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Technical Paper

High Voltage Power Allocation Management of Hybrid/Electric Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-1022
As the automotive industry moves toward producing more advanced hybrid/electric vehicles, high voltage Rechargeable Energy Storage Systems (RESS) are now being implemented as the main power source of the vehicle, replacing the need for the traditional Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) altogether or just during certain parts of a drive cycle. With this type of architecture, it is becoming a necessity to equip these vehicles with devices that can draw their power from the high voltage (HV) RESS. These HV devices are not only used to support the propulsion of the vehicle but to perform other necessary vehicle functions as well. With demands of high voltage power from multiple systems ranging from RESS thermal conditioning, cabin thermal conditioning, RESS charging, and vehicle propulsion, power demands can exceed the available power of the vehicle. This creates a perplexing problem of how to manage the high voltage power consumption between the different vehicle systems.
Technical Paper

Comprehensive Overview of Human Interface for an Extended Range Electric Vehicle

2011-04-12
2011-01-1023
An Extended Range Electric vehicle brings a wealth of new features since it is capable of driving on battery alone, has a range extending engine, and has a high voltage battery pack that can be recharged by plugging into wall power. The customer is able to interact with the vehicle's plug-in charging system through mobile applications. Along with all these new features is the challenge of designing a driver interface to provide important information to the customer. This paper will describe the unique customer interface features added to the vehicle, and will include some additional specifics related to the hardware used to provide the information.
Technical Paper

Plug-In Charging Feature

2011-04-12
2011-01-1013
As the auto industry becomes more dependent upon Electric Vehicles (Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles, Battery Electric Vehicles, and Extended Range Electric Vehicles), the Plug-In Charging Feature will become an integral part of the driver's daily routine. The Plug-In Charging feature enables off-board electrical power grid (grid based) power to be used immediately or at a later time by on-vehicle functions. The primary use of this grid power is to charge the vehicle's High Voltage (HV) battery, but other uses also do exist. These functions will mainly be active when the vehicle is off.
Technical Paper

Probability of a Crash During Plug-in Charging

2011-04-12
2011-01-1008
Plug-in electric vehicles are becoming increasingly popular as the U.S. and other nations look for ways to reduce the usage of petroleum fuels and reduce the carbon emission footprint. Though plug-in electric vehicles offer many advantages over conventional vehicles, they also present some unique potential hazards due to the presence of high voltage in the vehicle. Specifically, potential high voltage hazards can occur if the electric vehicle is crashed by another vehicle during its plug-in charging session. High voltage hazards include the possibility of electrical shock and thermal events as a result of electrical arcing that can cause injury or death to persons that operate or work around plug-in electric vehicles. Automotive Safety Integrity Level (ISO 26262), often abbreviated as ASIL, is used by the automotive industry for determining the ranking of safety hazards.
Technical Paper

High Voltage Connect Feature

2011-04-12
2011-01-1266
Extended Range Electric Vehicles (EREVs), which are Off board charging capable Electric Vehicles (EV) with an on board charging generator, rely on very complex Rechargeable Energy Storage Systems (RESS) and High Voltage (HV) distribution systems to enable operation as both an EV and an EREV. The connect feature manages the connection and disconnection of a High Voltage (HV) Rechargeable Energy Storage System (RESS) to and from the high voltage components in the vehicle. The RESS is connected to the vehicle's high voltage system to enable vehicle operation. The HV connect feature is a part of occupant, service personnel and first responder safety for all General Motors vehicles that contain high voltage systems. Implementation of the connect feature is the method deployed in GM vehicles to meet high voltage FMVSS requirements.
Technical Paper

Application of Insulation Standards to High Voltage Automotive Applications

2013-04-08
2013-01-1528
Insulation coordination requirements for electrical equipment applications are defined in various standards. The standards are defined for application to stationary mains connected equipment, like IT, power supply or industrial equipment. Protection from an electric shock is considered the primary hazard in these standards. These standards have also been used in the design of various automotive components. IEC 60664-1 is an example of the standard. Automobiles are used across the world, in various environments and in varied usage by the customers. Automobiles need to consider possible additional hazards including electric shock. This paper will provide an overview of how to adapt these standards for automotive application in the design of High Voltage (HV) automotive components, including High Voltage batteries and other HV components connected to the battery. The basic definitions from the standards and the principles are applied for usage in automotive applications.
Technical Paper

High Voltage Hybrid Battery Tray Design Optimization

2011-04-12
2011-01-0671
Hybrid high voltage battery pack is not only heavy mass but also large in dimension. It interacts with the vehicle through the battery tray. Thus the battery tray is a critical element of the battery pack that interfaces between the battery and the vehicle, including the performances of safety/crash, NVH (modal), and durability. The tray is the largest and strongest structure in the battery pack holding the battery sections and other components including the battery disconnect unit (BDU) and other units that are not negligible in mass. This paper describes the mass optimization work done on one of the hybrid batteries using CAE simulation. This was a multidisciplinary optimization project, in which modal performance and fatigue damage were accessed through CAE analysis at both the battery pack level, and at the vehicle level.
Technical Paper

Voltec Charging System EMC Requirements and Test Methodologies

2011-04-12
2011-01-0742
With the advent of vehicle manufacturer driven on-board charging systems for plug-in and extended range electric vehicles, such as the Chevrolet Volt, important considerations need to be comprehended in both the requirements specified as well as the test methodologies and setups for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Typical automotive EMC standards (such as the SAE J551 and SAE J1113 series) that cover 12 volt systems have existed for many years. Additionally, there has been some development in recent years for high voltage EMC for automotive applications. However, on-board charging for vehicles presents yet another challenge in adopting requirements that have typically been in the consumer industry realm and merging those with both the traditional 12 V based system requirements as well as high voltage based systems.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Analysis of Electromagnetic Coupling Between Electric Propulsion System Components

2011-04-12
2011-01-0756
The engineering of electric propulsion systems requires time and cost efficient methodologies to determine system characteristics as well as potential component integration issues. A significant part of this analysis is the identification of the electromagnetic fields present in the propulsion system. Understanding of the electromagnetic fields during system operation is a significant design consideration due to the use of components that require large current(s) and high voltage(s) in the proximity of other control system items (such as sensors) that operate with low current(s) and voltage(s). Therefore, it is critical to quantify the electromagnetic fields produced by these components within the design and how they may interact with other system components. Often overlooked (and also extremely important) is an evaluation of how the overall system architecture can generate or react to electromagnetic fields (which may be a direct result of packaging approaches).
Technical Paper

On Board Jump Start for Belted Alternator Starter Hybrids

2011-04-12
2011-01-0867
The On Board Jump Start feature utilized on GM's Belt Alternator Starter (BAS) hybrids takes advantage of the High Voltage (HV) battery and other HV propulsion systems to supplement a low 12V battery during starting events. This feature has the potential to eliminate the need for an off vehicle 12V power source, such as a 2nd vehicle, to start the vehicle when the 12V battery is low.
Journal Article

Development of Two-Mode Hybrid Powertrain with Enhanced EV Capability

2011-04-12
2011-01-0883
The two-mode hybrid system has several advantages over a one-mode EVT system: greater ability to transmit power mechanically and minimize electrical recirculation power, maximize fuel economy improvement and best meet demanding vehicle requirements. Extending the two-mode hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) to two-mode plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is significant not only to make the internal combustion engine (ICE)-based vehicle cleaner and more efficient in the near term, but also to provide a potential path to battery electric vehicles in the future. For PHEV, the enhanced electric drive capability is of vital importance to achieve best efficiency and best electric only performance. This paper describes the development of a prototype two-mode hybrid powertrain with enhanced EV capability (2MH4EV). The prototype drive unit includes an additional input brake to the existing General Motors FWD 2-mode HEV system.
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