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Technical Paper

Application of Failure Plastic Strain to Quasi-Static Finite Element Analysis for Projection Weld and Strain-based Spot Weld Evaluation

One of the most critical and important fracture mechanisms in a FMVSS207/210/225[1] test is the pull-thru of bolts from the body structure or spot weld separation. There are no analytically proven methods of making a judgment of pull-thru occurring except through evaluation of the plastic strain or through the thickness strain value around projection welds on Weld nut/stud bolt or spot welds. Therefore it is essential to have accurate criteria to evaluate the pull-thru. During elastic deformation, the sheet steel deforms while the quasi-static force is being applied and then returns to its original shape when the force is released. But when the force causes a stress that exceeds the yield strength, the sheet steel will permanently elongate with each additional unit of force applied, and it will not return to its original shape and size.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Force-Based Spot Weld Modeling in Quasi-Static Finite Element Analysis

Evaluating spot weld separation is one of the most challenging tasks in a quasi-static simulation. There are several factors that exist in modeling welds analytically that can influence correlation to physical test. This paper presents 4 specific factors: spot weld representation, weld thickness, weld strength, and metal forming effects around spot welds. There are many ways in which a spot weld can be modeled within an FEA model from mesh independent beams to mesh dependent hex clusters. While each modeling technique comes with its unique sets of advantages and disadvantages, a method is chosen to best balance correlation, model setup timing and computation time. Dependent on the way the thickness of the spot weld is represented, artificial moments can be induced which misrepresents structural behavior. The assigned yield strength of the spot weld influences the behavior of the joint.