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Technical Paper

Simulating Complex Automotive Assembly Tasks using the HUMOSIM Framework

2009-06-09
2009-01-2279
Efficient methods for simulating operators performing part handling tasks in manufacturing plants are needed. The simulation of part handling motions is an important step towards the implementation of virtual manufacturing for the purpose of improving worker productivity and reducing injuries in the workplace. However, industrial assembly tasks are often complex and involve multiple interactions between workers and their environment. The purpose of this paper is to present a series of industrial simulations using the Human Motion Simulation Framework developed at the University of Michigan. Three automotive assembly operations spanning scenarios, such as small and large parts, tool use, walking, re-grasping, reaching inside a vehicle, etc. were selected.
Technical Paper

Internal and Near-Nozzle Flow in a Multi-Hole Gasoline Injector Under Flashing and Non-Flashing Conditions

2015-04-14
2015-01-0944
A computational and experimental study was performed to characterize the flow within a gasoline injector and the ensuing sprays. The computations included the effects of turbulence, cavitation, flash-boiling, compressibility, and the presence of non-condensible gases. The flow domain corresponded to the Engine Combustion Network's Spray G, an eight-hole counterbore injector operating in a variety of conditions. First, a rate tube method was used to measure the rate of injection, which was then used to define inlet boundary conditions for simulation. Correspondingly, injection under submerged conditions was simulated for direct comparison with experimental measurements of discharge coefficient. Next, the internal flow and external spray into pressurized nitrogen were simulated under the base spray G conditions. Finally, injection under flashing conditions was simulated, where the ambient pressure was below the vapor pressure of the fuel.
Technical Paper

Structural and Cost Evaluation of Snap Fits used in Connections of Vehicle Door Trim Panel Components with FEA Assist

2017-11-07
2017-36-0195
Among the most important finishing structures of a vehicle interior, the door trim panels reduce external noises, present ergonomic concepts generating comfort, improve appearance, and provide objects storage, knobs and buttons. The panels usually composed of several molded parts (trim, armrest, etc.) connected to each other also have structural function as support closing loads, protect occupants of door internal mechanisms, energy absorption in side impacts and resist misuse conditions. Therefore, these trims usually made of polymeric materials must to present good structural integrity, demanding appropriate connections between components to have good load distribution. The connections between parts can be made using bolts, interference fits (like self-locking), welding tubular plastic towers (heat stakes), or clips (such as snap fits) and last two are the most common due to be cheap and with good retention.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Mounting Robust Evaluation Methodology Utilizing Minimal Hardware Resources

2017-06-05
2017-01-1823
Powertrain mounting systems design and development involves creating and optimizing a solution using specific mount rates and evaluation over multiple operating conditions. These mount rates become the recommended “nominal” rates in the specifications. The powertrain mounts typically contain natural materials. These properties have variation, resulting in a tolerance around the nominal specification and lead to differences in noise and vibration performance. A powertrain mounting system that is robust to this variation is desired. The design and development process requires evaluation of these mounts, within tolerance, to ensure that the noise and vibration performance is consistently met. During the hardware development of the powertrain mounting system, a library of mounts that include the range of production variation is studied. However, this is time consuming.
Technical Paper

Achievements and Exploitation of the AUTOSAR Development Partnership

2006-10-16
2006-21-0019
Reductions of hardware costs as well as implementations of new innovative functions are the main drivers of today's automotive electronics. Indeed more and more resources are spent on adapting existing solutions to different environments. At the same time, due to the increasing number of networked components, a level of complexity has been reached which is difficult to handle using traditional development processes. The automotive industry addresses this problem through a paradigm shift from a hardware-, component-driven to a requirement- and function-driven development process, and a stringent standardization of infrastructure elements. One central standardization initiative is the AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture (AUTOSAR). AUTOSAR was founded in 2003 by major OEMs and Tier1 suppliers and now includes a large number of automotive, electronics, semiconductor, hard- and software companies.
Technical Paper

Active Fuel Management™ Technology: Hardware Development on a 2007 GM 3.9L V-6 OHV SI Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-1292
In the North American automotive market, cylinder deactivation by means of engine valve deactivation is becoming a significant enabler in reducing the Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) of large displacement engines. This allows for the continued market competitiveness of large displacement spark ignition (SI) engines that provide exceptional performance with reduced fuel consumption. As an alternative to a major engine redesign, the Active Fuel Management™ (AFM™) system is a lower cost and effective technology that provides improved fuel economy during part-load conditions. Cylinder deactivation is made possible by utilizing innovative new base engine hardware in conjunction with an advanced control system. In the GM 3.9L V-6 Over Head Valve (OHV) engine, the standard hydraulic roller lifters on the engine's right bank are replaced with deactivating hydraulic roller lifters and a manifold assembly of oil control solenoids.
Technical Paper

Integration of Independent Front Axles for Gear Mesh Energy

2007-05-15
2007-01-2240
The need for improved axle NVH integration has increased significantly in recent years with industry trends toward full-time and automatic four wheel drive (4wd) systems. Along with seamless 4wd operation, quiet performance has become a universal expectation. Axle gear-mesh noise can be transmitted to the vehicle passenger compartment through airborne paths (not discussed in this paper) and structure-borne paths (the focus of this paper.) A variety of mounting configurations are used in an attempt to provide improved axle isolation and reduce structure-borne transmission of gear-mesh noise. The configuration discussed in this paper is a 4-point vertical mount design for an Independent Front Drive Axle (IFDA). A significant benefit of this configuration is improved isolation in the range of drive torques where axle-related NVH issues typically exist.
Technical Paper

A Robust Procedure for Convergent Nonparametric Multivariate Metamodel Design

2004-03-08
2004-01-1127
Fast-running metamodels (surrogates or response surfaces) that approximate multivariate input/output relationships of time-consuming CAE simulations facilitate effective design trade-offs and optimizations in the vehicle development process. While the cross-validated nonparametric metamodeling methods are capable of capturing the highly nonlinear input/output relationships, it is crucial to ensure the adequacy of the metamodel error estimates. Moreover, in order to circumvent the so-called curse-of-dimensionality in constructing any nonlinear multivariate metamodels from a realistic number of expensive simulations, it is necessary to reliably eliminate insignificant inputs and consequently reduce the metamodel prediction error by focusing on major contributors. This paper presents a robust data-adaptive nonparametric metamodeling procedure that combines a convergent variable screening process with a robust 2-level error assessment strategy to achieve better metamodel accuracy.
Technical Paper

Rapid Spherical Near-Field Antenna Measurements for Vehicle Applications

2005-04-11
2005-01-0569
As more wireless services such as satellite radio (SDARS), navigation systems, OnStar, and mobile telephones are installed on GM vehicles, there is a need to make quick and accurate vehicle antenna pattern measurements. The interaction between vehicle and antenna must be included to ensure accurate vehicle antenna measurements. This implies that the size of the effective antenna should include both the antenna and vehicle interaction dimensions. For the frequency range of 500 MHz to 6 GHz, one solution is to use a spherical near-field system. The Satimo rapid probe array technology was selected to develop a vehicle antenna test system (ATS), which minimizes test time and maintains data accuracy. The ATS was designed to operate inside of an existing GM electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) anechoic chamber equipped with a nine-meter turntable.
Technical Paper

The Use of in Vehicle STL Testing to Correlate Subsystem Level SEA Models

2003-05-05
2003-01-1564
For the assessment of vehicle acoustics in the early design stages of a vehicle program, the use of full vehicle SEA models is becoming the standard analysis method in the US automotive industry. One benefit is that OEM's and Tier 1 suppliers are able to cascade lower level acoustic performance targets for NVH systems and components. Detailed SEA system level models can be used to assess the performance of systems such as dash panels, floors and doors, however, the results will be questionable until test data Is available. Correlation can be accomplished with buck testing, which is a common practice in the automotive industry for assessing the STL (sound transmission loss) of vehicle level components. The opportunity to conduct buck testing can be limited by the availability of representative bodies to be cut into bucks and the availability of a transmission loss suite with a suitably large opening.
Technical Paper

Use of Single Point Interface Measures for Characterization of Attachments

2005-05-16
2005-01-2388
Often components or subsystems are attached to other systems through multiple fasteners at multiple locations. Examples may include things like compressors, alternators, engine cradles, powertrain mounting systems, suspension systems, body structures or almost any other interface between components or subsystems. Often during early design stages, alternative component or subsystem configurations are being considered that can have very different interface characteristics, such as alternators with different number of mounting fasteners, or suspension systems with different number of body structure interface attachments. Given these different mounting configurations, it can be difficult to meaningfully compare the interface performance of the two components or subsystems.
Journal Article

Modeling and Analysis of a Turbocharged Diesel Engine with Variable Geometry Compressor System

2011-09-11
2011-24-0123
In order to increase the efficiency of automotive turbochargers at low speed without compromising the performance at maximum boost conditions, variable geometry compressor (VGC) systems, based on either variable inlet guide vanes or variable geometry diffusers, have been recently considered as a future design option for automotive turbochargers. This work presents a modeling, analysis and optimization study for a Diesel engine equipped with a variable geometry compressor that help understand the potentials of such technology and develop control algorithms for the VGC systems,. A cycle-averaged engine system model, validated on experimental data, is used to predict the most important variables characterizing the intake and exhaust systems (i.e., mass flow rates, pressures, temperatures) and engine performance (i.e., torque, BMEP, volumetric efficiency), in steady-state and transient conditions.
Journal Article

Methods and Tools for Calculating the Flexibility of Automotive HW/SW Architectures

2012-04-16
2012-01-0005
To cope with the increasing number of advanced features (e.g., smart-phone integration and side-blind zone alert.) being deployed in vehicles, automotive manufacturers are designing flexible hardware architectures which can accommodate increasing feature content with as fewer as possible hardware changes so as to keep future costs down. In this paper, we propose a formal and quantitative definition of flexibility, a related methodology and a tool flow aimed at maximizing the flexibility of an automotive hardware architecture with respect to the features that are of greater importance to the designer. We define flexibility as the ability of an architecture to accommodate future changes in features with no changes in hardware (no addition/replacement of processors, buses, or memories). We utilize an optimization framework based on mixed integer linear programming (MILP) which computes the flexibility of the architecture while guaranteeing performance and safety requirements.
Journal Article

Functional Requirements to Exceed the 100 kW/l Milestone for High Power Density Automotive Diesel Engines

2017-09-04
2017-24-0072
The paper describes the challenges and results achieved in developing a new high-speed Diesel combustion system capable of exceeding the imaginative threshold of 100 kW/l. High-performance, state-of-art prototype components from automotive diesel technology were provided in order to set-up a single-cylinder research engine demonstrator. Key design parameters were identified in terms boost, engine speed, fuel injection pressure and injector nozzle flow rates. In this regard, an advanced piezo injection system capable of 3000 bar of maximum injection pressure was selected, coupled to a robust base engine featuring ω-shaped combustion bowl and low swirl intake ports. The matching among the above-described elements has been thoroughly examined and experimentally parameterized.
Technical Paper

Parametric Optimization of Planetary Carrier for Durability

2019-01-09
2019-26-0049
Planetary gear set is one of the most commonly used gear systems in automotive industry as they cater to high power density requirements. A simple planetary gear set consists of a sun gear, ring gear, planets and carrier which houses planet gears. Efficiency of a transmission is dependent upon performance of gear sets involved in power transfer to a great extent. Structural rigidity of a planetary carrier is critical in a planetary gear set as its deflection may alter the load distribution of gears in mesh causing durability and noise issues. Limited studies exist based on geometrical parameters of a carrier which would help a designer in selecting the dimensions at an early stage. In this study, an end to end automated FEA process based on DOE and optimization in Isight is developed. The method incorporates a workflow allowing for an update of carrier geometry, FE model setup, analysis job submission and post-processing of results.
Technical Paper

Planetary Carrier Staking Groove Optimization

2019-01-09
2019-26-0239
Simple planetary gears are widely used in automobile industry due to their compact design and high power density. A simple planetary gear set consists of a Sun gear, Ring gear, Planets and Carrier which houses planet gears. Mounting of planet pinions on carrier is through pins which is supported on needle roller bearings. A process called staking is used to assemble the pinion pins on to the carrier. Pinion pins have a staking region which after assembly expands outward into staking groove on the carrier to prevent axial movement of the pins. Design of the groove plays a vital role for the fixation of planet pins and robustness a carrier. Planetary carrier staking grooves are designed to meet pinion pin retention and strength targets.
Technical Paper

Aluminum Foil Perforation Impact on Acoustic and Thermal Performance of Automotive Sound Absorbers

2019-06-05
2019-01-1580
Adding aluminum foil on sound absorber surface has broad application in automotive industry. The foil layer offers thermal insulation for the parts close to exhaust pipes, turbo charge and other heat sources in engine compartment, it also adds physical protection in tough water-splashing/stone-impinging environment at vehicle exterior. It is known that adding impermeable plain foil will impact the sound absorption negatively, so micro perforated aluminum foil is widely used based on micro perforated absorption principle[]. Analytical results of sound absorption from micro-perforated panel or panel with fibrous substrate materials matches very well with measurement when perforation is well controlled in lab environment.
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