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Technical Paper

Fault Tolerance Characteristics of FlexRay Central Devices

2013-04-08
2013-01-1185
FlexRay is a communication system targeted at, among other things, fault tolerant applications. In contrast to some other communication systems, FlexRay systems often contain a central device such as an active star. Due to their ability to isolate portions of the communication system central devices offer opportunities to mitigate certain faults. This paper presents several alternatives for the central device of a FlexRay system, specifically active stars, FlexRay switches, and Central Bus Guardians. The paper analyzes the fault detection, isolation and mitigation mechanisms of each central device based on available documentation and specifications.
Technical Paper

FlexRay Design Metrics for Early Design Validation

2011-04-12
2011-01-0452
In-vehicle electronics is displacing the traditional mechanical interfaces and as a result, electrical architecture design is evolving and getting more complex due to increase in automotive electronic content. Several embedded communication protocols are used to build an electrical architecture, with predominant use of Controlled Area Network (CAN) and Local Interconnection Network (LIN). Demand for new electrical features is increasing, to meet and to exceed the customer expectations and also to adapt to new evolving electronic technologies. To accommodate future electrical content, the need for communication bandwidth is increasing at an exponential rate. In addition, some of the safety-critical features require predictability and deterministic network behavior. Current protocols are not capable of satisfying these demands. FlexRay protocol can address these needs with higher bandwidth and determinism.
Technical Paper

Method and System for Determining the Location of a Lost Vehicle Key Fob

2011-04-12
2011-01-0044
Key fobs, also known as remote keys or remote transmitters, have become a common piece of equipment in today's vehicle, being ubiquitous in every market segment. Once limited to remote locking and unlocking operations, today's key fobs can be used to control many comfort and security features beyond locking and unlocking, such as alarm system operation, vehicle locate, approach lighting, memory seat recall, and remote starting systems. Key fobs are designed to be easy to use as well as easy to carry and transport in personal containers, such as purses, pockets, wallets, and the like. Accordingly, as with other personal effects, key fobs and other portable remote devices can be lost or misplaced or can be otherwise difficult to find. Even with careful tracking of a remote device, children and pets, among other factors, can make location difficult. Moreover, multiple remote devices are often distributed with each vehicle.
Technical Paper

Usage of Telematics for Battery and Vehicle State Monitoring

2011-04-12
2011-01-0748
This paper presents Telematics Battery Monitoring (TBM). TBM is a multi-faceted approach of collecting and analyzing electric power and vehicle data used to ultimately determine battery state of charge (SOC) and battery state of health (SOH) in both pre- and post-sale environments. Traditional methods of battery SOC analysis include labor intensive processes such as going out to the site of individual vehicle(s), gaining access to the vehicle battery, and then after the vehicle electrical system obtains its quiescent current level, performing a battery voltage check. This time-consuming manual method can practically only cover a small percentage of the vehicle population. In using the vehicle communication capabilities of Telematics, electric power and vehicle data are downloaded, compiled, and post-processed using decision-making software tools.
Technical Paper

Communication Requirements for Plug-In Electric Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0866
This paper is the second in the series of documents designed to record the progress of a series of SAE documents - SAE J2836™, J2847, J2931, & J2953 - within the Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Communication Task Force. This follows the initial paper number 2010-01-0837, and continues with the test and modeling of the various PLC types for utility programs described in J2836/1™ & J2847/1. This also extends the communication to an off-board charger, described in J2836/2™ & J2847/2 and includes reverse energy flow described in J2836/3™ and J2847/3. The initial versions of J2836/1™ and J2847/1 were published early 2010. J2847/1 has now been re-opened to include updates from comments from the National Institute of Standards Technology (NIST) Smart Grid Interoperability Panel (SGIP), Smart Grid Architectural Committee (SGAC) and Cyber Security Working Group committee (SCWG).
Book

Reinventing the Automobile

2010-03-01
This path breaking book provides a long overdue vision for a new automobile era. The cars we drive today follow the same underlying design principles as the Model Ts of a hundred years ago and the tail-finned sedans of fifty years ago. In the twenty-first century, cars are still made for twentieth-century purposes. They're well suited for conveying multiple passengers over long distances at high speeds, but inefficient for providing personal mobility within cities-where most of the world's people now live. William Mitchell and two industry experts re-imagine the automobile, describing vehicles of the near future that are green, smart, connected, and fun to drive. They roll out four big ideas that will make this both feasible and timely. First, we must transform the DNA of the automobile, basing it on electric-drive and wireless communication rather than on petroleum, the internal combustion engine, and stand-alone operation.
Technical Paper

J2716 SENT - Single Edge Nibble Transmission, Updates and Status

2011-04-12
2011-01-1034
The SAE J2716 SENT (Single Edge Nibble Transmission) Protocol has entered production with a number of announced products. The SENT protocol is a point-to-point scheme for transmitting signal values from a sensor to a controller. It is intended to allow for high resolution data transmission with a lower system cost than available serial data solution. The SAE SENT Task Force has developed a number of enhancements and clarifications to the original specification which are summarized in this paper.
Journal Article

Challenges in Real Time Controls Simulation (Hardware-In-the-Loop) in Active Safety for Subsystem Level Software Verification

2011-04-12
2011-01-0450
As the new features for driver assistance and active safety systems are growing rapidly in vehicles, the simulation within a virtual environment has become a necessity. The current active safety system consists of Electronic Control Units (ECUs) which are coupled to camera and radar sensors. Two methods of implementation exists, integrated sensors with control modules or separation of sensors form control modules. The subsystem integration testing poses new challenges for virtual environment for simulation of active safety features. The comprehensive simulation environment for integration testing consists of chassis controls, powertrain, driver assistance, body and displays controllers. Additional complexity in the system is the serial communication strategy. Multiple communication protocols such as GMLAN, LIN, standard CAN, and Flexray could be present within the same vehicle topology.
Journal Article

Vehicle Safety Communications - Applications: System Design & Objective Testing Results

2011-04-12
2011-01-0575
The USDOT and the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership-Vehicle Safety Communications 2 (CAMP-VSC2) Consortium (Ford, GM, Honda, Mercedes, and Toyota) initiated, in December 2006, a three-year collaborative effort in the area of wireless-based safety applications under the Vehicle Safety Communications-Applications (VSC-A) Project. The VSC-A Project developed and tested communications-based vehicle safety systems to determine if Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) at 5.9 GHz, in combination with vehicle positioning, would improve upon autonomous vehicle-based safety systems and/or enable new communications-based safety applications.
Journal Article

Understanding Driver Perceptions of a Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) Communication System Using a Test Track Demonstration

2011-04-12
2011-01-0577
Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication systems can enable a number of wireless-based vehicle features that can improve traffic safety, driver convenience, and roadway efficiency and facilitate many types of in-vehicle services. These systems have an extended communication range that can provide drivers with information about the position and movements of nearby V2Vequipped vehicles. Using this technology, these vehicles are able to communicate roadway events that are beyond the driver's view and provide advisory information that will aid drivers in avoiding collisions or congestion ahead. Given a typical communication range of 300 meters, drivers can potentially receive information well in advance of their arrival to a particular location. The timing and nature of presenting V2V information to the driver will vary depending on the nature and criticality of the scenario.
Journal Article

Reliability and Safety/Integrity Analysis for Vehicle-to-Vehicle Wireless Communication

2011-04-12
2011-01-1045
Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications are gaining increasing importance in automotive research and engineering domains. The novel communication scheme is targeted to improve driver safety (e.g., forward collision warnings) and comfort (e.g., routing to avoid congestion, automatic toll collection, etc.). Features exploiting these communication schemes are still in the early stages of research and development. However, growing attention to system wide infrastructure - in terms of OEM collaboration on interface standardization, protocol standardization, and government supported road/wireless infrastructure - will lead to popularity of such features in the future. This paper focuses on evaluating reliability and safety/integrity of data communicated over the wireless channels for early design verification. Analysis of a design can be done based on formal models, simulation, emulation, and testing.
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