resistant magnesium alloys considered for automotive powertrain applications, as well as three reference alloys (pure magnesium, AM50B and AZ91D). The corrosion rates were measured using the techniques of titration, weight loss, hydrogen evolution, and DC polarization. The corrosion rates measured by these techniques are compared with each other as well as with those obtained with salt-spray testing using ASTM B117. The advantages and disadvantages of the various corrosion measurement techniques are discussed.
Journal Article

Design Considerations for Hydrogen Management System on Ford Hydrogen Fueled E-450 Shuttle Bus

As part of a continuous research and innovation effort, Ford Motor Company has been evaluating hydrogen as an alternative fuel option for vehicles with internal combustion engines since 1997. Ford has recently designed and built an Econoline (E-450) shuttle bus with a 6.8L Triton engine that uses gaseous hydrogen fuel. Safe practices in the production, storage, distribution, and use of hydrogen are essential for the widespread public and commercial acceptance of hydrogen vehicles. Hazards and risks inherent in the application of hydrogen fuel to internal combustion engine vehicles are explained. The development of a Hydrogen Management System (H2MS) to detect hydrogen leaks in the vehicle is discussed, including the evolution of the H2MS design from exploration and quantification of risks, to implementation and validation of a working system on a vehicle. System elements for detection, mitigation, and warning are examined.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Design and Appraisal System for Vehicle Interior Packaging

Static seating bucks have long been used as the only means to subjectively appraise the vehicle interior packages in the vehicle development process. The appraisal results have traditionally been communicated back to the requesting engineers either orally or in a written format. Any design changes have to be made separately after the appraisal is completed. Further, static seating bucks lack the flexibility to accommodate design iterations during the evolution of a vehicle program. The challenge has always been on how to build a seating buck quickly enough to support the changing needs of vehicle programs, especially in the early vehicle development phases. There is always a disconnect between what the seating buck represents and what is in the latest design (CAD), since it takes weeks or months to build a seating buck and by the time it is built the design has already been evolved. There is also no direct feedback from seating buck appraisal to the design in CAD.
Technical Paper

Development of Numerical Models for Injury Biomechanics Research: A Review of 50 Years of Publications in the Stapp Car Crash Conference

Numerical analyses frequently accompany experimental investigations that study injury biomechanics and improvements in automotive safety. Limited by computational speed, earlier mathematical models tended to simplify the system under study so that a set of differential equations could be written and solved. Advances in computing technology and analysis software have enabled the development of many sophisticated models that have the potential to provide a more comprehensive understanding of human impact response, injury mechanisms, and tolerance. In this article, 50 years of publications on numerical modeling published in the Stapp Car Crash Conference Proceedings and Journal were reviewed. These models were based on: (a) author-developed equations and software, (b) public and commercially available programs to solve rigid body dynamic models (such as MVMA2D, CAL3D or ATB, and MADYMO), and (c) finite element models.
Technical Paper

Automotive Manufacturing Task Analysis: An Integrated Approach

Automotive manufacturing presents unique challenges for ergonomic analysis. The variety of tasks and frequencies are typically not seen in other industries. Moving these challenges into the realm of digital human modeling poses new challenges and offers the opportunity to create and enhance tools brought over from the traditional reactive approach. Chiang et al. (2006) documented an enhancement to the Siemen's Jack Static Strength Prediction tool. This paper will document further enhancements to the ErgoSolver (formerly known as the Ford Static Strength Prediction Solver).
Technical Paper

Transient Clunk Response of a Driveline System: Laboratory Experiment and Analytical Studies

A laboratory experiment is designed to examine the clunk phenomenon. A static torque is applied to a driveline system via the mass of an overhanging torsion bar and electromagnet. Then an applied load may be varied via attached mass and released to simulate the step down (tip-out) response of the system. Shaft torques and torsional and translational accelerations are recorded at pre-defined locations. The static torque closes up the driveline clearances in the pinion/ring (crown wheel) mesh. With release of the applied load the driveline undergoes transient vibration. Further, the ratio of preload to static load is adjusted to lead to either no-impact or impact events. Test A provides a ‘linear’ result where the contact stiffness does not pass into clearance. This test is used for confirming transient response and studying friction and damping. Test B is for mass release with sufficient applied torque to pass into clearance, allowing the study of the clunk.