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Technical Paper

The Development of Advanced 2-Way SCR/DPF Systems to Meet Future Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions

2011-04-12
2011-01-1140
Diesel engines have the potential to significantly increase vehicle fuel economy and decrease CO₂ emissions; however, efficient removal of NOx and particulate matter from the engine exhaust is required to meet stringent emission standards. A conventional diesel aftertreatment system consists of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), a urea-based Selective Catalyst Reduction (SCR) catalyst and a diesel particulate filter (DPF), and is widely used to meet the most recent NOx (nitrogen oxides comprising NO and NO₂) and particulate matter (PM) emission standards for medium- and heavy-duty sport utility and truck vehicles. The increasingly stringent emission targets have recently pushed this system layout towards an increase in size of the components and consequently higher system cost. An emerging technology developed recently involves placing the SCR catalyst onto the conventional wall-flow filter.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Ethanol Quality on Vehicle System Components

2011-04-12
2011-01-1200
Corn ethanol has been used for fuel blending as both an oxygenate and octane booster and in most U.S. states conform to the ASTM D5798 fuel ethanol quality standard. Today the fuel ethanol market is expanding the types of feedstocks used to make ethanol and changing the processing techniques. These non-corn alternative feedstocks used to produce fuel ethanol bring new chemical components into the product that are not monitored under the D5798 standard, and it is unclear if they will result in material compatibility challenges for vehicle fuel systems that could affect performance and emissions. The vehicle contains a variety of plastic, metallic, and polymeric materials in the fuel tank, fuel pump, engine, and exhaust system that are sensitive to water, ions, acids, and high molecular weight compounds.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Exhaust System Design To Minimize Shipping Costs

2011-04-12
2011-01-1256
The design of an existing GM exhaust system is analyzed for possible design modifications that may result in lower shipping costs between the supplier facility that manufactures the exhaust system and the assembly plant that installs the system. Investment, changes in piece cost, and other factors are examined in order to determine design changes based upon a rate of return on the investment.
Technical Paper

Particle Number, Size and Mass Emissions of Different Biodiesel Blends Versus ULSD from a Small Displacement Automotive Diesel Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-0633
Experimental work was carried out on a small displacement Euro 5 automotive diesel engine alternatively fuelled with ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) and with two blends (30% vol.) of ULSD and of two different fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) obtained from both rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and jatropha methyl ester (JME) in order to evaluate the effects of different fuel compositions on particle number (PN) emissions. Particulate matter (PM) emissions for each fuel were characterized in terms of number and mass size distributions by means of two stage dilutions system coupled with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Measurements were performed at three different sampling points along the exhaust system: at engine-out, downstream of the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and downstream of the diesel particulate filter (DPF). Thus, it was possible to evaluate both the effects of combustion and after-treatment efficiencies on each of the tested fuels.
Technical Paper

Particle Size and Number Emissions from Modern Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0632
This paper focuses on measuring particle emissions of a representative light-duty diesel vehicle equipped with different engine exhaust aftertreatment in close-coupled position, including one designed to meet the upcoming Euro 6 emission standards. The latter combines a lean NOx trap (LNT) and a diesel particulate filter (DPF) in series to simultaneously reduce NOx and PM. Particle Matter (PM) and particle number emissions are measured throughout testing procedure and instrumentation which are compliant with the UN-ECE Regulation 83 proposals. Specifically measuring devices for particle number emissions, provided by two different suppliers, are alternatively used. No significant differences are observed due to the different system employed. On the other hand particle size distributions are measured by means of a specific experimental set-up including a two stage dilution system and an electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI).
Technical Paper

Drive Point Mobility, Transmissibility and Beyond

2011-04-12
2011-01-0502
Drive Point Mobility is commonly used in lab tests and structural analysis for the purposes of measuring and evaluating the N&V performance of a dynamic system. Unless the drive point itself is also the point of interest (for responses), the author finds that it can only provide very limited information about the whole system's dynamic / vibrational characteristics. Thus one should always try to measure, analyze, and then improve, instead of Drive Point Mobility alone, the non-drive point mobility or the generalized transmissibility as well, for their structural N&V performance. A simplified 3-DOF spring/mass/damper system is first used to illustrate the dynamic characters of the system. For more realistic structures, a FE model of the body/floor and (body side) hanger (for exhaust) is used. Then a more complete system model, consisting of a full exhaust, it's hangers/isolators, and part of the vehicle chassis/body/floor structure, is used in this paper to illustrate the above points.
Technical Paper

Individual Cylinder Air-Fuel Ratio Control Part I: L3 and V6 Engine Applications

2011-04-12
2011-01-0695
A frequency-domain approach to balancing of air-fuel ratio (A/F) in a multi-cylinder engine is described. The technique utilizes information from a single Wide-Range Air-Fuel ratio (WRAF) or a single switching (production) O₂ sensor installed in the exhaust manifold of an internal combustion engine to eliminate the imbalances. At the core of the proposed approach is the development of a simple novel method for the characterization of A/F imbalances among the cylinders. The proposed approach provides a direct objective metric for the characterization of the degree of A/F imbalances for diagnostic purposes as well as a methodology for the control of A/F imbalances among various cylinders. The fundamental computational requirement is based on the calculation of a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) of the A/F signal as measured by a WRAF or a switching O₂ sensor.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of NOx Reduction by Passive Ammonia-SCR for Stoichiometric SIDI Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-0307
As vehicle fuel economy requirements continue to increase it is becoming more challenging and expensive to simultaneously improve fuel consumption and meet emissions regulations. The Passive Ammonia SCR System (PASS) is a novel aftertreatment concept which has the potential to address NOx emissions with application to both lean SI and stoichiometric SI engines. PASS relies on an underfloor (U/F) SCR for storage of ammonia which is generated by the close-coupled (CC) TWCs. For lean SI engines, it is required to operate with occasional rich pulses in order to generate the ammonia, while for stoichiometric application ammonia is passively generated through the toggling of air/fuel ratio. PASS serves as an efficient and cost-effective enhancement to standard aftertreatment systems. For this study, the PASS concept was demonstrated first using lab reactor results which highlight the oxygen tolerance and temperature requirements of the SCR.
Technical Paper

Three-Way Catalyst Design for Urealess Passive Ammonia SCR: Lean-Burn SIDI Aftertreatment System

2011-04-12
2011-01-0306
Lean-burn SIDI engine technology offers improved fuel economy; however, the reduction of NOx during lean-operation continues to be a major technical hurdle in the implementation of energy efficient technology. There are several aftertreatment technologies, including the lean NOx trap and active urea SCR, which have been widely considered, but they all suffer from high material cost and require customer intervention to fill the urea solution. Recently reported passive NH₃-SCR system - a simple, low-cost, and urea-free system - has the potential to enable the implementation of lean-burn gasoline engines. Key components in the passive NH₃-SCR aftertreatment system include a close-coupled TWC and underfloor SCR technology. NH₃ is formed on the TWC with short pulses of rich engine operation and the NH₃ is then stored on the underfloor SCR catalysts.
Technical Paper

Impact of Biodiesel on Particle Emissions and DPF Regeneration Management in a Euro5 Automotive Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0839
Biofuel usage is increasingly expanding thanks to its significant contribution to a well-to-wheel (WTW) reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In addition, stringent emission standards make mandatory the use of Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) for the particulate emissions control. The different physical properties and chemical composition of biofuels impact the overall engine behaviour. In particular, the PM emissions and the related DPF regeneration strategy are clearly affected by biofuel usage due mainly to its higher oxygen content and lower low heating value (LHV). More specifically, the PM emissions and the related DPF regeneration strategy are clearly affected by biofuel usage due mainly to its higher oxygen content and lower low heating value, respectively. The particle emissions, in fact, are lower mainly because of the higher oxygen content. Subsequently less frequent regenerations are required.
Technical Paper

Detection of Urea Injection System Faults for SCR Systems

2012-04-16
2012-01-0431
The urea injection is a key function in Urea-SCR NOx reduction system. As the tailpipe NOx emission standard becomes increasingly stringent, it is critical to diagnose the injection faults in order to guarantee the SCR DeNox functionality and performance. Particularly, a blocked injector may cause under-dosing of urea thus reduced DeNox functionality. Monitoring urea injection rate is one of the efficient methods for injection fault diagnosis. However, direct measurement of the urea mass flow is not feasible due to its high cost. This paper presents methods that are promising for detecting and isolating faults in urea injection by processing certain actuator signal and existing sensory measurements, e.g., the injector Pulse Amplitude Modulated (PAM) command and the pressure of the urea delivery line. No additional dedicated sensor is required. Three methods are discussed to detect urea injection system faults.
Technical Paper

Electrically Heated Catalysts for Cold-Start Emissions in Diesel Aftertreatment

2012-04-16
2012-01-1092
With a tighter regulatory environment, reduction of hydrocarbon (HC) and NOx emissions during cold-start has emerged as a major challenge for diesel engines. In the complex diesel aftertreatment system, more than 90% of engine-out NOx is removed in the underfloor SCR. However, the combination of low temperature exhaust and heat sink over DOC delays the SCR light-off during the cold start. In fact, the first 350 seconds during the cold light-duty FTP75 cycle contribute more than 50% of the total NOx tailpipe emission due to the low SCR temperature. For a fast SCR light-off, electrically heated catalyst (EHC) technology has been suggested to be an effective solution as a rapid warm-up strategy. In this work, the EHC, placed in front of DOC, utilizes both electrical power and hydrocarbon fuel. The smart energy management during the cold-start was crucial to optimize the EHC integrated aftertreatment system.
Journal Article

Development of the Combustion System for General Motors' High-Efficiency Range Extender Ecotec Small Gas Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-1272
General Motors has developed an all-new Ecotec 1.5 L range extender engine for use in the 2016 next generation Voltec propulsion system. This engine is part of a new Ecotec family of small displacement gasoline engines introduced in the 2015 model year. Major enhancements over the range extender engine in the current generation Voltec propulsion system include the adoption of direct injection (DI), cooled external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and a high 12.5:1 geometric compression ratio (CR). Additional enhancements include the adoption of high-authority phasers on both the intake and exhaust camshafts, and an integrated exhaust manifold (IEM). The combination of DI with cooled EGR has enabled significant thermal efficiency gains over the 1.4 L range extender engine in the current generation Voltec propulsion system at high engine loads.
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