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Technical Paper

Cell Balancing Algorithm Verification through a Simulation Model for Lithium Ion Energy Storage Systems

To support the market introduction of lithium ion energy storage systems for HEV and EREV applications, a process and tool was developed to expedite the verification of the lithium-ion cell balancing system across differing usage scenarios and cell imbalance rates. Presented is an overview of the cell imbalance analysis methodology and tool used in the development and verification of General Motors cell balancing systems. The use of this analysis methodology and tool has allowed for a cell balancing system optimization that would not have been possible with the use of actual energy storage systems because of the magnitude of lab or vehicle time required to execute the array of tests necessary to comprehend the large number of factors than can influence balancing.
Technical Paper

Application of Micro-Perforated Composite Acoustic Material to a Vehicle Dash Mat

In recent years several variants of lightweight multi-layered acoustic treatments have been used successfully in vehicles to replace conventional barrier-decoupler interior dash mats. The principle involved is to utilize increased acoustic absorption to offset the decrease in insertion loss from the reduced mass such that equivalent vehicle level performance can be achieved. Typical dual density fibrous constructions consist of a relatively dense cap layer on top of a lofted layer. The density and flow resistivity of these layers are tuned to optimize a balance of insertion loss and absorption performance. Generally these have been found to be very effective with the exception of dash mats with very high insertion loss requirements. This paper describes an alternative treatment which consists of a micro-perforated film top layer and fibrous decoupler layer.
Technical Paper

Failure Evaluation of Clinched Thin Gauged Pedestrian Friendly Hood by Slam Simulation

In order to reduce the number of head injuries sustained by pedestrian accidents, safety engineers are developing pedestrian friendly hood systems through gauge optimization of the hood inner panel. In this study, the clinch method was employed to assemble a pedestrian friendly hood with a 0.5mm thick inner panel. Static and dynamic analyses were carried out to determine the clinch experiencing the highest loads and to understand the fatigue behavior of a clinched hood during a slam event. The macroscopic failure modes of clinched joints by hood slam were studied by means of a scanning electron microscope. A simple equation was derived to correlate the hexahedron spot weld model as a substitute for clinching in order to obtain an equivalent stiffness for a clinched joint within the linear region of an F-D curve. The F-D curve was obtained by lap shear testing.
Technical Paper

Using OCTO SOI nMOSFET to Handle High Current for Automotive Modules

This paper presents an experimental comparative study between the OCTOGONAL-Gate Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) nMOSFET (OSM) and the conventional SOI nMOSFET (CSM) considering the same bias conditions and the same gate area (AG), in order to verify the influence of this new MOSFET layout style to handle high current for automotive modules. Analog integrated circuits (ICs) design tends to be considered an art due to a large number of variables and objectives to achieve the product specifications. The designer has to find the right tradeoffs to achieve the desired automotive specification such as low power, low voltage, high speed and high current driver. SOI MOSFET's technology is required to provide the growth of embedded electronics. This growth is driving demand for power-handling devices that are smaller yet still provide high current driver capabilities.
Technical Paper

Creating a Two Sided Customer Loss Function

In the area of Human Factors and Usability research a desired output of many studies is identification of what value a specific Design Parameter should be set at to minimize customer dissatisfaction. A Customer Loss Function is a simple way to graphically display the probability customers will be dissatisfied at different levels of a given design parameter, due to a given failure mode. Many design parameters however, have two distinct but related Failure Modes (customer disatisfiers), typically representing two ends of the parameter (i.e. too much/too little; too hot/too cold; too fast/too slow). Each of these Failure modes is represented by its own unique Customer Loss Function. This paper will introduce a technique to combine these two One-Sided Loss Functions into a comprehensive Two Sided Loss Function. The mathematics behind the creation of both one sided and two sided loss functions is based on Binary Logistic Regression [1,2,3] Analysis Techniques.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Mounting Robust Evaluation Methodology Utilizing Minimal Hardware Resources

Powertrain mounting systems design and development involves creating and optimizing a solution using specific mount rates and evaluation over multiple operating conditions. These mount rates become the recommended “nominal” rates in the specifications. The powertrain mounts typically contain natural materials. These properties have variation, resulting in a tolerance around the nominal specification and lead to differences in noise and vibration performance. A powertrain mounting system that is robust to this variation is desired. The design and development process requires evaluation of these mounts, within tolerance, to ensure that the noise and vibration performance is consistently met. During the hardware development of the powertrain mounting system, a library of mounts that include the range of production variation is studied. However, this is time consuming.
Technical Paper

Springback Prediction Using Combined Hardening Model

The main objective of this paper is to simulate the springback using combined kinematic/isotropic hardening model. Material parameters in the hardening model are identified by an inverse method. Three-point bending test is conducted on 6022-T4 aluminum sheet. Punch stroke, punch load, bending strain and bending angle are measured directly during the tests. Bending moments are then computed from these measured data. Bending moments are also calculated based on a constitutive model. Material parameters are identified by minimizing the normalized error between two bending moments. Micro genetic algorithm is used in the optimization procedure. Stress-strain curves is generated with the material parameters found in this way, which can be used with other plastic models. ABAQUS/Standard 5.8, which has the combined isotropic/kinematic hardening model, is used to simulate draw-bend of 6022-T4 series aluminum sheet. Absolute springback angles are predicted very accurately.
Technical Paper

Formulation of Robustness in a CAE Design Model

As the computer efficiency and capability increase, so as the Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) technologies improve. Recently Robust Design or Reliability Based Design Optimization (RBDO) technologies have been utilized in all sorts of industries including automotive. The process generally involves identifying key input design variables and key performance output variables, determining a sampling plan for CAE simulations, building a response surface model (RSM), analyzing the results, and finding the optimized design that meets the reliability criteria. Yet little was addressed on the robustness of a CAE design model in the process. A systematic method of defining Robustness in a CAE design model was developed. How robust a CAE model is and how far away an optimized design is from the More Robust Region (MRR) are addressed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Development of a Luxury Vehicle Acoustic Package using SEA Full Vehicle Model

Interior noise has become a significant performance attribute in modern passenger vehicles and this is extremely important in the luxury market segment where a quiet interior is the price of entry. With the elimination of early prototype vehicles to reduce development costs, high frequency analytical SEA models are used to design the vehicle sound package to meet targets for interior noise quality. This function is important before representative NVH prototypes are available, and later to support parameter variation investigations that would be cost prohibitive in a hardware test. This paper presents the application of an analytical full vehicle SEA model for the development of the acoustic package of a cross over luxury utility vehicle. The development concerns addressed were airborne powertrain noise and road noise. Power flow analysis was used to identify the major noise paths to the interior of the vehicle.
Journal Article

Modeling and Analysis of a Turbocharged Diesel Engine with Variable Geometry Compressor System

In order to increase the efficiency of automotive turbochargers at low speed without compromising the performance at maximum boost conditions, variable geometry compressor (VGC) systems, based on either variable inlet guide vanes or variable geometry diffusers, have been recently considered as a future design option for automotive turbochargers. This work presents a modeling, analysis and optimization study for a Diesel engine equipped with a variable geometry compressor that help understand the potentials of such technology and develop control algorithms for the VGC systems,. A cycle-averaged engine system model, validated on experimental data, is used to predict the most important variables characterizing the intake and exhaust systems (i.e., mass flow rates, pressures, temperatures) and engine performance (i.e., torque, BMEP, volumetric efficiency), in steady-state and transient conditions.
Journal Article

Methods and Tools for Calculating the Flexibility of Automotive HW/SW Architectures

To cope with the increasing number of advanced features (e.g., smart-phone integration and side-blind zone alert.) being deployed in vehicles, automotive manufacturers are designing flexible hardware architectures which can accommodate increasing feature content with as fewer as possible hardware changes so as to keep future costs down. In this paper, we propose a formal and quantitative definition of flexibility, a related methodology and a tool flow aimed at maximizing the flexibility of an automotive hardware architecture with respect to the features that are of greater importance to the designer. We define flexibility as the ability of an architecture to accommodate future changes in features with no changes in hardware (no addition/replacement of processors, buses, or memories). We utilize an optimization framework based on mixed integer linear programming (MILP) which computes the flexibility of the architecture while guaranteeing performance and safety requirements.
Journal Article

FWD Halfshaft Angle Optimization Using 12 Degree of Freedom Analytical Model

This paper describes the development of an analytical method to assess and optimize halfshaft joint angles to avoid excessive 3rd halfshaft order vibrations during wide-open-throttle (WOT) and light drive-away events. The objective was to develop a test-correlated analytical model to assess and optimize driveline working angles during the virtual design phase of a vehicle program when packaging tradeoffs are decided. A twelve degree-of-freedom (12DOF) system model was constructed that comprehends halfshaft dynamic angle change, axle torque, powertrain (P/T) mount rate progression and axial forces generated by tripot type constant velocity (CV) joints. Note: “tripot” and “tripod” are alternate nomenclatures for the same type of joint. Simple lumped parameter models have historically been used for P/T mount optimization; however, this paper describes a method for using a lumped parameter model to also optimize driveline working angles.
Technical Paper

Parametric Optimization of Planetary Carrier for Durability

Planetary gear set is one of the most commonly used gear systems in automotive industry as they cater to high power density requirements. A simple planetary gear set consists of a sun gear, ring gear, planets and carrier which houses planet gears. Efficiency of a transmission is dependent upon performance of gear sets involved in power transfer to a great extent. Structural rigidity of a planetary carrier is critical in a planetary gear set as its deflection may alter the load distribution of gears in mesh causing durability and noise issues. Limited studies exist based on geometrical parameters of a carrier which would help a designer in selecting the dimensions at an early stage. In this study, an end to end automated FEA process based on DOE and optimization in Isight is developed. The method incorporates a workflow allowing for an update of carrier geometry, FE model setup, analysis job submission and post-processing of results.
Technical Paper

Planetary Carrier Staking Groove Optimization

Simple planetary gears are widely used in automobile industry due to their compact design and high power density. A simple planetary gear set consists of a Sun gear, Ring gear, Planets and Carrier which houses planet gears. Mounting of planet pinions on carrier is through pins which is supported on needle roller bearings. A process called staking is used to assemble the pinion pins on to the carrier. Pinion pins have a staking region which after assembly expands outward into staking groove on the carrier to prevent axial movement of the pins. Design of the groove plays a vital role for the fixation of planet pins and robustness a carrier. Planetary carrier staking grooves are designed to meet pinion pin retention and strength targets.
Technical Paper

CAE Methods for Predicting Radiated Noise From Large Diameter Single-Piece Aluminum Propeller Shafts With Liner Treatments

In recent truck applications, single-piece large-diameter propshafts, in lieu of two-piece propshafts, have become more prevalent to reduce cost and mass. These large-diameter props, however, amplify driveline radiated noise. The challenge presented is to optimize prop shaft modal tuning to achieve acceptable radiated noise levels. This paper will cover the development of a two-step CAE method to predict modal characteristics and airborne noise sensitivities of large-diameter single piece aluminum propshafts fitted with different liner treatments. The first step is the use of a traditional CAE software to calculate prop surface response. The second step is a boundary element simulation to calculate prop surface radiating noise under the excitation obtained from the first step. Finally, test data, acceleration and acoustic, in both subsystem and vehicle levels are presented to assess the accuracy of the CAE method.
Technical Paper

Multi-Material Topology Optimization: A Practical Method for Efficient Material Selection and Design

As conventional vehicle design is adjusted to suit the needs of all-electric, hybrid, and fuel-cell powered vehicles, designers are seeking new methods to improve system-level design and enhance structural efficiency; here, multi-material optimization is suggested as the leading method for developing these novel architectures. Currently, diverse materials such as composites, high strength steels, aluminum and magnesium are all considered candidates for advanced chassis and body structures. By utilizing various combinations and material arrangements, the application of multi-material design has helped designers achieve lightweighting targets while maintaining structural performance requirements. Unlike manual approaches, the multi-material topology optimization (MMTO) methodology and computational tool described in this paper demonstrates a practical approach to obtaining the optimum material selection and distribution of materials within a complex automotive structure.
Technical Paper

Multi-Material Topology Optimization for Crashworthiness Using Hybrid Cellular Automata

Structures with multiple materials have now become one of the perceived necessities for automotive industry to address vehicle design requirements such as light-weight, safety, and cost. The objective of this study is to develop a design methodology for multi-material structures accountable for vehicle crash durability. The heuristic topology synthesis approach of Hybrid Cellular Automaton (HCA) framework is implemented to generate multi-material structures with the constraint on the volume fraction of the final design. The HCA framework is integrated with ordered-SIMP (solid isotropic material with penalization) interpolation, artificial material library, as well as statistical analysis of material distribution data to ensure a smooth transition between multiple practical materials during the topology synthesis.
Technical Paper

Multi-Material Topology Optimization and Multi-Material Selection in Design

As automakers continue to develop new lightweight vehicles, the application of multi-material parts, assemblies and systems is needed to enhance overall performance and safety of new and emerging architectures. To achieve these goals conventional material selection and design strategies may be employed, such as standard material performance indices or full-combinatorial substitution studies. While these detailed processes exist, they often succeed at only suggesting one material per component, and can not consider a clean-slate design; here, multi-material topology optimization (MMTO) is suggested as an effective computational tool for performing large-scale combined multi-material selection and design. Unlike previous manual methods, MMTO provides an efficient method for simultaneously determining material existence and distribution within a predefined design domain from a library of material options.