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High Load HCCI Operation Using Different Valving Strategies in a Naturally-Aspirated Gasoline HCCI Engine

2012-02-16
This session focuses on kinetically controlled combustion. Experimental and simulation studies pertaining to various means of controlling combustion are welcome. Examples are research studies dealing with temperature and composition distribution inside the cylinder and their impact on heat release process. Studies clarifying the role of fuel physical and chemical properties in autoignition are also welcome. Presenter Hanho Yun, General Motors Company
Technical Paper

Determining Physical Properties for Rotating Components Using a Free-Free Torsional FRF Technique

2011-05-17
2011-01-1663
This paper presents a test methodology to determine the physical properties of stiffness and damping for powertrain rotating components using a free-free torsional frequency response measurement. The test methodology utilizes free-free boundary conditions and traditional modal test techniques applied to symmetric rotating components with substantially large bounding masses of known inertia. A modal test on the rotating component is executed by mounting accelerometers on opposing tangential bosses in the same direction on each of the inertial masses and impacting one of the bosses with a modal hammer to acquire frequency response functions (FRF's). Physical properties are then extracted from the FRF's using fundamental vibration relationships for an assumed two degree of freedom system. Stiffness and damping values for a variety of hollow tube carbon fiber drive shafts and a comparable steel-aluminum shaft are reported using the methodology presented.
Technical Paper

Gen2 GF6 Transmission Hardware and Controls Updates

2011-04-12
2011-01-1428
In an effort to increase fuel economy and improve shift quality - the GF6 family of General Motors transmissions has been analyzed for potential enhancements. The focus of this analysis was to improve fuel economy, while increasing downshift responsiveness, and manual mode sport delays. This paper describes a variety of the hardware philosophy changes, and control methods which have contributed to the next generation of GM clutch-to-clutch 6-speed transmissions. These changes to hardware and controls have led to a composite fuel economy improvement of 4.5% with no changes to shift or torque-converter scheduling. In addition, the downshift responsiveness has been significantly improved to reduce delay times by approximately 50% while virtually eliminating the dependency on engine torque reductions - ultimately allowing for stacked downshifts to progress with minimal, if any, time between shifts. Additionally, “tap shift” delays have been significantly decreased to levels near 150 ms.
Technical Paper

Knock Detection and Estimation Based on Heat Release Strategies

2011-04-12
2011-01-1409
Engine knock has been studied extensively over the years. Its undesired effects on drivability, its potential to damage an engine, and its impact on limiting the compression ratio are the main reasons why it remains a current topic of research. This paper focuses on exploiting the connection between auto-ignition and knock. A new method based on the frequency analysis of the heat release traces is proposed to detect and estimate auto-ignition/knock robustly. Filtering the heat release signal with the appropriate bandwidth is crucial to avoid misdetection. The filter settings used in this paper are found using spectral analysis of the heat release signal. By using the proposed method, it is possible to detect auto-ignition/knock even under the presence of undesired sensor resonance effects and noise from mechanical and electrical sources.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Pt-Pd Ratio on Oxidation Catalysts Under Simulated Diesel Exhaust

2011-04-12
2011-01-1134
With a tighter regulatory environment, reduction of hydrocarbon emissions has emerged as a major concern for advanced low-temperature combustion engines. Currently precious metal-based diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) containing platinum (Pt) and palladium (Pd) are most commonly used for diesel exhaust hydrocarbon oxidation. The efficiency of hydrocarbon oxidation is greatly enhanced by employing both Pt and Pd together compared to the case with Pt or Pd alone. However, there have been few systematic studies to investigate the effects of the ratio of platinum to palladium on catalytic oxidation over the DOC. The present study illustrates the relationship between the Pt-Pd ratio and catalyst activity and stability by evaluating a series of catalysts with various Pt to Pd ratios (1:0, 7:1, 2:1, 1:2, 1:5, 0:1). These catalysts were tested for their CO and hydrocarbon light-off temperatures under simulated conditions where both unburned and partially burned hydrocarbons were present.
Technical Paper

The Development of Advanced 2-Way SCR/DPF Systems to Meet Future Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions

2011-04-12
2011-01-1140
Diesel engines have the potential to significantly increase vehicle fuel economy and decrease CO₂ emissions; however, efficient removal of NOx and particulate matter from the engine exhaust is required to meet stringent emission standards. A conventional diesel aftertreatment system consists of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), a urea-based Selective Catalyst Reduction (SCR) catalyst and a diesel particulate filter (DPF), and is widely used to meet the most recent NOx (nitrogen oxides comprising NO and NO₂) and particulate matter (PM) emission standards for medium- and heavy-duty sport utility and truck vehicles. The increasingly stringent emission targets have recently pushed this system layout towards an increase in size of the components and consequently higher system cost. An emerging technology developed recently involves placing the SCR catalyst onto the conventional wall-flow filter.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Ethanol Quality on Vehicle System Components

2011-04-12
2011-01-1200
Corn ethanol has been used for fuel blending as both an oxygenate and octane booster and in most U.S. states conform to the ASTM D5798 fuel ethanol quality standard. Today the fuel ethanol market is expanding the types of feedstocks used to make ethanol and changing the processing techniques. These non-corn alternative feedstocks used to produce fuel ethanol bring new chemical components into the product that are not monitored under the D5798 standard, and it is unclear if they will result in material compatibility challenges for vehicle fuel systems that could affect performance and emissions. The vehicle contains a variety of plastic, metallic, and polymeric materials in the fuel tank, fuel pump, engine, and exhaust system that are sensitive to water, ions, acids, and high molecular weight compounds.
Technical Paper

Effectiveness of Cold Soak Filtration Test to Predict Precipitate Formation in Biodiesel

2011-04-12
2011-01-1201
Biodiesel use is increasing around the world. Vehicle failures due to filter clogging issues have been reported in the field with use of biodiesel blended fuels in winter months. In certain instances, filter clogging was caused by precipitate formation above the cloud point of the fuel. Minor contaminants in biodiesel such as sterol glucosides and saturated monoglycerides are suspected to cause precipitation above the cloud point. ASTM has added a requirement to test biodiesel fuel for cold soak filtration test to prevent occurrences of this phenomenon of precipitation above the cloud point. This study focuses on understanding the correlation between cold soak filtration test results and presence of contaminants such as sterol glucosides and saturated monoglycerides in biodiesel fuels. Test samples were also subjected to thermal cycling at temperatures below the cloud point of fuel to co-correlate the cold soak filtration test results to visual observation of precipitate formation.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Battery Sizing and Vehicle Lightweighting for an Extended Range Electric Vehicle

2011-04-12
2011-01-1078
In designing vehicles with significant electric driving range, optimizing vehicle energy efficiency is a key requirement to maximize the limited energy capacity of the onboard electrochemical energy storage system. A critical factor in vehicle energy efficiency is the vehicle mass. Optimizing mass allows for the possibility of either increasing electric driving range with a constant level of electrochemical energy storage or holding the range constant while reducing the level of energy storage, thus reducing storage cost. In this paper, a methodology is outlined to study the tradeoff between the battery cost savings achieved by vehicle mass reduction for a constant electric driving range and the cost associated with lightweighting a vehicle. This methodology enables informed business decisions about the available engineering options for lightweighting early in the vehicle development process. The methodology was applied to a compact extended-range electric vehicle (EREV) concept.
Technical Paper

Road Map and Technology Trends for Vehicle Engine Cooling Fan Speed Control

2011-04-12
2011-01-1334
This paper describes the rationale for the technology selection and speed control methods for electric cooling fans used for typical automotive applications, including most passenger cars and even some light duty truck s. Previous selection criteria were based primarily around cost, simplicity of implementation and reliability. However, the more recent focus toward fuel economy and optimization of energy consumption at a vehicle level has given a greater priority to the minimization of electrical power draw. Specifically, that need is addressed through both efficiency of the electric motor at any operating condition as well as providing a control method that delivers only the minimum electrical power to meet engine cooling and air conditioning requirements. This paper will explore the various control methods available, their relative merits and shortcomings and how they influence both FTP and real world fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Conditional Analysis of Enhanced Combustion Luminosity Imaging in a Spray-Guided Gasoline Engine with High Residual Fraction

2011-04-12
2011-01-1281
High-speed (12 kHz) imaging of combustion luminosity (enhanced by using a sodium fuel additive) has been analyzed and compared to crank angle resolved heat release rates and mass fraction burn profiles in a spray-guided spark-ignited direct-injection (SG-SIDI) optical single-cylinder engine. The addition of a sodium-containing additive to gasoline greatly increases the combustion luminosity, which allows unintensified high-speed (12 kHz) imaging of early partially premixed flame kernel growth and overall flame propagation with excellent signal-to-noise ratio for hundreds of consecutive engine cycles. Ignition and early flame kernel growth are known to be key to understanding and eliminating poor burn cycles in SG-SIDI engines.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Exhaust System Design To Minimize Shipping Costs

2011-04-12
2011-01-1256
The design of an existing GM exhaust system is analyzed for possible design modifications that may result in lower shipping costs between the supplier facility that manufactures the exhaust system and the assembly plant that installs the system. Investment, changes in piece cost, and other factors are examined in order to determine design changes based upon a rate of return on the investment.
Technical Paper

Effects of Base Stocks on Lubricant Aeration

2011-04-12
2011-01-1210
Aeration properties of lubricants is an increasing concern as the design of powertrain components, specifically transmissions, continue to become more compact leading to smaller sumps and higher pressure requirements. Although good design practices are the most important factors in mitigating the aeration level of the fluid, the fluid properties themselves are also a contributing factor. This paper investigates the aeration properties of specific base oils commonly used to formulate modern transmission fluids using the General Motors Company Aeration Bench Test found in GMN10060. The test matrix includes thirteen different fluids representing a cross-section of base oil types, manufacturers, and viscosity grades. Per the procedure found in GMN10060, the bench test measures the aeration time, de-aeration time, and percent maximum aeration of the fluid at three temperatures, 60°C, 90°C, and 120°C. In the end, the results are compared with four commercially available transmission fluids.
Technical Paper

Seal Testing in Aerated Lubricants

2011-04-12
2011-01-1209
Typical seal immersion testing in lubricants does not aerate the lubricant as typically seen during normal operation of a transmission or axle. This paper will discuss a new test apparatus that introduces air into transmission fluids and gear oils during seal immersion testing. The seal materials selected for the testing are from current vehicle applications from several different material families. The test results compare the standard properties: change in tensile strength, elongation, hardness, and volume swell. Several tests were completed to investigate and refine the new testing method for seal compatibility testing with transmission fluids and gear oils. Initial results from the first data sets indicate that lubricant aeration helps improve test repeatability. In addition to aeration, the test results explore appropriate fluid immersion temperature for repeatability and appropriate test duration.
Technical Paper

Transmission Algorithm Development using System Simulation (Virtual Vehicle)

2011-04-12
2011-01-1233
Due to the multitude of external design constraints, such as increasing fuel economy standards, and the increasing number of global vehicle programs, developers of automotive transmission controls have had to cope with increasing levels of system complexity while at the same time being forced by the marketplace to improve system quality, reduce development costs, and improve time to market. General Motors Powertrain (GMPT) chose to meet these challenges through General Motors Company's Road-to-Lab-to-Math (RLM) strategy, particularly the Math-based method of a virtual vehicle simulation environment called System Simulation. The use of System Simulation to develop transmission control algorithms has enabled GMPT to improve product quality and reduce development times and costs associated with the dependence on physical prototypes. Additionally, System Simulation has facilitated the reuse of GMPT controls development assets, improving overall controls development efficiency.
Technical Paper

Lubricant Flow and Temperature Prediction in a Planetary Gearset

2011-04-12
2011-01-1235
This study introduces a method to examine the flow path of the lubricant inside a planetary gearset of an automatic transmission. A typical planetary gearbox has several load bearing elements which are in relative sliding motion to each other which causes heat to be released. The major sources of friction as well as heat are the meshing teeth between gears (sun/planet, planet/ring), thrust washers, thrust bearings and needle bearings. The lubricant performs the vital function of both lubricating these sliding interfaces and cooling these sources of heat, thereby preventing failure of the gearbox. The exact flow path that the lubricant takes inside a planetary gearset is unknown. Since the gearset is primarily splash lubricated, it is also not known how much lubricant reaches critical areas. A method is developed using computational fluid dynamic techniques to enable comprehensive flow and thermal analysis and visualization of an automatic transmission assembly.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Impact of Grille Opening and Engine Cooling Fan Power on a Mid-Size Sedan

2013-04-08
2013-01-0857
This paper investigates changes in fuel economy of a mid-size sedan at various engine cooling fan power levels and front grille opening areas. A full vehicle model was built using MATLAB Simulink to calculate the fuel economy (MPG). The model utilized inputs from aerodynamic wind tunnel testing as well as FTP and MVEG dynamometer tests results. Simulation and testing was carried out at three front opening areas and three engine cooling fan power levels. The results provide a guideline for optimizing the front grille opening vs. engine cooling fan power combination at various driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Light-Medium Load Operating Sensitivity in a Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-0896
The light-medium load operating range (4-7 bar net IMEP) presents many challenges for advanced low temperature combustion strategies utilizing low cetane fuels (specifically, 87-octane gasoline) in light-duty, high-speed engines. The overly lean overall air-fuel ratio (Φ≺0.4) sometimes requires unrealistically high inlet temperatures and/or high inlet boost conditions to initiate autoignition at engine speeds in excess of 1500 RPM. The objective of this work is to identify and quantify the effects of variation in input parameters on overall engine operation. Input parameters including inlet temperature, inlet pressure, injection timing/duration, injection pressure, and engine speed were varied in a ~0.5L single-cylinder engine based on a production General Motors 1.9L 4-cylinder high-speed diesel engine.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Diesel EGR Cooler Fouling and Effectiveness Recovery

2013-04-08
2013-01-0533
Diesel engine developers are continually striving to reduce harmful NOx emissions through various calibration and hardware strategies. One strategy being implemented in production Diesel engines involves utilizing cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Although there is a significant NOx reduction potential by utilizing cooled EGR, there are also several issues associated with it, such as EGR cooler fouling and a reduction in cooler effectiveness that can occur over time. The exact cause of these issues and many others related to cooler fouling are not clearly understood. One such unanswered issue or phenomenon that has been observed in both field tested and lab tested EGR coolers is that of a recovery in EGR cooler effectiveness after a shutdown or after cycling between various conditions.
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