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Technical Paper

Correlating Measured Combustion Performance with CFD Predicted In-Cylinder Flows for a Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection (SIDI) Engine with Enhanced Charge Motion

A numerical and corresponding experimental study was undertaken to identify the ability to accurately predict combustion performance using our 3-D numerical tools for a direct-injection homogeneous-charge engine. To achieve a significant range of combustion rates, the evaluation was conducted for the engine operating with and without enhanced charge motion. Five charge motion configurations were examined, each having different levels of swirl and tumble flow leading to different turbulence generation and decay characteristics. A detailed CFD analysis provides insight into the in-cylinder flow requirements as well as the accuracy of the submodels. The in-cylinder air-fuel distribution, the mass-averaged swirl and tumble levels along with mean flow and turbulent kinetic energies are calculated throughout the induction and compression processes.
Technical Paper

Evaluation and Design of Injector Hole Patterns Using CFD with a Fuel Tracer Diagnostic for Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Engines

A CFD code is enhanced with a fuel tracer diagnostic to track the liquid and vapor fuel mass separately from individual spray plumes of a multi-hole injector and the wall film. The approach works by solving a set of additional scalar transport equations for fuel vapor generated from individual nozzle hole and the wall film. The diagnostic tool is first validated against experiments from a 4-valve, wall-guided spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine. A CFD analysis is carried out to understand the experimentally observed trade-offs in combustion stability and smoke emissions between a 70degree hollow-cone swirl injector and a 40 degree, 5-hole, circular-type multi-hole injector at a lean, stratified idle operating condition. Engine tests show that the multi-hole injector results in lower COV of IMEP than the hollow-cone swirl injector at the expense of significantly higher smoke emissions.
Technical Paper

Application of the Homogeneous Relaxation Model to Simulating Cavitating Flow of a Diesel Fuel

The internal flow in an injector is greatly affected by cavitation formation, and this in turn impacts the spray characteristics of diesel injectors. In the current work, the performance of the Homogeneous Relaxation Model (HRM) in simulating cavitation inside a diesel injector is evaluated. This model is based on the assumption of homogeneous flow, and was originally developed for flash boiling simulations. However, the model can potentially simulate the spectrum of vaporization mechanisms ranging from cavitation to flash boiling through the use of an empirical time scale which depends on the thermodynamic conditions of the injector fuel. A lower value of this time scale represents a lower deviation from thermal equilibrium conditions, which is an acceptable assumption for small-scale cavitating flows. Another important advantage is the ability of this model to be easily coupled with real fuel models.