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Technical Paper

Determining Physical Properties for Rotating Components Using a Free-Free Torsional FRF Technique

This paper presents a test methodology to determine the physical properties of stiffness and damping for powertrain rotating components using a free-free torsional frequency response measurement. The test methodology utilizes free-free boundary conditions and traditional modal test techniques applied to symmetric rotating components with substantially large bounding masses of known inertia. A modal test on the rotating component is executed by mounting accelerometers on opposing tangential bosses in the same direction on each of the inertial masses and impacting one of the bosses with a modal hammer to acquire frequency response functions (FRF's). Physical properties are then extracted from the FRF's using fundamental vibration relationships for an assumed two degree of freedom system. Stiffness and damping values for a variety of hollow tube carbon fiber drive shafts and a comparable steel-aluminum shaft are reported using the methodology presented.
Technical Paper

A Dual Clutch Torque Converter for Dual Input Shaft Transmissions

This paper presents an alternative launch device for layshaft dual clutch transmissions (DCT's). The launch device incorporates a hydrodynamic torque converter, a lockup clutch with controlled slip capability and two wet multi-plate clutches to engage the input shafts of the transmission. The device is intended to overcome the deficiencies associated with using conventional dry or wet launch clutches in DCT's, such as limited torque capacity at vehicle launch, clutch thermal capacity and cooling, launch shudder, lubricant quality and requirement for interval oil changes. The alternative device enhances drive quality and performance at vehicle launch and adds the capability of controlled capacity slip to attenuate gear rattle without early downshifting. Parasitic torque loss will increase but is shown not to drastically influence fuel consumption compared to a dry clutch system, however synchronizer engagement can become a concern at cold operating temperatures.
Journal Article

Performance Characterization of a Triple Input Clutch, Layshaft Automatic Transmission Using Energy Analysis

This paper details the design and operating attributes of a triple input clutch, layshaft automatic transmission (TCT) with a torque converter in a rear wheel drive passenger vehicle. The objectives of the TCT design are to reduce fuel consumption while increasing acceleration performance through the design of the gearing arrangement, shift actuation system and selection of gear ratios and progression. A systematic comparison of an 8-speed TCT design is made against a hypothetical 8-speed planetary automatic transmission (AT) with torque converter using an energy analysis model based upon empirical data and first principles of vehicle-powertrain systems. It was found that the 8-speed TCT design has the potential to provide an approximate 3% reduction in fuel consumption, a 3% decrease in 0-100 kph time and 30% reduction in energy loss relative to a comparable 8-speed planetary AT with an idealized logarithmic ratio progression.
Journal Article

Optimizing 12 Volt Start - Stop for Conventional Powertrains

A cost effective means of achieving fuel economy gains in conventional powertrain is to utilize a 12 volt start/stop (S/S) system to turn the engine off and on during periods of vehicle idle. This paper presents powertrain integration issues specific to a 12 volt S/S system and the powertrain hardware content and calibration strategies required to execute a 12 volt S/S system for start ability, reduced noise and vibration (N&V) and vehicle launch. A correlated lumped parameter modeling methodology is used to determine engine startup profiles, starter hardware and intake cam park position requirements based upon vehicle level response to the startup event. Optimization of the engine startup is reported for a multitude of powertrain configurations, including transverse and longitudinal arrangements with manual, automatic and dual clutch transmissions.
Journal Article

Dynamic Torque Characteristics of the Hydrodynamic Torque Converter

The objective of this investigation is to characterize the torsional characteristics of the hydrodynamic torque converter. Analytical and experimental techniques are used to quantify the relationship between torsional oscillations imposed on the pump to those at the turbine as a function of frequency, operating point and design. A detailed model of the hydrodynamic torque converter based upon one-dimensional flow theory is used to establish fundamental torsional behavior independent of the downstream mechanical system. A simplified linear spring-mass-damper representation of the hydrodynamic torque converter is derived whose coefficients are proportional to pump speed for a particular design. A transmission dynamometer test cell with the capability to produce torsional oscillations was used to develop frequency response functions for various torque converters in a transmission, operating at steady state conditions.
Journal Article

Torque Converter Clutch Optimization: Improving Fuel Economy and Reducing Noise and Vibration

The torque converter and torque converter clutch are critical devices governing overall power transfer efficiency in automatic transmission powertrains. With calibrations becoming more aggressive to meet increasing fuel economy standards, the torque converter clutch is being applied over a wider range of driving conditions. At low engine speed and high engine torque, noise and vibration concerns originating from the driveline, powertrain or vehicle structure can supersede aggressive torque converter clutch scheduling. Understanding the torsional characteristics of the torque converter clutch and its interaction with the drivetrain can lead to a more robust design, operation in regions otherwise restricted by noise and vibration, and potential fuel economy improvement.