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Technical Paper

New Approach for Chromate Free Coatings in Aircraft Applications: Modified Zinc Pigments

Alternatives for the environmentally harmful Cr(VI)-based protective coatings for aluminum alloys are highly demanded, especially for aircraft application a. So far, suitable alternative pigments providing inhibiting effects which are comparable to the performance of chromates have not been found. Well known pigments used in corrosion protection coatings are zinc pigments for steel substrates - offering cathodic protection to the substrate and a densification of the coating due to the volume expansion of its corrosion products. Furthermore, it is generally assumed that zinc corrosion products also offer an inhibiting effect. Due to their lower electrochemical potential zinc does not provide cathodic protection to aluminum substrates. To transfer the positive protection effects of zinc to the application of protective coatings on aluminum substrates, zinc pigments have been successfully modified by alloying with magnesium.
Technical Paper

Accuracy Analysis and Error Source Identification for Optimization of Robot Based Machining Systems for Aerospace Production

Strong market growth, upcoming global competition and the impact of customer-requirements in aerospace industry demand for more productive, flexible and cost-effective machining systems. Industrial robots have already demonstrated their advantages in smart and efficient production in a wide field of applications and industries. However, their use for machining of structural aircraft components is still obstructed by the disadvantage of low absolute accuracy and adverse reaction to process loads. This publication demonstrates and investigates different methods for performance assessment and optimization of robot-based machining systems. For conventional Cartesian CNC machining systems several methods and guidelines for performance assessment and error identification are available. Due to the attributes of a common 6-axis-robot serial kinematics these methods of decoupled and separated analysis fail, especially concerning optimization of the system.
Journal Article

High Accuracy Mobile Robotic System for Machining of Large Aircraft Components

A mobile robotic system is presented as a new approach for machining applications of large aircraft components. Huge and heavy workshop machines are commonly used for components with large dimensions. The system presented in this paper consists of a standard serial robot kinematics and a mobile platform as well as a stereo camera system for optical measurements. Investigations of the entire system show that the mechanical design of the mobile platform has no significant influence on the machining accuracy. With mobile machines referencing becomes an important issue. This paper introduces an optical method for determining the position of the mobile platform in relation to the component and shows its accuracy limits. Furthermore, a method for increasing the absolute accuracy of the robots end-effector with help of stereo camera vision is presented.
Journal Article

Cracking Stopping in the Bondline of Adhesively Bonded Composite Adherents by Means of a Mechanical Fastener: Numerical and Experimental Investigation

The use of composite materials in aircraft manufactures increases more and more with the need of light weight and efficient airplanes. Combining composite materials with an appropriate joining method is one of the primordial ways of exploiting its light weight potential. Since the widely-established mechanical fastening, which originally, was developed for metallic materials, is not a suitable joining method for composite materials because of its low bearing strength, the adhesively bonding technology might be an appropriate alternative. However, adhesively bonding in the aircraft manufacturing, especially for joining of primary structures is liable to certification requirements, such as testing of every bond up to limit load before the operation begins or non-destructive testing of every bond before the operation begins as proof of the joint characteristics, which cannot be fulfilled with the current state of the art.
Technical Paper

Referencing Strategies for High Accuracy Machining of Large Aircraft Components with Mobile Robotic Systems

The demand for higher production rates in aircraft industry requests more flexible manufacturing solutions. A bottleneck in production is the machining of large components by vast portal machines. Time-consuming referencing processes result in non-satisfying cost-effectiveness of these high-invest-machines. Mobile robot-based solutions are able to operate simultaneously which increases the productivity significantly. However, due to the limited workspace of robots, machining tasks have to be divided and long trajectories are separated in single overlapping segments. Thus high-accuracy referencing strategies are required to achieve desired production tolerances. In this publication different advanced optical reference strategies will be discussed taking the inhomogeneous behavior of a mobile robotic machining system into account.
Technical Paper

Mobile Laser Trackers for Aircraft Manufacturing: Increasing Accuracy and Productivity of Robotic Applications for Large Parts

The demand for higher production rates of large parts in aircraft industry requests more flexible manufacturing solutions. High-accurate mobile robots show a promising alternative in comparison with high-invest special machines. With mobile robot-based solutions processes can be executed simultaneously which increases the productivity significantly. However, the freedom of mobility results in insufficient positioning accuracy of these machines. Hence fast and accurate referencing processes are required to achieve cost-effectiveness and meet production tolerances. In this publication a Mobile Laser Tracker (MLT) system and a holistic approach for future manufacturing systems with mobile robots will be introduced and discussed.