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Technical Paper

Development of the ASTM Sequence IIIE Engine Oil Oxidation and Wear Test

1988-10-01
881576
The ASTM Sequence IIID engine-dynamometer test has been used to evaluate the high-temperature protection provided by engine oils with respect to valve train wear, viscosity increase (oil thickening), deposits, and oil consumption. The obsolescence of the engine used in this test along with the need to define even higher levels of performance associated with a new oil category (SG) prompted efforts at developing a replacement test. This paper describes the hardware and procedure development of this replacement test, the ASTM Sequence IIIE test. Test precision and correlation with field and Sequence IIID results on a series of reference oils is also discussed.
Technical Paper

Effects of Wind Speed and Longitudinal Direction on Fire Patterns from a Vehicle Fire in a Compact Car

2017-03-28
2017-01-1353
This paper compares the material consumption and fire patterns which developed on four nearly identical compact sedans when each was burned for exactly the same amount of time, but with different wind speed and direction during the burns. This paper will also compare the effects of environmental exposure to the fire patterns on the vehicles. The burn demonstrations were completed at an outdoor facility in southeast Michigan on four late model compact sedans. The wind direction was controlled by placing the subject vehicle with either the front facing into the wind, or rear facing into the wind. Two of the burns were conducted when the average observed wind speed was 5-6kph and two of the burns were conducted at an average observed wind speed of 19kph.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) on Passenger Cars to Improve Emission Robustness

2015-04-14
2015-01-1013
Emission compliance at the production level has been a challenge for vehicle manufacturers. Diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) plays a very important role in controlling the emissions for the diesel vehicles. Vehicle manufacturers tend to ‘over design’ the diesel oxidation catalyst to ‘absorb’ the production variations which seems an easier and faster solution. However this approach increases the DOC cost phenomenally which impacts the overall vehicle cost. The main objective of this paper is to address the high variation in CO tail pipe emissions which were observed on a diesel passenger car during development. This variation was posing a challenge in consistently meeting the internal product requirement/specification.
Technical Paper

Power Capability Testing of a Lithium-ion Battery Using Hardware in the Loop

2010-04-12
2010-01-1073
The energy storage system (ESS) is the key enabler to hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) that offer improved fuel economy and reduced vehicle emissions. The power capability of a battery has significant impact on the fuel economy of HEVs. This paper presents the power capability testing of a lithium-ion battery with a conventional metal oxide cathode using the hardware in the loop (HIL) at a wide range of charge/discharge conditions and at different temperatures. The achieved test results provide critical data of battery power characteristics and effectively accelerate the development of battery power prediction algorithm.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Valve Rotational Speed Using Taguchi Techniques

2010-04-12
2010-01-1096
As fuel economy regulations increase and customer preference shifts to smaller, higher power density engines it is more important to effectively cool certain areas of the cylinder head and valvetrain. In order to maximize valvetrain life and increase engine performance it is critical to maintain a near uniform valve seat temperature to enable proper sealing. As cylinder head bridges narrow, and the temperature increases, the water jacket may not be sufficient. An alternative method to ensuring equal temperature distribution across the valve is to promote low speed valve rotation. This will not only aid, cooling the valve seat, as well as cooling and cleaning the valves' seating surface. This paper describes the development and testing of a valve rotation study, utilizing the Taguchi approach in order to determine the most robust design. A test stand was utilized to examine the valve rotation in which the cam was driven directly using a DC motor.
Technical Paper

Rationale for and Dimensions of Impact Surfaces for Biofidelity Tests of Different Sizes of Frontal and Side Impact Dummies

2010-11-03
2010-22-0002
The biofidelity impact response corridors that were used to develop the Hybrid III family of dummies were established by scaling the various biofidelity corridors that were defined for the Hybrid III mid-size, adult male dummy. Scaling ratios for the responses of force, moment, acceleration, velocity, deflection, angle, stiffness and time were developed using dimensions and masses that were prescribed for the dummies. In addition, an elastic modulus ratio for bone was used to account for the differences between child and adult bone elastic properties. A similar method is being used by ISO/TC22/SC12/WG 5 to develop biofidelity guidelines for a family of side impact dummies based on scaling the biofidelity impact response corridors that are prescribed for WorldSID, a mid-size, adult male dummy.
Technical Paper

The Consequences of Average Curve Generation: Implications for Biomechanics Data

2010-11-03
2010-22-0001
One method of understanding the general mechanical response of a complex system such as a vehicle, a human surrogate, a bridge, a boat, a plane, etc., is to subject it to an input, such as an impact, and obtain the response time-histories. The responses can be accelerations, velocities, strains, etc. In general, when experiments of this type are run the responses are contaminated by sample-to-sample variation, test-to-test variability, random noise, instrumentation noise, and noise from unknown sources. One common method of addressing the noise in the system to obtain the underlying response is to run multiple tests on different samples that represent the same system and add them together obtaining an average. This functionally reduces the random noise. However, if the fundamental response of each sample is not the same, then it is not altogether clear what the average represents. It may not capture the underlying physics.
Technical Paper

Noise Contribution Analysis at Suspension Interfaces Using Different Force Identification Techniques

2011-05-17
2011-01-1600
Road-tire induced vibrations are in many vehicles determining the interior noise levels in (semi-) constant speed driving. The understanding of the noise contributions of different connections of the suspension systems to the vehicle is essential in improvement of the isolation capabilities of the suspension- and body-structure. To identify these noise contributions, both the forces acting at the suspension-to-body connections points and the vibro-acoustic transfers from the connection points to the interior microphones are required. In this paper different approaches to identify the forces are compared for their applicability to road noise analysis. First step for the force identification is the full vehicle operational measurement in which target responses (interior noise) and indicator responses (accelerations or other) are measured.
Technical Paper

Internal Heat Exchanger Design Performance Criteria for R134a and HFO-1234yf

2010-04-12
2010-01-1210
This paper will examine the various design and performance criteria for optimized internal heat exchanger performance as applied to R134a and HFO-1234yf systems. Factors that will be considered include pressure drop, heat transfer, length, internal surface area, the effect of oil in circulation, and how these factors impact the effectiveness of the heat exchanger. The paper describes the test facility used and test procedures applied. Furthermore, some design parameters for the internal heat exchanger will be recommended for application to each refrigerant.
Technical Paper

Design and Control of Transmission Systems using Physical Model Simulation

2010-04-12
2010-01-0898
Physical modeling has been used by the industry to improve development time and produce a quality product. In this paper, we will describe two methods used in system control to take advantage of the physical model. One method describes a complete transmission physical model with a full system control utilizing co-simulation techniques. Data will be presented, and comparison to vehicle data will be conducted and verified. The second method will illustrate how to utilize the physical model to improve system design and modification. In this method, vehicle data will be used as inputs to the model, the model output will be verified against vehicle output data. The two methods are excellent tools for the Design For Six Sigma process (DFSS design).
Technical Paper

Investigation and Correction of Sheet Metal Distortion in Draw Operation

2010-04-12
2010-01-0985
Surface distortions are frequently introduced into the Class “A” surfaces during various sheet metal forming operations such as drawing, trimming and flanging. The origins of those surface distortions have not been well understood. The scope of this research is to investigate the distortion that occurs in draw operation and to find effective and practical corrective methods. Five geometric parameters are first identified to represent a typical depression feature in automobile outer panels. Experimental dies are then designed to reflect various combinations of these five geometric parameters with the assistance of numerical simulations to ensure that the dies can make parts free of major defects like splits and wrinkles. Surface distortions are observed in our stamping experiments and various techniques are used to measure and record the distortions for further mathematical analysis.
Technical Paper

A Practical Failure Limit for Sheared Edge Stretching of Automotive Body Panels

2010-04-12
2010-01-0986
Edge cracking is one of the major formability concerns in advanced high strength steel (AHSS) stamping. Although finite element analysis (FEA) together with the Forming Limit Diagram has been widely used, it has not effectively predicted edge cracking. Primary problems in developing a methodology to insure that parts are safe from edge cracking are the lack of an effective failure criterion and a simple and accurate measurement method that is not only usable in both die tryout and production but also can be verified by finite element analysis. The intent of this study is to develop a methodology to ensure that parts with internal cutouts, such as a body side panel can be produced without edge cracking. During tryout and production, edge cracking has traditionally been detected by visual examination, but this approach is not adequate for ensuring freedom from edge cracking.
Technical Paper

Digital Image Correlation System Application - Measuring Deformation and Load of Convertible Top Fabric

2010-04-12
2010-01-0954
Strain gages have been widely used for measuring strain or deformation. They are very reliable and accurate. However, for application on fabric material, strain gages have their limitations. In this paper, digital image correlation (DIC) is used to measure the deformation around the rear window on a convertible top. The test needed to be non destructive, the vehicle and convertible top could not be damaged. The deformation or strain measured on the fabric was used to estimate the force experienced at the interface between the glass and the fabric during an opening/closing application. A speckle pattern was created on the convertible fabric where deformation was to be measured with washable paint. The image of the measured area was first recorded. The convertible top was then latched down and the fabric was stretched. A second image was recorded again. Based on the two images, the deformation/strain between the two conditions was measured.
Technical Paper

Determination of Vehicle Resistance Curve in Engine Cooling System Design

2010-04-12
2010-01-0933
A process to create a vehicle resistance curve based on airflow predictions using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation technique is presented. 1-dimensional engine cooling system simulation tool KULI is used to compute the coefficients of vehicle resistance curve. A full factorial Design of Experiment (DOE) established the relationship between the coefficients and the sum of absolute difference between KULI and CFD predictions. The NLPQL optimization routine is used to accurately predict the coefficients so that sum of absolute difference between KULI and CFD predictions is minimized.
Technical Paper

Standardization Proposal for “Automotive-Grade AVRCP” with Respect to In-Car use of Bluetooth Devices.

2010-04-12
2010-01-0689
With regard to the use of portable consumer electronic devices in an automobile, Bluetooth has become a widely accepted method for short range wireless communication between a vehicle and a portable device. One Bluetooth connectivity protocol for this use case is Audio/Visual Remote Control Profile (AVRCP). Currently, AVRCP specifies mandatory commands for both target devices (cellular phones and audio players), as well as for control devices like an audio head unit. However, there is no requirement that control devices and target devices implement the same commands, nor is there a requirement that supported commands utilize information that would be useful in improving the driver's experience (i.e. metadata). This paper will describe the impact of this reality from the perspective of the automotive consumer, and propose an “automotive grade” AVRCP that could provide a more consistent consumer experience in the automotive market.
Technical Paper

Signal Age Fault Detection in Distributed Embedded Automotive Systems

2010-04-12
2010-01-0205
More and more advanced features such as adaptive cruise control and collision avoidance are being adopted in road vehicles and these features are usually implemented as distributed systems across multiple ECU nodes that are connected by communication busses. In order to tolerate transient faults affecting a safety critical signal transmitted via bus in such distributed systems, the last used value or a default safe value for a safety critical signal is usually used among different ECU nodes on the bus for a pre-defined time interval before taking some other fault mitigation actions such as disabling a feature. Thus it becomes very important to monitor a signal's age and detect any signal age fault, where a signal age fault is defined as the use of an older or default signal value for longer than or equal to the pre-defined time interval.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Based Damage Analysis with Correlation to Customer Duty Cycle Using Design Reliability and Confidence

2010-04-12
2010-01-0200
This paper will define the process for correlating fatigue based customer duty cycle with laboratory bench test data. The process includes the development of the Median and Design Load-Life curve equations. The Median Load-Life curve is a best fit linear regression; whereas, the Design Load-Life curve incorporates component specific reliability and confidence targets. To account for the statistical distribution of fatigue life, due to sample size, the one-side lower-bound tolerance limit method ( Lieberman, 1958 ) will be utilized. This paper will include a correlation between the predicted design fatigue life and the actual product life.
Technical Paper

Algorithm-in-the-Loop with Plant Model Simulation, Reusable Test Suite in Production Codes Verification and Controller Hardware-in-the-Loop Bench Testing

2010-04-12
2010-01-0367
In a math-based control algorithm design, model-based simulation and testing are very important as an integral part of design process. There are many advantages of using modeling and simulation in the algorithm design. In this paper, Algorithm-in-the-Loop and Hardware-in-the-Loop approaches are adopted for a transmission control algorithm development. A practical approach is introduced on how to test the control algorithms with a reliable plant (virtual engine, transmission, and vehicle) model in the closed-loop simulation. In using combination of open-loop and closed-loop simulations, various key behavior test cases are developed and documented for the success of control algorithms development. Secondly, the same test cases are reused and verified against the production codes, which are automatically generated from the math-based control algorithm models.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Estimation of Wheel Imbalances for Chassis Prognosis

2010-04-12
2010-01-0245
“Wheel balancing” is one of the common automotive repairs that the owners of an automobile usually experience. An unbalanced set of a tire and a rim or wheel on which the tire is mounted could cause vibration while driving. Such vibrations may be sensed by the driver at the steering wheel (known as smooth road shake). If left untreated for a long period of time, the vibration, induced by the imbalance, may propagate to chassis components such as bearing and bushing. This in turn causes excessive wear that eventually leads to a premature failure. Therefore, an early detection of wheel imbalances can not only significantly reduce the cost and time for diagnosis and repair of the wheel, but also prevent further damage to chassis components. This paper studies the feasibility of real-time detection of wheel imbalances in real world driving conditions, using recursive least square estimation method. The simulation study shows promising results for implementation in a real vehicle.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the Hybrid III 10-year-Old Dummy Chest Response in the Sled Test Environment

2010-04-12
2010-01-0137
Ten sled tests were conducted with a Hybrid III 10-year-old dummy under a 3-point belt only restraint condition to evaluate its performance. The results of the Hybrid III 10-year-old in these tests indicate that there are artifactural noise spikes observable in the transducer responses. A number of metal-to-metal contacts in the shoulder area were identified as one of the sources for the chest acceleration spikes. Noise spikes were also observed in the response from multiple body regions; however, the source of the spikes could not be determined. Compared to the other Hybrid III dummies, non-characteristic dummy chest deflection responses were also observed. This limited analysis indicates that the Hybrid III 10-year-old dummy requires additional development work to eliminate the metal-to-metal contacts in the shoulder area and to understand and correct the other sources of the noise spikes. More investigation is needed to determine if the chest deflection response is appropriate.
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