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Technical Paper

Fuel Consumption Evaluation of Cooled External EGR for a Downsized Boosted SIDI DICP Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1235
A 2.0L twin-scroll turbocharged SIDI engine was used to evaluate low-pressure loop water-cooled external EGR at operating conditions between 1000 rpm 75 Nm and 3000 rpm 250 Nm. The engine compression ratio was increased from 9.3 to 10.9. The maximum fuel consumption reduction potential, the boost pressure requirements, and the optimized external EGR calibration were determined. Combination of higher compression ratio and external EGR achieved 5-7% better fuel economy over mid-load region when using the twin-scroll turbocharger. A similar (4-6%) better fuel economy was observed over much of the higher-load region, including peak torque condition at 1000rpm, when the required boost pressure was provided by an externally-driven auxiliary boost system (not connected to the engine). The power consumption of auxiliary boost system (supercharger loss) was estimated and considered in fuel economy assessment. The fuel consumption reduction mechanisms of EGR were also analyzed.
Technical Paper

Effect of High Levels of Boost and Recirculated Exhaust Gas on Diesel Combustion Characteristics at Part Load

2014-04-01
2014-01-1245
Future diesel combustion systems may operate with significantly higher levels of boost and EGR than used with present systems. The potential benefits of higher boost and EGR were studied experimentally in a single-cylinder diesel engine with capability to adjust these parameters independently. The objective was to study the intake and exhaust conditions with a more optimum combustion phasing to minimize fuel consumption while maintaining proper constraints on emissions and combustion noise. The engine was tested at four part-load operating points using a Design of Experiments (DOE) approach. Two of the operating points correspond to low-speed and low-load conditions relevant for the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). The other two points focus on medium load conditions representative of the World-wide harmonized Light-duty Test Procedures (WLTP).
Technical Paper

Model-Based Exhaust Pressure Control with Dynamic Feedforward for Engine Protection

2014-04-01
2014-01-1163
The need to reduce fuel consumption and harmful pollutants from engines is an important task for automotive industry. It has led to technological advances in new engine design, such as engine downsizing. Due to the reduction of displacement, engine power output is reduced and thus its overall performance is limited. In order to increase torque and power, engines are typically boosted by turbochargers or superchargers. Meanwhile, the improvement on turbo design makes it possible to operate VGT (variable geometry turbocharger) at harsher exhaust environment for gasoline engines as well (e.g., with much higher exhaust temperature than that of diesel engines). This makes VGT related control problems more challenging and requires attention to protecting corresponding engine hardware during an entire engine life.
Technical Paper

A Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) Bench Test of a GT-Power Fast Running Model for Rapid Control Prototyping (RCP) Verification

2016-04-05
2016-01-0549
A GT-Power Fast Run Model simplified from detail model for HIL is verified with a bench test using the dSPACE Simulator. Firstly, the conversion process from a detailed model to FRM model is briefly described. Then, the spark timing, fuel pulse with control for FAR, and torque level control are developed for proof of concept. Moreover a series of FRM/Simulink co-simulation and HIL tests are conducted. In the summary, the test results are presented and compared with GT detailed model simulations. The test results show that the FRM/dSPACE HIL stays consistent in most variables of interest under 0.7-0.9 real-time factor condition between 1000 - 5000 RPM. The same steady-state can be reached by RCP controllers or with GT-Power internal controllers. The transient states are close using different control algorithm. The main purpose of HIL application is achieved, despite inconsistencies in performance data like fuel consumption.
Journal Article

A DFSS Approach to Determine Automatic Transmission Gearing Content for Powertrain-Vehicle System Integration

2014-04-01
2014-01-1774
This investigation utilizes a DFSS analysis approach to determine automatic transmission gear content required to minimize fuel consumption for various powertrain - vehicle systems. L18 and L27 inner arrays with automatic transmission design and shift pattern constraint parameters were varied to determine their relative influence on fuel consumption. An outer noise array consisting of two vehicles with various engines, final drive ratios and legislated emissions test cycles was used to make a robust transmission selection based on minimizing fuel consumption. The full details of the DFSS analysis method and assumptions are presented along with a detailed examination of the results. With respect to transmission design parameters, parasitic spinloss and gear mesh efficiency were found to be most important followed by the number of gears. The DFSS analysis further revealed that unique transmission design formulations are potentially required for widely varying engines.
Journal Article

Internal Combustion Engine - Automatic Transmission Matching for Next Generation Power Transfer Technology Development in Automotive Applications

2016-04-05
2016-01-1099
Development of the next generation internal combustion engines and automatic transmissions for automotive applications is a mandatory powertrain engineering activity required now and in the coming years to meet forthcoming global emissions regulations. This paper details a preliminary investigation into possible synergies for fuel consumption reduction considering emerging automotive technologies integrated into the next generation combustion engine and automatic transmission architectures. A range of hypothetical gasoline engines were created and paired with a generalized set of step gear automatic transmissions designed to meet the performance requirements of high volume longitudinal full size truck application. These designs were then run through a design of experiments orthogonal array for prediction of fuel consumption on the WLTP test schedule and stand still acceleration to 100 kph.
Journal Article

Automatic Transmission Gear Ratio Optimization and Monte Carlo Simulation of Fuel Consumption with Parasitic Loss Uncertainty

2015-04-14
2015-01-1145
This investigation utilizes energy analysis and statistical methods to optimize step gear automatic transmissions gear selection for fuel consumption. A full factorial matrix of simulations using energy analysis was performed to determine the optimal number of gears and gear ratios that provide the best fuel consumption performance for a particular vehicle - engine application. The full factorial matrix setup as a design of experiment (DOE) was applied to five vehicle applications, each with two engines to examine the potential differences that variations in road load and engine characteristics might have on optimal transmission gearing selection. The transmission gearing options considered in the DOE were number of gears, launch gear ratio and top gear ratio. Final drive ratio was also included due to its global influence on vehicle performance and powertrain operating speeds and torque.
Journal Article

Performance Characterization of Automatic Transmission Upshifts with Reduced Shift Times

2015-04-14
2015-01-1086
As the number of fixed gear ratios in automatic transmissions continues to increase in the pursuit of powertrain system efficiency, particular consideration must continue to be focused on optimizing the design for shifting performance. This investigation focuses on the effect of shift time on the performance attributes of shift quality, durability, on schedule fuel consumption and enablers to further reduce shift time. A review of fundamental design features that enable reduced shift times in both planetary and dual clutch transmissions is presented along with key operating features of both the transmission and engine/prime mover. A lumped parameter metric is proposed to assess and compare the upshift controllability of new transmission architectures and powerflows using simple analysis. The durability of fast shift times during performance maneuvers are quantified through calculation of shifting clutch energy and power from analysis and form measurements on a powertrain dynamometer.
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