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High Load HCCI Operation Using Different Valving Strategies in a Naturally-Aspirated Gasoline HCCI Engine

2012-02-16
This session focuses on kinetically controlled combustion. Experimental and simulation studies pertaining to various means of controlling combustion are welcome. Examples are research studies dealing with temperature and composition distribution inside the cylinder and their impact on heat release process. Studies clarifying the role of fuel physical and chemical properties in autoignition are also welcome. Presenter Hanho Yun, General Motors Company
Technical Paper

The Effect of Pt-Pd Ratio on Oxidation Catalysts Under Simulated Diesel Exhaust

2011-04-12
2011-01-1134
With a tighter regulatory environment, reduction of hydrocarbon emissions has emerged as a major concern for advanced low-temperature combustion engines. Currently precious metal-based diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) containing platinum (Pt) and palladium (Pd) are most commonly used for diesel exhaust hydrocarbon oxidation. The efficiency of hydrocarbon oxidation is greatly enhanced by employing both Pt and Pd together compared to the case with Pt or Pd alone. However, there have been few systematic studies to investigate the effects of the ratio of platinum to palladium on catalytic oxidation over the DOC. The present study illustrates the relationship between the Pt-Pd ratio and catalyst activity and stability by evaluating a series of catalysts with various Pt to Pd ratios (1:0, 7:1, 2:1, 1:2, 1:5, 0:1). These catalysts were tested for their CO and hydrocarbon light-off temperatures under simulated conditions where both unburned and partially burned hydrocarbons were present.
Technical Paper

Conditional Analysis of Enhanced Combustion Luminosity Imaging in a Spray-Guided Gasoline Engine with High Residual Fraction

2011-04-12
2011-01-1281
High-speed (12 kHz) imaging of combustion luminosity (enhanced by using a sodium fuel additive) has been analyzed and compared to crank angle resolved heat release rates and mass fraction burn profiles in a spray-guided spark-ignited direct-injection (SG-SIDI) optical single-cylinder engine. The addition of a sodium-containing additive to gasoline greatly increases the combustion luminosity, which allows unintensified high-speed (12 kHz) imaging of early partially premixed flame kernel growth and overall flame propagation with excellent signal-to-noise ratio for hundreds of consecutive engine cycles. Ignition and early flame kernel growth are known to be key to understanding and eliminating poor burn cycles in SG-SIDI engines.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Light-Medium Load Operating Sensitivity in a Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-0896
The light-medium load operating range (4-7 bar net IMEP) presents many challenges for advanced low temperature combustion strategies utilizing low cetane fuels (specifically, 87-octane gasoline) in light-duty, high-speed engines. The overly lean overall air-fuel ratio (Φ≺0.4) sometimes requires unrealistically high inlet temperatures and/or high inlet boost conditions to initiate autoignition at engine speeds in excess of 1500 RPM. The objective of this work is to identify and quantify the effects of variation in input parameters on overall engine operation. Input parameters including inlet temperature, inlet pressure, injection timing/duration, injection pressure, and engine speed were varied in a ~0.5L single-cylinder engine based on a production General Motors 1.9L 4-cylinder high-speed diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Correlating Measured Combustion Performance with CFD Predicted In-Cylinder Flows for a Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection (SIDI) Engine with Enhanced Charge Motion

2013-04-08
2013-01-1090
A numerical and corresponding experimental study was undertaken to identify the ability to accurately predict combustion performance using our 3-D numerical tools for a direct-injection homogeneous-charge engine. To achieve a significant range of combustion rates, the evaluation was conducted for the engine operating with and without enhanced charge motion. Five charge motion configurations were examined, each having different levels of swirl and tumble flow leading to different turbulence generation and decay characteristics. A detailed CFD analysis provides insight into the in-cylinder flow requirements as well as the accuracy of the submodels. The in-cylinder air-fuel distribution, the mass-averaged swirl and tumble levels along with mean flow and turbulent kinetic energies are calculated throughout the induction and compression processes.
Technical Paper

Individual Cylinder Air-Fuel Ratio Control Part I: L3 and V6 Engine Applications

2011-04-12
2011-01-0695
A frequency-domain approach to balancing of air-fuel ratio (A/F) in a multi-cylinder engine is described. The technique utilizes information from a single Wide-Range Air-Fuel ratio (WRAF) or a single switching (production) O₂ sensor installed in the exhaust manifold of an internal combustion engine to eliminate the imbalances. At the core of the proposed approach is the development of a simple novel method for the characterization of A/F imbalances among the cylinders. The proposed approach provides a direct objective metric for the characterization of the degree of A/F imbalances for diagnostic purposes as well as a methodology for the control of A/F imbalances among various cylinders. The fundamental computational requirement is based on the calculation of a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) of the A/F signal as measured by a WRAF or a switching O₂ sensor.
Technical Paper

Evaluation and Design of Injector Hole Patterns Using CFD with a Fuel Tracer Diagnostic for Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-0840
A CFD code is enhanced with a fuel tracer diagnostic to track the liquid and vapor fuel mass separately from individual spray plumes of a multi-hole injector and the wall film. The approach works by solving a set of additional scalar transport equations for fuel vapor generated from individual nozzle hole and the wall film. The diagnostic tool is first validated against experiments from a 4-valve, wall-guided spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine. A CFD analysis is carried out to understand the experimentally observed trade-offs in combustion stability and smoke emissions between a 70degree hollow-cone swirl injector and a 40 degree, 5-hole, circular-type multi-hole injector at a lean, stratified idle operating condition. Engine tests show that the multi-hole injector results in lower COV of IMEP than the hollow-cone swirl injector at the expense of significantly higher smoke emissions.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Mount Load Mitigation on Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0949
The development and validation of an electric vehicle presents numerous issues that are not normally encountered during the development of a traditional internal combustion powered vehicle. Many of the issues that are encountered involve components that are common to both electric and internal combustion vehicles but are utilized in new or unique ways that may present challenges during the development process. The integration of the electric motors, power supply, batteries, and associated content into a traditional vehicle can bring new and challenging issues to light. This paper discusses the solution for an issue that arose during the testing and development of the chassis and powertrain hardware of an electric vehicle. In particular, the large rotational inertia of the electric drive motor presented significant challenges when it was accelerated by forces that were external to the drive unit.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects on Combustion and Emissions of a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine Operating at Moderate to High Engine Speed and Load

2012-04-16
2012-01-0863
It is advantageous to increase the specific power output of diesel engines and to operate them at higher load for a greater portion of a driving cycle to achieve better thermal efficiency and thus reduce vehicle fuel consumption. Such operation is limited by excessive smoke formation at retarded injection timing and high rates of cylinder pressure rise at more advanced timing. Given this window of operation, it is desired to understand the influence of fuel properties such that optimum combustion performance and emissions can be retained over the range of fuels commonly available in the marketplace. Data are examined from a direct-injection single-cylinder research engine for eight common diesel fuels including soy-based biodiesel blends at two high load operating points with no exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and at a moderate load with four levels of EGR.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Diesel Injector Nozzle Flow Number Impact on Emissions and Performance of a Euro5 Automotive Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0891
The present paper describes the results of a research project aimed at studying the impact of nozzle flow number on a Euro5 automotive diesel engine, featuring Closed-Loop Combustion Control. In order to optimize the trade-offs between fuel economy, combustion noise, emissions and power density for the next generation diesel engines, general trend among OEMs is lowering nozzle flow number and, as a consequence, nozzle hole size. In this context, three nozzle configurations have been characterized on a 2.0L Euro5 Common Rail Diesel engine, coupling experimental activities performed on multi-cylinder and optical single cylinder engines to analysis on spray bomb and injector test rigs. More in detail, this paper deeply describes the investigation carried out on the multi-cylinder engine, specifically devoted to the combustion evolution and engine performance analysis, varying the injector flow number.
Technical Paper

Ignition and Combustion Simulations of Spray-Guided SIDI Engine using Arrhenius Combustion with Spark-Energy Deposition Model

2012-04-16
2012-01-0147
An Arrhenius combustion model (chemically controlled model) with a spark-energy deposition model having a moving spherical ignition source in the Converge CFD code is validated with a single-cylinder spray-guided SIDI engine at idle-like lean-burn operating conditions with both single- and double-pulse fuel injection. It was found that a fine mesh is required for accurate solving of "laminar-flame" like reaction front propagation. A reduced chemistry mechanism for iso-octane is used as gasoline surrogate. The effects of spark advance were studied by the simulation and experiment. The results show that this modeling approach can provide reasonable predictions for the spray-guided SIDI engine with single- and double-pulse injections.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Diesel Injector Nozzle Flow Number Impact on Spray Formation and Combustion Evolution by Optical Diagnostics

2012-04-16
2012-01-0701
The present paper describes an experimental investigation over the impact of diesel injector nozzle flow number on spray formation and combustion evolution for a modern EURO5 light-duty diesel engine. The analysis has been carried out by coupling the investigations in non evaporative spray bomb to tests in optical single cylinder engine in firing conditions. The research activity, which is the result of a collaborative project between Istituto Motori Napoli - CNR and GM Powertrain Europe, is devoted to understanding the basic operating behaviour of low flow number nozzles which are showing promising improvements in diesel engine behaviour at partial load. In fact, because of the compelling need to push further emission, efficiency, combustion noise and power density capabilities of the last-generation diesel engines, the combination of high injection pressure fuel pumps and low flow number nozzles is general trend among major OEMs.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Analysis and Optimization of Turbocharged Diesel Engines with a Variable Geometry Compressor and Turbine System

2012-04-16
2012-01-0716
In the last few years, the application of downsizing and turbocharging to internal combustion engines has considerably increased due to the proven potential of this technology to increase engine efficiency. Variable geometry turbines have been largely adopted to optimize the exhaust energy recovery over a large operating range. Two-stage turbocharger systems have also been studied as a solution to improve engine low-end torque and efficiency, with the first units currently available on the market. However, the compressor technology is today still based on fixed geometry machines, which are sized to efficiently operate at the maximum air flow and therefore lead to poor efficiency values at low air flow conditions. Furthermore, the surge limits prevents the full capabilities of VGT systems to increase the boosting at low engine speed.
Technical Paper

Optimal Use of Boosting Configurations and Valve Strategies for High Load HCCI - A Modeling Study

2012-04-16
2012-01-1101
This study investigates a novel approach towards boosted HCCI operation, which makes use of all engine system components in order to maximize overall efficiency. Four-cylinder boosted HCCI engines have been modeled employing valve strategies and turbomachines that enable high load operation with significant efficiency benefits. A commercially available engine simulation software, coupled to the University of Michigan HCCI combustion and heat transfer correlations, was used to model the HCCI engines with three different boosting configurations: turbocharging, variable geometry turbocharging and combined supercharging with turbocharging. The valve strategy features switching from low-lift Negative Valve Overlap (NVO) to high-lift Positive Valve Overlap (PVO) at medium loads. The new operating approach indicates that heating of the charge from external compression is more efficient than heating by residual gas retention strategies.
Technical Paper

Development of the Combustion System for the General Motors Fifth Generation “Small Block” Engine Family

2013-04-08
2013-01-1732
The fifth generation of General Motor's “Small Block” 90-degree V engine family has been developed with a totally new combustion system. This system employs direct fuel injection (DI) and carefully architected in-cylinder flow field development in order to significantly improve all aspects of combustion system performance. Efficiency improvements stem from increased compression ratio, greatly improved dilution tolerance, and excellent knock resistance. The asymmetric, 2-valve (2V) layout of the “Small Block” engine presented unique challenges in developing the combustion system, but also offered unusual opportunities for an elegant solution while retaining the traditional “Small Block” attributes of packaging efficiency and power density.
Journal Article

Detailed Simulations of Stratified Ignition and Combustion Processes in a Spray-Guided Gasoline Engine using the SparkCIMM/G-Equation Modeling Framework

2012-04-16
2012-01-0132
Recently, high-speed optical imaging data for a single operating point of a spray-guided gasoline engine has, along with the flamelet model and the G-equation theory, enabled the development of the new spark-ignition model SparkCIMM. Within its framework, detailed chemistry flamelet models capture the experimental feature of multiple localized ignition events along the excessively stretched and restriking spark channel, as well as the observations of non-spherical highly corrugated early turbulent flame fronts. The developed flamelet models account for the substantial turbulent fluctuations in equivalence ratio and enthalpy present under spray-guided conditions. A non-unity Lewis number formulation captures the deficient species diffusion into the highly curved flame reaction zone.
Journal Article

Study of the Motion of Floating Piston Pin against Pin Bore

2013-04-08
2013-01-1215
One of the major problems that the automotive industry faces is reducing friction to increase efficiency. Researchers have shown that 30% of the fuel energy was consumed to overcome the friction forces between the moving parts of any automobile, Holmberg et al. [1]. The interface of the piston pin and pin bore is one of the areas that generate high friction under severe working conditions of high temperature and lack of lubrication. In this research, experimental investigation and theoretical simulation have been carried out to analyze the motion of the floating pin against pin bore. In the experimental study, the focus was on analyzing the floating pin motion by using a bench test rig to simulate the floating pin motion in an internal combustion engine. A motion data acquisition system was developed to capture and record the pin motion. Thousands of images were recorded and later analyzed by a code written by MATLAB.
Journal Article

A Comparison of Spray-Guided Stratified-Charge Combustion Performance with Outwardly-Opening Piezo and Multi-Hole Solenoid Injectors

2011-04-12
2011-01-1217
This investigation was aimed at measuring the relative performance of two spray-guided, single-cylinder, spark-ignited direct-injected (SIDI) engine combustion system designs. The first utilizes an outwardly-opening poppet, piezo-actuated injector, and the second a conventional, solenoid operated, inwardly-opening multi-hole injector. The single-cylinder engine tests were limited to steady state, warmed-up conditions. The comparison showed that these two spray-guided combustion systems with two very different sprays had surprisingly close results and only differed in some details. Combustion stability and smoke emissions of the systems are comparable to each other over most of the load range. Over a simulated Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle, the multi-hole system had 15% lower hydrocarbon and 18% lower carbon monoxide emissions.
Journal Article

Analysis of Various Operating Strategies for a Parallel-Hybrid Diesel Powertrain with a Belt Alternator Starter

2012-04-16
2012-01-1008
The sustainable use of energy and the reduction of pollutant emissions are main concerns of the automotive industry. In this context, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) offer significant improvements in the efficiency of the propulsion system and allow advanced strategies to reduce pollutant and noise emissions. The paper presents the results of a simulation study that addresses the minimization of fuel consumption, NOx emissions and combustion noise of a medium-size passenger car. Such a vehicle has a parallel-hybrid diesel powertrain with a high-voltage belt alternator starter. The simulation reproduces real-driver behavior through a dynamic modeling approach and actuates an automatic power split between the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and the Electric Machine (EM). Typical characteristics of parallel hybrid technologies, such as Stop&Start, regenerative braking and electric power assistance, are implemented via an operating strategy that is based on the reduction of total losses.
Journal Article

Investigation of the Load Limits and Emissions of a Naturally-Aspirated Direct-Injection Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0686
Cost and robustness are key factors in the design of diesel engines for low power density applications. Although compression ignition engines can produce very high power density output with turbocharging, naturally aspirated (NA) engines have advantages in terms of reduced cost and avoidance of system complexity. This work explores the use of direct injection (DI) and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in NA engines using experimental data from a single-cylinder research diesel engine. The engine was operated with a fixed atmospheric intake manifold pressure over a map of speed, air-to-fuel ratio, EGR, fuel injection pressure and injection timing. Conventional gaseous engine-out emissions were measured along with high speed cylinder pressure data to show the load limits and resulting emissions of the NA-DI engine studied. Well known reductions in NOX with increasing levels of EGR were confirmed with a corresponding loss in peak power output.
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