Effects of Port-Injection Timing and Fuel Droplet Size on Total and Speciated Exhaust Hydrocarbon Emissions
The requirement of reducing HC emissions during cold start and improving transient performance has prompted a study of the fuel injection process. Port-fuel-injection with the Intake-valve open using small droplets is a potentially feasible option to achieve the goals. To gain a better understanding of the injection process, the effects of droplet size, injection timing, and coolant temperature on the total and speciated HC emissions were tested In a Single-cylinder engine. It was found that droplet size plays an important role in the total HC emission increase during open-valve injection, especially with cold operation. Large droplets (300 μm SMD) produced a substantial HC increase while small droplets (14 μm SMD) produced no observable increase. Increase In the total HC emissions was always accompanied by an increase in the heavy fuel components in the exhaust gases.