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Technical Paper

Investigation and Correction of Sheet Metal Distortion in Draw Operation

2010-04-12
2010-01-0985
Surface distortions are frequently introduced into the Class “A” surfaces during various sheet metal forming operations such as drawing, trimming and flanging. The origins of those surface distortions have not been well understood. The scope of this research is to investigate the distortion that occurs in draw operation and to find effective and practical corrective methods. Five geometric parameters are first identified to represent a typical depression feature in automobile outer panels. Experimental dies are then designed to reflect various combinations of these five geometric parameters with the assistance of numerical simulations to ensure that the dies can make parts free of major defects like splits and wrinkles. Surface distortions are observed in our stamping experiments and various techniques are used to measure and record the distortions for further mathematical analysis.
Technical Paper

Effect of Pre-treatment on Corrosion Performance of AZ31B Magnesium Alloy Panel

2010-04-12
2010-01-0725
AZ31B Mg sheet is being considered for automotive applications. This study investigates the effect of pre-treatments, such as heat-treatments and surface treatments, on the corrosion performance of AZ31B sheet, with a goal of learning which pre-treatment can improve corrosion resistance of the sheet material in production. It is found that the heat-treatment and oxidation during a warm and hot forming (WHF) process will not deteriorate the corrosion performance of the AZ31B sheet; polishing and acid etching can clean the surface and significantly increase the corrosion resistance, but corrosion can be accelerated by sandblasting which contaminates the surface. The change in corrosion performance can be associated with surface cleaning or contamination of the sheet by these pre-treatments. Furthermore, the influence of a pre-treatment on the uncoated AZ31B sheet may affect its corrosion behavior after coating.
Technical Paper

Self-deposited E-coating for Mg Alloys

2010-04-12
2010-01-0727
Magnesium alloys are not corrosion resistant in many applications and they require coating protection. In this study, we developed an electroless E-coating technique for magnesium alloys and discussed a cathodic E-coating deposition mechanism for the electroless E-coating process. This coating can be formed within a few seconds by dipping a magnesium alloy (i.e., AZ91D) in an E-coat bath without applying a current or voltage. The deposited electroless coat can offer good protection to the AZ91D magnesium alloy in 5 wt% NaCl corrosive solution as well as in a phosphating bath. The most interesting finding is that the electroless coating is not sensitive to local damage. No preferential corrosion attack occurred along the scratches made on the coating.
Technical Paper

Tensile and Fatigue Behaviors of Two Thermoplastics Including Strain Rate, Temperature, and Mean Stress Effects

2014-04-01
2014-01-0901
An experimental investigation was conducted to evaluate tensile and fatigue behaviors of two thermoplastics, a neat impact polypropylene and a mineral and elastomer reinforced polyolefin. Tensile tests were performed at various strain rates at room, −40°C, and 85°C temperatures with specimens cut parallel and perpendicular to the mold flow direction. Tensile properties were determined from these tests and mathematical relations were developed to represent tensile properties as a function of strain rate and temperature. For fatigue behavior, the effects considered include mold flow direction, mean stress, and temperature. Tension-compression as well as tension-tension load-controlled fatigue tests were performed at room temperature, −40°C and 85°C. The effect of mean stress was modeled using the Walker mean stress model and a simple model with a mean stress sensitivity factor.
Technical Paper

Development of an End-of-Line Driveline System Balance Tester

2015-06-15
2015-01-2187
This paper describes the development of a semi-automated end-of-line driveline system balance tester for an automotive assembly plant. The overall objective was to provide final quality assurance for acceptable driveline noise and vibration refinement in a rear wheel drive vehicle. The problem to be solved was how to measure the driveline system unbalance within assembly plant constraints including cycle time, operator capability, and integration with a pre-existing vehicle roll test machine. Several challenging aspects of the tester design and development are presented and solutions to these challenges are addressed. Major design aspects addressed included non-contacting vibration sensing, data acquisition/processing system and vehicle position feedback. Development challenges addressed included interaction of engine and driveline vibration orders, flexible driveline coupling effects, tachometer positional reference error, and vehicle-to-vehicle variation of influence coefficients.
Technical Paper

Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) for Third Generation Advanced High-Strength Steel Development

2015-04-14
2015-01-0459
This paper presents an overview of a four-year project focused on development of an integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) toolset for third generation advanced high-strength steels (3GAHSS). Following a brief look at ICME as an emerging discipline within the Materials Genome Initiative, technical tasks in the ICME project will be discussed. Specific aims of the individual tasks are multi-scale, microstructure-based material model development using state-of-the-art computational and experimental techniques, forming, toolset assembly, design optimization, integration and technical cost modeling. The integrated approach is initially illustrated using a 980MPa grade transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel, subject to a two-step quenching and partitioning (Q&P) heat treatment, as an example.
Technical Paper

Relationship Between Driver Eyes-Off-Road Interval and Hazard Detection Performance Under Automated Driving

2016-04-05
2016-01-1424
Partially automated driving involves the relinquishment of longitudinal and/or latitudinal control to the vehicle. Partially automated systems, however, are fallible and require driver oversight to avoid all road hazards. Researchers have expressed concern that automation promotes extended eyes-off-road (EOR) behavior that may lead to a loss of situational awareness (SA), degrading a driver’s ability to detect hazards and make necessary overrides. A potential countermeasure to visual inattention is the orientation of the driver’s glances towards potential hazards via cuing. This method is based on the assumption that drivers are able to rapidly identify hazards once their attention is drawn to the area of interest regardless of preceding EOR duration. This work examined this assumption in a simulated automated driving context by projecting hazardous and nonhazardous road scenes to a participant while sitting in a stationary vehicle.
Technical Paper

Integrated CAE Methods for Perceived Quality Assurance of Vehicle Outer Panels

2014-04-01
2014-01-0366
Oil canning and initial stiffness of the automotive roofs and panels are considered to be sensitive customer ‘perceived quality’ issues. In an effort to develop more accurate objective requirements, respective simulation methods are continuously being developed throughout automotive industries. This paper discusses a latest development on oil canning predictions using LS-DYNA® Implicit, including BNDOUT request, MORTAR contact option and with the stamping process involved, which resulted in excellent correlations especially when it comes to measurements at immediate locations to the feature lines of the vehicle outer panels. Furthermore, in pursuit of light-weighting vehicles with thinner roofs, a new CAE method was recently developed to simulate severe noise conditions exhibited on some of developmental properties while going through a car wash.
Technical Paper

Fixed Weld Reduction Method for Optimal Spot Weld Pattern Design

2003-03-03
2003-01-1304
A new solution methodology for optimal spot-weld pattern design is presented. The objective of the optimization is to minimize the total number of welds in a structure while maintaining structural properties above a required level. Two approaches were developed, based on the representation of welds in a finite element model. In the approach ‘without ranking’ welds are represented in a traditional way, as rigid connections. In ‘with ranking’ approach welds are treated as elastic elements subjected to stresses and deformations under given loading conditions. The information on weld stress is utilized in the solution process to reduce the number of design variables and improve the quality of the solution. The applicability of the method to large automotive structures was demonstrated, as well as the capacity for optimization with respect to multiple load sets.
Journal Article

Comparing Laser Welding Technologies with Friction Stir Welding for Production of Aluminum Tailor-Welded Blanks

2014-04-01
2014-01-0791
A comparison of welding techniques was performed to determine the most effective method for producing aluminum tailor-welded blanks for high volume automotive applications. Aluminum sheet was joined with an emphasis on post weld formability, surface quality and weld speed. Comparative results from several laser based welding techniques along with friction stir welding are presented. The results of this study demonstrate a quantitative comparison of weld methodologies in preparing tailor-welded aluminum stampings for high volume production in the automotive industry. Evaluation of nearly a dozen welding variations ultimately led to down selecting a single process based on post-weld quality and performance.
Journal Article

FEA Development of Spot Weld Modeling with Fracture Forming Limit Diagram(FFLD) Failure Criteria and Its Application to Vehicle Body Structure

2015-04-14
2015-01-1316
Spot weld separation in vehicle development stage is one of the critical phenomena in structural analyses regarding quasi-static test condition, like roof strength or seat/belt pull. It directly reduces structural performance by losing connected load path and occasionally introduces tearing on surrounding sheet metals. Traditionally many efforts have been attempted to capture parent metal ductile fracture, but not applied to spot weld separations in automotive FEA simulations. [1,2,3] This paper introduces how to develop FFLD failure criteria from a series of parametric study on ultra high strength sheet steel and deals with failure criteria around spot weld and parent metal. Once the fracture strains for sheet steels are determined, those developed values were applied to traditional spot weld coupon FEA simulations and tests. Full vehicle level roof strength FEA simulations on a typical automotive body structure were performed and verified to the physical tests.
Journal Article

Fatigue Behavior of Neat and Short Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymers under Two-Step Loadings and Periodic Overloads

2016-04-05
2016-01-0373
An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the variable amplitude fatigue behavior of a neat polymer (polypropylene impact co-polymer) and a polymer composite made of polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) with 30 wt% short glass fibers. Fatigue tests were conducted on un-notched and notched specimens at room temperatures. Plate-type specimens were prepared in the transverse direction with respect to the injection mold flow direction and a circular hole was drilled in the center of notched specimens. Two-step loadings (high-low and low-high) tests at two damage ratio of 0.2 and 0.5 at stress ratios of R = 0.1 and -1 were conducted to investigate load sequence effects and prediction accuracy of the linear damage rule. Different behaviors were observed for unreinforced and short glass fiber reinforced polymers under the two-step loading tests.
Journal Article

Effect of Prior Austenite Grain Size on Impact Toughness of Press Hardened Steel

2016-04-05
2016-01-0359
Impact toughness (or resistance to fracture) is a key material property for press hardened steel used in construction of the safety-critical elements of automotive body structures. Prior austenite grain size, as primarily controlled by the incoming microstructure and austenitization process, is a key microstructural feature that influences the impact toughness of press hardened steel. In this paper, a special Charpy V-notch impact test is developed to quantify the impact toughness of press hardened steel sheets with various prior austenite grain sizes, by stacking a number of thin sheets via mechanical riveting. Both the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature and upper shelf energy are analyzed in an effort to establish a correlation between impact toughness and prior austenite grain size. Within tested conditions, impact performance shows only a slight decrease as the prior austenitic grain size increases from 18 to 38 microns.
Journal Article

Response Surface Generation for Kinematics and Injury Prediction in Pedestrian Impact Simulations

2013-04-08
2013-01-0216
This study concerns the generation of response surfaces for kinematics and injury prediction in pedestrian impact simulations using human body model. A 1000-case DOE (Design of Experiments) study with a Latin Hypercube sampling scheme is conducted using a finite element pedestrian human body model and a simplified parametric vehicle front-end model. The Kriging method is taken as the approach to construct global approximations to system behavior based on results calculated at various points in the design space. Using the response surface models, human lower limb kinematics and injuries, including impact posture, lateral bending angle, ligament elongation and bone fractures, can be quickly assessed when either the structural dimensions or the structural behavior of the vehicle front-end design change. This will aid in vehicle front-end design to enhance protection of pedestrian lower limbs.
Journal Article

Localized Cooling for Human Comfort

2014-04-01
2014-01-0686
Traditional vehicle air conditioning systems condition the entire cabin to a comfortable range of temperature and humidity regardless of the number of passengers in the vehicle. The A/C system is designed to have enough capacity to provide comfort for transient periods when cooling down a soaked car. Similarly for heating, the entire cabin is typically warmed up to achieve comfort. Localized heating and cooling, on the other hand, focuses on keeping the passenger comfortable by forming a micro climate around the passenger. This is more energy efficient since the system only needs to cool the person instead of the entire cabin space and cabin thermal mass. It also provides accelerated comfort for the passenger during the cooling down periods of soaked cars. Additionally, the system adapts to the number of passengers in the car, so as to not purposely condition areas that are not occupied.
Journal Article

Process Robustness of Laser Braze-Welded Al/Cu Connectors

2016-04-05
2016-01-1198
Laser welding of dissimilar metals such as Aluminum and Copper, which is required for Li-ion battery joining, is challenging due to the inevitable formation of the brittle and high electrical-resistant intermetallic compounds. Recent research has shown that by using a novel technology, called laser braze-welding, the Al-Cu intermetallics can be minimized to achieve superior mechanical and electrical joint performance. This paper investigates the robustness of the laser braze-welding process. Three product and process categories, i.e. choice of materials, joint configurations, and process conditions, are studied. It is found that in-process effects such as sample cleanness and shielding gas fluctuations have a minor influence on the process robustness. Furthermore, many pre-process effects, e.g. design changes such as multiple layers or anodized base material can be successfully welded by process adaption.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Life Prediction of Friction Stir Linear Welds for Magnesium Alloys

2016-04-05
2016-01-0386
Friction stir linear welding (FSLW) is widely used in joining lightweight materials including aluminum alloys and magnesium alloys. However, fatigue life prediction method for FSLW is not well developed yet for vehicle structure applications. This paper is tried to use two different methods for the prediction of fatigue life of FSLW in vehicle structures. FSLW is represented with 2-D shell elements for the structural stress approach and is represented with TIE contact for the maximum principal stress approach in finite element (FE) models. S-N curves were developed from coupon specimen test results for both the approaches. These S-N curves were used to predict fatigue life of FSLW of a front shock tower structure that was constructed by joining AM60 to AZ31 and AM60 to AM30. The fatigue life prediction results were then correlated with test results of the front shock tower structures.
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