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Technical Paper

A Computational Investigation of the Effects of Swirl Ratio and Injection Pressure on Mixture Preparation and Wall Heat Transfer in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1105
In a recent study, quantitative measurements were presented of in-cylinder spatial distributions of mixture equivalence ratio in a single-cylinder light-duty optical diesel engine, operated with a non-reactive mixture at conditions similar to an early injection low-temperature combustion mode. In the experiments a planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) methodology was used to obtain local mixture equivalence ratio values based on a diesel fuel surrogate (75% n-heptane, 25% iso-octane), with a small fraction of toluene as fluorescing tracer (0.5% by mass). Significant changes in the mixture's structure and composition at the walls were observed due to increased charge motion at high swirl and injection pressure levels. This suggested a non-negligible impact on wall heat transfer and, ultimately, on efficiency and engine-out emissions.
Technical Paper

Estimating Actual Exhaust Gas Temperature from Raw Thermocouple Measurements Acquired During Transient and Steady State Engine Dynamometer Tests

2007-04-16
2007-01-0335
Thermocouples are commonly used to measure exhaust gas temperature during automotive engineering experiments. In most cases, the raw measurements are used directly as an absolute indication of the actual exhaust gas temperature. However, in reality, the signal from a TC is only an indication of its own tip temperature. The TC indicated tip temperature can deviate significantly from the actual gas temperature due to factors such as thermal capacitance of the tip itself, and heat transfer to the exhaust pipe wall through conduction and radiation. A model has been developed that calculates the effects of these factors to provide an estimate of the actual exhaust gas temperature. Experiments were performed to validate the model under both transient and steady state engine dynamometer conditions utilizing three popular sizes of TCs. Good correlation among predictions for various TC sizes confirms the model's accuracy.
Technical Paper

CFD Application in Automotive Front-End Design

2006-04-03
2006-01-0337
The front-end design process in the automotive industry today is time consuming and expensive. Although CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) modeling is helpful, many vehicle development tests in different wind tunnels are still required to balance the competing requirements of power train cooling, vehicle aerodynamics, climate control, styling, body structure, and product cost. For example, engine cooling and climate control heat exchangers require adequate airflow to achieve their performance. But, this airflow increases cooling drag and can compromise vehicle handling. Internal air deflectors (ducting) are often used to make the frontal opening more efficient and help prevent heat recirculation from the hot engine compartment to the A/C condenser at idle. But this increases product cost and can compromise underhood temperature. A more efficient and faster process is needed to support these trade-off discussions.
Journal Article

Modeling of Thermophoretic Soot Deposition and Hydrocarbon Condensation in EGR Coolers

2009-06-15
2009-01-1939
EGR coolers are effective to reduce NOx emissions from diesel engines due to lower intake charge temperature. EGR cooler fouling reduces heat transfer capacity of the cooler significantly and increases pressure drop across the cooler. Engine coolant provided at 40–90 C is used to cool EGR coolers. The presence of a cold surface in the cooler causes particulate soot deposition and hydrocarbon condensation. The experimental data also indicates that the fouling is mainly caused by soot and hydrocarbons. In this study, a 1-D model is extended to simulate particulate soot and hydrocarbon deposition on a concentric tube EGR cooler with a constant wall temperature. The soot deposition caused by thermophoresis phenomena is taken into account the model. Condensation of a wide range of hydrocarbon molecules are also modeled but the results show condensation of only heavy molecules at coolant temperature.
Technical Paper

Design of Vehicle Air Conditioning Systems Using Heat Load Analysis

2007-04-16
2007-01-1196
The objective of this paper is to describe a Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) model and its applications for A/C system development at early design stages. This CAE tool calculates the heat load of the vehicle passenger compartment with considerations of solar radiation, conductive/convective heat transfer through the body shell, and any passengers present in the vehicle. A data bank of 6 glass types, 9 surface finishes and 15 material properties are available to increase simulation flexibility. This heat load model can be used as a stand alone tool to calculate the steady-state thermal load of the passenger compartment under users' pre-defined conditions. When interfaced with an A/C refrigerant subsystem model, this integrated CAE tool is capable of evaluating the impacts on A/C system performance when body structures and/or operating conditions are changed.
Journal Article

Diesel EGR Cooler Fouling

2008-10-06
2008-01-2475
The buildup of deposits in EGR coolers causes significant degradation in heat transfer performance, often on the order of 20-30%. Deposits also increase pressure drop across coolers and thus may degrade engine efficiency under some operating conditions. It is unlikely that EGR cooler deposits can be prevented from forming when soot and HC are present. The presence of cooled surfaces will cause thermophoretic soot deposition and condensation of HC and acids. While this can be affected by engine calibration, it probably cannot be eliminated as long as cooled EGR is required for emission control. It is generally felt that “dry fluffy” soot is less likely to cause major fouling than “heavy wet” soot. An oxidation catalyst in the EGR line can remove HC and has been shown to reduce fouling in some applications. The combination of an oxidation catalyst and a wall-flow filter largely eliminates fouling. Various EGR cooler designs affect details of deposit formation.
Journal Article

Hydrocarbons and Particulate Matter in EGR Cooler Deposits: Effects of Gas Flow Rate, Coolant Temperature, and Oxidation Catalyst

2008-10-06
2008-01-2467
Compact heat exchangers are commonly used in diesel engines to reduce the temperature of recirculated exhaust gases, resulting in decreased NOx emissions. These exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) coolers experience fouling through deposition of particulate matter (PM) and hydrocarbons (HCs) that reduces the effectiveness of the cooler. Surrogate tubes have been used to investigate the impacts of gas flow rate and coolant temperature on the deposition of PM and HCs. The results indicate that mass deposition is lowest at high flow rates and high coolant temperatures. An oxidation catalyst was investigated and proved to effectively reduce deposition of HCs, but did not reduce overall mass deposition to near-zero levels. Speciation of the deposit HCs showed that a range of HCs from C15 - C25 were deposited and retained in the surrogate tubes.
Technical Paper

Implementing Thermoelectrics for Media Thermal Management in Automotive Radios

2006-04-03
2006-01-1040
A continuous demand for added multimedia features in the automotive audio systems not only requires adequate cooling of the internal electronics, but also the media itself. Thermal engineers focus their efforts only on keeping the electronics below thresholds by conventional methods such as internal fans, heat sinks, etc., while overlooking the CD media. The environment within the instrument panel (IP) poses additional challenge in maintaining the media at a temperature level that is comfortable to the human touch. Fans that would be a natural choice in such situations, could cause noise audible to the customer and thus create a new problem. A solid-state cooling device that uses Thermoelectric coolers (TEC) is proposed to keep the CD temperature low. The system comprises of TECs assembled with the hot side attached to a heat sink and the cold side attached to the radio top surface.
Journal Article

The Effect of Reducing Compression Ratio on the Work Output and Heat Release Characteristics of a DI Diesel under Cold Start Conditions

2008-04-14
2008-01-1306
An experimental investigation has been carried out to compare the indicated performance and heat release characteristics of a DI diesel engine at compression ratios of 18.4:1 and 15.4:1. The compression ratio was changed by modifying the piston bowl volume; the bore and stroke were unchanged, and the swept volume was nominally 500cc. The engine is a single cylinder variant of modern design which meets Euro 4 emissions requirements. Work output and heat release characteristics for the two compression ratios have been compared at an engine speed of 300 rev/min and test temperatures of 10, -10 and -20°C. A more limited comparison has also been made for higher speeds representative of cold idle at one test temperature (-20°C). The reduction in compression ratio generally produces an increase in peak specific indicated work output at low speeds; this is attributable to a reduction in blowby and heat transfer losses and lower peak rates of heat release increasing cumulative burn.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling and Experimental Investigations of EGR Cooler Fouling in a Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1506
EGR coolers are mainly used on diesel engines to reduce intake charge temperature and thus reduce emissions of NOx and PM. Soot and hydrocarbon deposition in the EGR cooler reduces heat transfer efficiency of the cooler and increases emissions and pressure drop across the cooler. They may also be acidic and corrosive. Fouling has been always treated as an approximate factor in heat exchanger designs and it has not been modeled in detail. The aim of this paper is to look into fouling formation in an EGR cooler of a diesel engine. A 1-D model is developed to predict and calculate EGR cooler fouling amount and distribution across a concentric tube heat exchanger with a constant wall temperature. The model is compared to an experiment that is designed for correlation of the model. Effectiveness, mass deposition, and pressure drop are the parameters that have been compared. The results of the model are in a good agreement with the experimental data.
Technical Paper

Shudder Durability of a Wet Launch Clutch Part I – Thermal Study and Development of Durability Test Profile

2009-04-20
2009-01-0329
Under the initiative of the United States Council for Automotive Research LLC (USCAR§) Transmission Working Group, a collaborative effort was made with LuK USA LLC to study the influence of the friction interface parameters on the shudder durability of a wet launch clutch. A test bench was designed. Clutch configurations with different combinations of four friction materials (A, B, C and D), three groove patterns (waffle, radial and waffle–parallel) and two separator plate conditions (nitrided and non–nitrided) were considered. Considerable improvement in performance was seen by changing from CVT fluid* to DCT fluid*. A thermal analysis based on thermal model predictions and measurement correlations was conducted. Comparisons of clutch configurations with four and five friction plates were done. The waffle and radial groove pattern showed better heat transfer than the waffle–parallel groove pattern.
Technical Paper

A Fuel Vapor Model (FVSMOD) for Evaporative Emissions System Design and Analysis

1998-10-19
982644
A fuel vapor system model (FVSMOD) has been developed to simulate vehicle evaporative emission control system behavior. The fuel system components incorporated into the model include the fuel tank and pump, filler cap, liquid supply and return lines, fuel rail, vent valves, vent line, carbon canister and purge line. The system is modeled as a vented system of liquid fuel and vapor in equilibrium, subject to a thermal environment characterized by underhood and underbody temperatures and heat transfer parameters assumed known or determined by calibration with experimental liquid temperature data. The vapor/liquid equilibrium is calculated by simple empirical equations which take into account the weathering of the fuel, while the canister is modeled as a 1-dimensional unsteady absorptive and diffusive bed. Both fuel and canister submodels have been described in previous publications. This paper presents the system equations along with validation against experimental data.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Analytically and Experimentally Obtained Residual Fractions and NOX Emissions in Spark-Ignited Engines

1998-10-19
982562
Using a fast-sampling valve, residual-fraction levels were determined in a 2.0L spark-ignited production engine, over varying engine operating conditions. Individual samples for each operating condition were analyzed by gas-chromatography which allowed for the determination of in-cylinder CO and CO2 levels. Through a comparison of in-cylinder measurement and exhaust data measurements, residual molar fraction (RMF) levels were determined and compared to analytical results. Analytical calculations were performed using the General Engine SIMulation (GESIM) which is a steady state quasi-dimensional engine combustion cycle simulation. Analytical RMF levels, for identical engine operating conditions, were compared to the experimental results as well as a sensitivity study on wave-dynamics and heat transfer on the analytically predicted RMF. Similarly, theoretical and experimental NOx emissions were compared and production sensitivity on RMF levels explored.
Technical Paper

A Transient, Multi-Cylinder Engine Model Using Modelica

2003-10-27
2003-01-3127
This paper describes a transient, thermodynamic, crank angle-based engine model in Modelica that can be used to simulate a range of advanced engine technologies. A single cylinder model is initially presented and described, along with its validation against steady-state dynamometer test data. Issues related to this single cylinder validation are discussed, including the appropriate conservation of hot residual gases under very early intake valve opening (IVO) conditions. From there, the extension from a single cylinder to a multi-cylinder V8 engine model is explained and simulation results are presented for a transient cylinder-deactivation scenario on a V8 engine.
Technical Paper

Thermal Analysis of Cooling System in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2002-03-04
2002-01-0710
Increased cooling demands in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs), compactness of engine compartment, and the additional hardware under the hood make it challenging to provide an effective cooling system that has least impact on fuel economy, cabin comfort and cost. Typically HEVs tend to have a dedicated cooling system for the hybrid components due to the different coolant temperatures and coolant flow rates. The additional cooling system doubles the hardware, maintenance, cost, weight and affects vehicle fuel economy. In addition to the cooling hardware, there are several harnesses and electronics that need air cooling under the hood. This additional hardware causes airflow restriction affecting the convective heat transfer under the hood. It also affects the radiation heat transfer due to the proximity of hardware close to the major heat sources like the exhaust pipe.
Technical Paper

Parameterization and Transient Validation of a Variable Geometry Turbocharger for Mean-Value Modeling at Low and Medium Speed-Load Points

2002-10-21
2002-01-2729
The parameterization of variable geometry turbochargers for mean-value modeling is typically based on compressor and turbine flow and efficiency maps provided by the supplier. At low turbocharger speeds, and hence low airflows, the heat exchange via the turbocharger housing affects the temperature-based measurements of the efficiencies. Therefore, the low-speed operating regime of the turbocharger is excluded from the supplied maps and mean-value models mainly rely on extrapolation into this region, which is regularly met in emission drive cycles, and hence of significance. This paper presents experimental data from a 2.0-liter turbocharged common-rail diesel engine. While the flow maps extend from the high-speed region in a natural way, the efficiency maps are severely affected by the heat transfer effect. It is argued that this effect should be included in the mean-value model.
Technical Paper

A Parametric DOE Study of Various Factors that Influence the CD Temperature in Automotive Radios

2005-04-11
2005-01-0566
A continuous demand for added multimedia features in the automotive audio systems not only requires adequate cooling of the internal electronics, but also the media itself. Thermal engineers focus their efforts only on keeping the electronics below thresholds by conventional methods such as internal fans, heat sinks, etc., while overlooking the CD media. The environment within the instrument panel (IP) poses a challenge in maintaining the media at a temperature level that is comfortable to the human touch. This paper investigates the effectiveness of various factors that influence the CD temperature in a car player. These factors represent independent and interactive effects of the three modes of heat transfer. In this study, a design of experiment (DOE) technique is utilized to generate a response function that filters insignificant parameters and their interactions, in order to minimize the CD temperature.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Aging Temperature and PGM Loading on the NOx Storage Capacity of a Lean NOx Trap

2005-04-11
2005-01-1117
A laboratory aging study was performed on samples of a lean NOx trap with platinum group metal (PGM) loadings of 0.53, 1.06, 2.12, and 3.18 g/liter. The LNT samples were aged at inlet temperatures of 650°C, 750°C, 800°C, and 850°C behind samples of a three-way catalyst that were aged on a pulse-flame combustion reactor with a Ford-proprietary durability schedule representing 80,000 km of customer use. For all aging temperatures, higher PGM loadings were beneficial for low temperature NOx performance, attributable to an increase in the oxidation of NO to NO2. Conversely, lower PGM loadings were beneficial for high temperature NOx performance after aging at 650°C and 750°C, as higher loadings promoted the decomposition of the nitrates during lean operation and thereby decreased the NOx storage capability at high temperatures. Also, higher PGM loadings increased the OSC of the trap and thereby increased the purge requirements.
Technical Paper

Pre-Turbocharger Catalyst - Fast catalyst light-off evaluation

2005-05-11
2005-01-2142
Further tightened emission legislation and new engine technologies increase the requirements for the exhaust after-treatment system of modern diesel passenger cars. Especially the increasing raw emissions of HC and CO as well as the low temperature of the exhaust gas for a long period during cold start of the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) require additional efforts in the design of the oxidation catalyst system [1]. A highly efficient micro catalyst, which is mounted in front of a turbocharger, can help to treat efficiently these high HC and CO emissions. Due to the higher temperature level in front of the turbine and the significantly increased mass and heat transfer by turbulent flow, efficiency especially during cold start is highly increased. However the packaging constraints are more critical in this area due to heat considerations and also to maintain engine performance.
Technical Paper

Full- and Model-Scale Scrutiny of the Effects of Vehicle Windshield Defrosting and Demisting on Passenger Comfort and Safety

2003-03-03
2003-01-1082
Maintaining adequate visibility at all times, through a vehicle windshield, is critical to the safe usage of the vehicle. The ability of the windshield defrosting and demisting system to quickly and completely melt ice on the outer windshield surface and remove mist formed on the inner surface is therefore of paramount importance. The objectives of this paper are to investigate the fluid flow and heat transfer on the windshield as well the effect of the air discharge from the defroster vents on passenger comfort. The results presented are from numerical simulations validated by experimental measurements both carried out a model and full-scale. The numerical predictions compare well with the experimental measurements at both scales. The effects of the defrosting and demisting air on occupants' comfort and safety are examined.
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