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Technical Paper

Serpentine Accessory Belt Drive Tool: Virtual Prototyping for V-Ribbed Belt Drives

Serpentine accessory belts are commonly used in industries such as automotive and general machinery. The purpose of this analytical tool is to provide design engineers the capability to model belt drive systems using ADAMS (Automated Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems). The generated ADAMS models can be used to analyze several different characteristics concerning V-Ribbed belt drive systems. The general solution of the governing nonlinear equations provides the coupled longitudinal and transverse response of the translating belt drive system. Typical simulation outputs include pulley hubloads, belt impact dynamic forces, and belt slip rates at the pulleys.
Technical Paper

Motion Analysis Enhances Visualization of Underbody Flow

Velocity profiles for air flowing under a vehicle body are determined by analyzing videotapes of neutrally buoyant soap bubbles using motion analysis software and equipment. What had heretofore been primarily a qualitative flow visualization technique has been extended to provide quantitative data. The light sources, cameras, and bubble generator, mounted on the vehicle, are powered by the vehicle's electrical system, making it possible to compare underbody velocities measured in a wind tunnel with those over the road. Results are presented for a heavy-duty 4×4 pickup truck at speeds up to 25m/s (55 mph). The velocity profiles in the tunnel and on the road were quite similar.
Technical Paper

Transient CFD Simulations of a Bell Sprayer

A methodology is developed that incorporates high resolution CFD flowfield information and a particle trajectory simulation, aimed at addressing Paint Transfer Efficiency (PTE) for bell sprayers. Given a solid model for the bell sprayer, the CFD simulation, through automeshing, determines a high resolution Cartesian volume mesh (14-20 million cells). With specified values of the initial shaping air, transient and steady-state flow field information is obtained. A particle trajectory visualization tool called SpraySIM uses this complicated flowfield information to determine the particle trajectories of the paint particles under the influence of drag, gravity and electrostatic potential. The sensitivity of PTE on shaping air velocity, charge-to-mass ratio, potential, and particle diameter are examined.
Technical Paper

A Customer Driven Reliability and Quality Methodology for Existing Products

In order to maximize customer satisfaction in today's global market place, the quality of products and services need to be improved continually. Increased focus on quality, with the attendant proliferation of methods and tools, has created the need for a comprehensive framework to guide the selection of the tools. Individuals within an organization need to know what tools are appropriate in a given situation, and when, where and how the knowledge gained from an effort should be documented. In addition, a common nomenclature to convey quality related information to each other would avoid confusion and improve the communication process thus improving the effectiveness and productivity of the organization. This paper integrates tools that have evolved recently with the old tools that have been in use for a number of years.
Technical Paper

Development of Diagnostic Tools in Automotive Electronics

Throughout the evolution of transportation technology the automotive industry has continually devised methods of diagnosing and servicing vehicle electrical and electronic concerns. Methodologies have always included special test equipment accompanied by volumes of printed manual procedures. Today's vehicle technology, with its highly interactive/integrated systems control capability, has brought on a new level of complexity and confusion to the service technician. In order to assist the technician in the diagnosis of microprocessor based control systems, the service industry has developed highly sophisticated on-board vehicle diagnostics as well as off-board computer based equipment. This paper describes the progression of service test equipment provided by Ford Motor Company to assist in vehicle electrical/electronic diagnostics. Similar to all industry manufacturers Ford Motor has devised both on-board and off-board systems which are required to fix the car right the first time.
Technical Paper

Machine Health Prediction Enhancement Using Machine Learning

Use of sensors to monitor dynamic performance of machine tools at Ford’s powertrain machining plants has proven to be effective. The traditional approach to convert sensor data to actionable intelligence consists of identifying single features from cycle based signatures and setting thresholds above acceptable performance limits based on trials. The thresholds are used to discriminate between acceptable and unacceptable performance during each cycle and raise alarms if necessary. This approach requires a significant amount of resource & time intensive set up work up-front and considerable trial and error adjustments. The current state does not leverage patterns that might be discernible using multiple features simultaneously. This paper describes enhanced methods for processing the data using supervised and unsupervised machine learning methods. The objective of using these methods is to improve the prediction accuracy and reduce up-front set up.
Technical Paper

The Use of a Modified S.A.E. H-Point Machine in Assembly Plants

As part of a continuing Ford Motor Company program to improve the seating packages of production cars, a simplified in-plant method was developed to check seating variations in production vehicles. The method also provided information helpful in determining causal factors when any irregularities were found. Equipment necessary for checking was designed to be easily transported to any site.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Globalization and New Materials on the Transition to a Fully Digital Tool and Die

Until recently, tool & die making was a very traditional industry, relying on extensive know-how accumulated over decades of practice. Essentially, it remained a two stage-process: engineering/manufacture, followed by tryout/productionization. Improvements focused on engineering and production methods, but tryout remained the exclusive domain of the die maker. At last, advances in computer modeling methods and the adoption of aggressive lean management principles have brought transformational changes to the tryout phase. At the same time, new safety and weight imperatives have increased the penetration of advanced materials, whose formability characteristics are quite different from mild steels. This paper will explore how these advanced materials affect this transformation.
Technical Paper

Efficient Method for Modeling and Code Generation of Custom Functions

Custom functions are widely used in real-time embedded automotive applications to conserve scarce processor resources. Typical examples include mathematical functions, filtering routines and lookup tables. The custom routines are very efficient and have been in production for many years [ 1 ]. These hand-crafted functions can be reused in new control algorithm designs being developed using Model Based Design (MBD) tools. The next generation of vehicle control software may contain a mix of both automatically generated software and manually developed code. At Ford Motor Company, the code is automatically generated from control algorithm models that are developed using The MathWorks tool chain. Depending on the project-specific needs, the control algorithm models are automatically translated to efficient C code using either The Math Works Real-Time Workshop Embedded Coder (RTW-EC) or dSPACE TargetLink production code generators.
Technical Paper

Automated Migration of Legacy Functions and Algorithms to Model Based Design

Automotive companies have invested a fortune over the last three decades developing real-time embedded control strategies and software to achieve desired functions and performance attributes. Over time, these control algorithms have matured and achieved optimum behavior. The companies have vast repositories of embedded software for a variety of control features that have been validated and deployed for production. These software functions can be reused with minimal modifications for future applications. The companies are also constantly looking for new ways to improve the productivity of the development process that may translate into lower development costs, higher quality and faster time-to-market. All companies are currently embracing Model Based Design (MBD) tools to help achieve the gains in productivity. The most cost effective approach would be to reuse the available legacy software for carry-over features while developing new features with the new MBD tools.
Technical Paper

Automotive Manufacturing Task Analysis: An Integrated Approach

Automotive manufacturing presents unique challenges for ergonomic analysis. The variety of tasks and frequencies are typically not seen in other industries. Moving these challenges into the realm of digital human modeling poses new challenges and offers the opportunity to create and enhance tools brought over from the traditional reactive approach. Chiang et al. (2006) documented an enhancement to the Siemen's Jack Static Strength Prediction tool. This paper will document further enhancements to the ErgoSolver (formerly known as the Ford Static Strength Prediction Solver).
Technical Paper

The Use of Discrete Wavelet Transform in Road Loads Signals Compression

Wavelets are a powerful mathematical tool used to multi-resolution time-frequency decomposition of signals, in order to analyze them in different scales and obtain different aspects of the information. Despite being a relatively new tool, wavelets have being applied in several areas of human knowledge, especially in signal processing, with emphasis in encoding and compression of image, video and audio. Based on a previous successful applications (FRAZIER, 1999) together a commitment to quality results, this paper evaluates the use of the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) as an compression algorithm to reduce the amount of data collected in road load signals (load history) which are used by the durability engineering teams in the automotive industry.
Technical Paper

Development of Pneumatic Suspension Type Full Air for Commercial Vehicles

The air suspension development and application has becoming increasingly applied also in commercial vehicles, offering to the driver more dynamic comfort as well as contributing to the reduction of impact loads on highways. Through this project pursuit show the analysis and application of an air suspension system for commercial tractor vehicles application. A special focus was given to pneumatic actuation system, responsible for leveling and control of suspension′s stiffness under different conditions of usage, laden and unladen. The project was conducted starting with the vehicle dynamic performance analysis, evaluating the pneumatic suspension circuit modifications in order to obtain the vehicle dynamic behavior improvement, ensuring directional stability under different maneuvering conditions. For entire development were also used quality tools, considering the possible failure modes and effects as well as virtual simulation tools (Adams) and bench validations.
Technical Paper

Arttest – a New Test Environment for Model-Based Software Development

Modern vehicles become increasingly software intensive. Software development therefore is critical to the success of the manufacturer to develop state of the art technology. Standards like ISO 26262 recommend requirement-based verification and test cases that are derived from requirements analysis. Agile development uses continuous integration tests which rely on test automation and evaluation. All these drove the development of a new model-based software verification environment. Various aspects had to be taken into account: the test case specification needs to be easily comprehensible and flexible in order to allow testing of different functional variants. The test environment should support different use cases like open-loop or closed-loop testing and has to provide corresponding evaluation methods for continuously changing as well as for discrete signals.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Life Prediction of Injection Molding Tool

Injection molding tools are expensive and the fatigue failure during production would result in very costly rework on the tool and downtime. Currently, mold designs are mostly based on expert experience without a careful stress analysis and the mold tool life cycle relies largely on rough estimates. The industry state of the art applies averaged temperature change and peak pressure load on the mold tool. The static analysis is then performed. Mold temperature history and thermal shock are not considered in the durability analysis. In this paper, a transient thermal analysis of the tool is performed in conjunction with the injection molding process simulation. The spatial and temporal variation of temperature, pressure and clamping forces are exported from Moldflow simulation. These histories of temperature and pressure are converted to appropriate loading curves and mapped into Abaqus FEA model.
Technical Paper

Physical Drawbead Design and Modeling with ABAQUS/Isight

This paper focus on the design approach of mapping the equivalent bead to the physical bead geometry. In principle, the physical character and geometry of equivalent bead is represented as restraining force (N/mm) and a line (bead center line). During draw development, the iterations are performed to conclude the combination of restraining force that obtains the desired strain state of a given panel. The objective of physical bead design to determine a bead geometry that has the capacity to generate the same force as specified in 2D plane strain condition. The software package ABAQUS/CAE/Isight with python script is utilized as primary tool in this study. In the approach, the bead geometry is sketched and parameterized in ABAQUS/CAE and optimized with Isight to finalize the bead geometry.
Technical Paper

Automotive Audio System Development

Vehicle audio system performance is an important attribute for final costumers. In this sense, its evaluation is an important aspect for selecting the design and validation process for automobile manufacturers. Usually the vehicle audio system performance is evaluated only by subjective judgment. However the design requirements demands objective measurements to set targets establish benchmarking and apply refinements to the design. Thus, in order to evaluate and improve sound system performance, it has been established a subjective evaluation process on reproducing and analyzing customer perception in a more reliable way. To support this information, objective evaluations have been used based on total harmonic distortion (THD), normalized frequency response (NFR) methods and spectrogram, which have been shown as straight and fast objective tools. Reinforcing the objective evaluations, qualitative time-frequency spectrogram has been used.
Technical Paper

Objective chime sound quality evaluation

Customer perception of vehicle quality and safety is based on many factors. One important factor is the customers impression of the sounds produced by body and interior components such as doors, windows, seats, safety belts, windshield wipers, and other similar items like sounds generated automatically for safety and warning purposes. These sounds are typically harmonic or constant, and the relative level of perception, duration, multiplicity, and degree of concurrence of these sounds are elements that the customer will retain in an overall quality impression. Chime sounds are important to the customer in order to alert that something is not accomplished in a right way or for safe purposes. The chimes can be characterized by: sound level perception, frequency of the signal, shape of the signal, duration of the “beep” and the silence duration.
Technical Paper

Retooling Jack’s Static Strength Prediction Tool

Often, ergonomists need to determine the maximum acceptable load or force for a given task. Ergonomic tools, like the NIOSH Lifting Guidelines (Waters et al, 1993) and the Liberty Mutual Tables (Snook & Ciriello, 1991)), provide such loads for selected population percentiles. In contrast, the UGS Jack Static Strength Prediction tool (JSSP), based on the University of Michigan’s 3D Static Strength Prediction Program (3DSSPP), uses force(s) as inputs and calculates the percentage of the male or female population that would be capable (%Cap) for a given task. Typically, the %Cap threshold will be a fixed number determined from corporate or government guidelines (e.g. 75% of females). Thus, in order to find the acceptable load, users of JSSP must iterate through loads until they find a %Cap that is just below their predetermined threshold.
Technical Paper

A Functional View of Engineering

Many descriptions of product development are based on a timeline of activity. Timelines typically do not characterize the underlying strategy and flexibility embodied in the technical activity that actually takes place between activity nodes. Timelines alone will inhibit evolving to a more rational approach to product development. The view of engineering described in this paper is a functional view of engineering. It is what engineers do. It is aligned with the technical tools used by engineers. It applies to both product development and manufacturing. It's purpose is to enhance understanding of the function of engineering activities, including reliability.