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Technical Paper

Metrics for Quantifying and Evaluating Ability of Electronic Control System Architectures to Accommodate Changes

2011-04-12
2011-01-0447
Recent trends in the automotive industry show growing demands for the introduction of new in-vehicle features (e.g., smart-phone integration, adaptive cruise control, etc.) at increasing rates and with reduced time-to-market. New technological developments (e.g., in-vehicle Ethernet, multi-core technologies, AUTOSAR standardized software architectures, smart video and radar sensors, etc.) provide opportunities as well as challenges to automotive designers for introducing and implementing new features at lower costs, and with increased safety and security. As a result, the design of Electrical/Electronic (E/E) architectures is becoming increasingly challenging as several hardware resources are needed. In our earlier work, we have provided top-level definitions for three relevant metrics that can be used to evaluate E/E architecture alternatives in the early stages of the design process: flexibility, scalability and expandability.
Technical Paper

Adaptive Remote Vehicle Start Operation for Reduced Fuel Consumption

2011-04-12
2011-01-0045
Remote vehicle start systems are commonly available as an aftermarket accessory, and more recently, as a factory installed vehicle feature. These systems and their associated algorithms enable a user of the vehicle to remotely start the engine and/or other vehicle systems with the end goal of preconditioning the cabin environment, for example, if the user wishes to have the vehicle's interior heated or cooled before the user enters the vehicle. However, if the engine is remotely started for an extended period of time, the increased use of fuel, energy, and/or other resources may be greater than optimal or desired. Through the use of available vehicle sensors and enhanced algorithms, a system can be implemented which allows the passenger cabin to be heated or cooled to within a range of moderate temperatures, while reducing the resources utilized by the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Analysis of Electromagnetic Coupling Between Electric Propulsion System Components

2011-04-12
2011-01-0756
The engineering of electric propulsion systems requires time and cost efficient methodologies to determine system characteristics as well as potential component integration issues. A significant part of this analysis is the identification of the electromagnetic fields present in the propulsion system. Understanding of the electromagnetic fields during system operation is a significant design consideration due to the use of components that require large current(s) and high voltage(s) in the proximity of other control system items (such as sensors) that operate with low current(s) and voltage(s). Therefore, it is critical to quantify the electromagnetic fields produced by these components within the design and how they may interact with other system components. Often overlooked (and also extremely important) is an evaluation of how the overall system architecture can generate or react to electromagnetic fields (which may be a direct result of packaging approaches).
Technical Paper

Effect of DPF Design Parameters on Fuel Economy and Thermal Durability

2012-04-16
2012-01-0847
Diesel particle filters (DPF) have become the standard and essential aftertreatment components for all on-road diesel engines used in the US and Europe. The OBD requirements for DPF are becoming rigorously strict starting from 2015 model year. The pressure sensor or other strategies currently used for DPF diagnostics will most likely become insufficient to meet the new OBD requirements and a post DPF soot sensor might be necessary. This means that it will be even more imperative to develop a DPF design that would not have any soot leaks in its emission lifetime, otherwise the DPF will become a high warranty item.
Technical Paper

Methods and Tools for End-to-End Latency Analysis and Optimization of a Dual-Processor Control Module

2012-04-16
2012-01-0029
Automotive HW/SW architectures are becoming increasingly complex to support the deployment of new safety, comfort, and energy-efficiency features. Such architectures include several software tasks (100+), messages (1000+), computational and communication resources (70+ CPUs, 10+ buses), and (smart) sensors and actuators (20+). To cope with the increasing system complexity at lowest development and product costs, highest safety, and fastest time to market, model-based rapid-prototyping development processes are essential. The processes, coupled with optimization steps aimed at reducing the number of software and hardware resources while satisfying the safety requirements, enable reduction of the system complexity and ease downstream testing/validation efforts. This paper describes a novel model-based design exploration and optimization process for the deployment of a set of software tasks on a dual-processor control module implementing a fail-safe strategy.
Technical Paper

Transmission Virtual Torque Sensor - Absolute Torque Estimation

2012-04-16
2012-01-0111
Automobile drivers/passengers perceive automatic transmission (AT) shift quality through the torque transferred by the transmission. Clearly, torque regulation is important for transmission control. Unfortunately, a physical torque sensor has been too costly for production applications. With no torque measurement for feedback, controls in AT is mainly implemented in an open-loop fashion. Therefore, complicated adaptation algorithms are necessary while undesired shifts may still occur. To further simplify the controls and enhance its consistency and robustness, a direct torque feedback has long been desired in transmission control synthesis and development. A “virtual” torque sensor (VTS) algorithm has recently been developed to show a good potential in estimating relative torque along transmission output shaft using transmission output speed sensor and wheel speed sensors.
Technical Paper

J2716 SENT - Single Edge Nibble Transmission, Updates and Status

2011-04-12
2011-01-1034
The SAE J2716 SENT (Single Edge Nibble Transmission) Protocol has entered production with a number of announced products. The SENT protocol is a point-to-point scheme for transmitting signal values from a sensor to a controller. It is intended to allow for high resolution data transmission with a lower system cost than available serial data solution. The SAE SENT Task Force has developed a number of enhancements and clarifications to the original specification which are summarized in this paper.
Journal Article

Optimal Sensor Configuration and Fault-Tolerant Estimation of Vehicle States

2013-04-08
2013-01-0175
This paper discusses observability of the vehicle states using different sensor configurations as well as fault-tolerant estimation of these states. The optimality of the sensor configurations is assessed through different observability measures and by using a 3-DOF linear vehicle model that incorporates yaw, roll and lateral motions of the vehicle. The most optimal sensor configuration is adopted and an observer is designed to estimate the states of the vehicle handling dynamics. Robustness of the observer against sensor failure is investigated. A fault-tolerant adaptive estimation algorithm is developed to mitigate any possible faults arising from the sensor failures. Effectiveness of the proposed fault-tolerant estimation scheme is demonstrated through numerical analysis and CarSim simulation.
Journal Article

Design of Engine-Out Virtual NOx Sensor Using Neural Networks and Dynamic System Identification

2011-04-12
2011-01-0694
Fuel economy improvement and stringent emission regulations worldwide require advanced air charging and combustion technologies, such as low temperature combustion, PCCI or HCCI combustion. Furthermore, NOx aftertreatment systems, like Selective Catalyst Reduction (SCR) or lean NOx trap (LNT), are needed to reduce vehicle tailpipe emissions. The information on engine-out NOx emissions is essential for engine combustion optimization, for engine and aftertreatment system development, especially for those involving combustion optimization, system integration, control strategies, and for on-board diagnosis (OBD). A physical NOx sensor involves additional cost and requires on-board diagnostic algorithms to monitor the performance of the NOx sensor.
Journal Article

Challenges in Real Time Controls Simulation (Hardware-In-the-Loop) in Active Safety for Subsystem Level Software Verification

2011-04-12
2011-01-0450
As the new features for driver assistance and active safety systems are growing rapidly in vehicles, the simulation within a virtual environment has become a necessity. The current active safety system consists of Electronic Control Units (ECUs) which are coupled to camera and radar sensors. Two methods of implementation exists, integrated sensors with control modules or separation of sensors form control modules. The subsystem integration testing poses new challenges for virtual environment for simulation of active safety features. The comprehensive simulation environment for integration testing consists of chassis controls, powertrain, driver assistance, body and displays controllers. Additional complexity in the system is the serial communication strategy. Multiple communication protocols such as GMLAN, LIN, standard CAN, and Flexray could be present within the same vehicle topology.
Journal Article

Development of a Camera-Based Forward Collision Alert System

2011-04-12
2011-01-0579
Forward Collision Alert (or Forward Collision Warning) systems provide alerts intended to assist drivers in avoiding or mitigating the harm caused by rear-end crashes. These systems currently use front-grille mounted, forward-looking radar devices as the primary sensor. In contrast, Lane Departure Warning (LDW) systems employ forward-looking cameras mounted behind the windshield to monitor lane markings ahead and warn drivers of unintended lane violations. The increasing imaging sensor resolution and processing capability of forward-looking cameras, as well recent important advances in machine vision algorithms, have pushed the state-of-the-art for camera-based features. Consequently, camera-based systems are emerging as a key crash avoidance system component in both a primary and supporting sensing role. There are currently no production vehicles with cameras used as the sole FCA sensing device.
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