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GreenZone Driving for Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) have a large battery which can be used for electric only powertrain operation. The control system in a PHEV must decide how to spend the energy stored in the battery. In this paper, we will present a prototype implementation of a PHEV control system which saves energy for electric operation in pre-defined geographic areas, so called Green Zones. The approach determines where the driver will be going and then compares the route to a database of predefined Green Zones. The control system then reserves enough energy to be able to drive the Green Zone sections in electric only mode. Finally, the powertrain operation is modified once the vehicle enters the Green Zone to ensure engine operation is limited. Data will be presented from a prototype implementation in a Ford Escape PHEV Presenter Johannes Kristinsson
Technical Paper

Trends in Body Design

Customers’ demands and modern technology and materials developments have required a new approach to automobile body design. The modern body engineering department is made up of specialists in a wide variety of scientific and engineering skills. This paper describes the trends in modern design and explains why the modern automobile represents a composite of customer satisfaction, engineering achievement, and quality production. To round out the author’s presentation, discussions by R. F. Baird, Chrysler Corp., and H. S. Kaiser and C. E. Heeden of the General Motors Corp. are also included.
Technical Paper

Magnetic Tape and Servo-Hydraulics Applied to Truck Frame Testing

This paper discusses the possible impact of the FM tape recorder and servo-hydraulic actuators on the testing of automotive structures. The use of tape recorders and automatic data reduction systems will permit more accurate definition of service conditions and properly “set-the-stage” for laboratory testing. Servo-hydraulic strokers should encourage better laboratory simulation because of their great flexibility. Test set-up time is reduced, fixtures can be simplified and load control is more precise. Simultaneous multiple inputs can be controlled as to amplitude and phase relationships.
Technical Paper

Ford's Second Generation New 351 4-V Engine

Ford Motor Company introduced a new intermediate displacement, 4V engine in several 1970 model carlines. This paper describes the planning objectives, the engineering and development program, design features, and several manufacturing techniques for this engine.
Technical Paper

Instrument Panel Design The “Control Center” of the Car

The design of an automotive instrument panel has become an increasingly complex job as product evolution in terms of customer safety, mechanical improvements, optional features and customer wants have altered the content of the automotive vehicle, and added substantially to the design requirements that must be observed in this area of the vehicle. To provide a perspective of the total job required to accommodate the changing and diverse standards and engineering requirements, this report will tell the story of the Ford Motor Company instrument panel design process. The report will cover all of the major considerations that affect the finished appearance of the design as well as the considerations required for customer convenience, and instrument panel serviceability.
Technical Paper

A Comment on the Statistical Energy Approach

This paper presents the Statistical Energy Approach (SEA) method for estimating the gross response in complex interconnected structural systems. The method is intended to compensate for the difficulties present in evaluating parameters and excitation needed when attempting to use traditional methods of linear vibration analysis. The amount of information needed to apply the method is modest and the formulas are easy to use. Some limitation on application is demonstrated by a detailed example.
Technical Paper

The Use of Discrete Wavelet Transform in Road Loads Signals Compression

Wavelets are a powerful mathematical tool used to multi-resolution time-frequency decomposition of signals, in order to analyze them in different scales and obtain different aspects of the information. Despite being a relatively new tool, wavelets have being applied in several areas of human knowledge, especially in signal processing, with emphasis in encoding and compression of image, video and audio. Based on a previous successful applications (FRAZIER, 1999) together a commitment to quality results, this paper evaluates the use of the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) as an compression algorithm to reduce the amount of data collected in road load signals (load history) which are used by the durability engineering teams in the automotive industry.
Journal Article

An Advanced and Comprehensive CAE Approach of Piston Dynamics Studies for Piston Optimal and Robust Design

A successful piston design requires eliminate the following failure modes: structure failure, skirt scuffing and piston unusual noise. It also needs to deliver least friction to improve engine fuel economy and performance. Traditional approach of using hardware tests to validate piston design is technically difficult, costly and time consuming. This paper presents an up-front CAE tool and an analytical process that can systematically address these issues in a timely and cost-effectively way. This paper first describes this newly developed CAE process, the 3D virtual modeling and simulation tools used in Ford Motor Company, as well as the piston design factors and boundary conditions. Furthermore, following the definition of the piston design assessment criteria, several piston design studies and applications are discussed, which were used to eliminate skirt scuffing, reduce piston structure dynamic stresses, minimize skirt friction and piston slapping noise.
Journal Article

Pressure Based Sensing Approach for Front Impacts

This study demonstrates the use of pressure sensing technology to predict the crash severity of frontal impacts. It presents an investigation of the pressure change in the front structural elements (bumper, crush cans, rails) during crash events. A series of subsystem tests were conducted in the laboratory that represent a typical frontal crash development series and provided empirical data to support the analysis of the concept. The pressure signal energy at different sensor mounting locations was studied and design concepts were developed for amplifying the pressure signal. In addition, a pressure signal processing methodology was developed that relies on the analysis of the air flow behavior by normalizing and integrating the pressure changes. The processed signal from the pressure sensor is combined with the restraint control module (RCM) signals to define the crash severity, discriminate between the frontal crash modes and deploy the required restraint devices.
Journal Article

Motor Vehicle PM Emissions Measurement at LEV III Levels

This paper examines the issues concerning particulate matter (PM) emissions measurement at the 3 mg/mi level proposed as the future LEV III standard. These issues are general in nature, but are exacerbated at the low levels contemplated for upcoming emissions standards. They are discussed in the context of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines, where they can have an important impact on the continued development of this technology for improved fuel economy. GDI particulate emissions, just as engine-out diesel PM, contain a high fraction of soot. But the total PM mass is significantly lower than from diesel engines, and there can be significant variations in emissions rate and apparent PM composition between cold-start and running emissions. PM emissions levels depend on sampling method and location. As a result, there can be substantial differences in PM sampled and diluted directly at the exhaust pipe, as opposed to measurements from a dilution tunnel.