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Technical Paper

Developing the AC17 Efficiency Test for Mobile Air Conditioners

2013-04-08
2013-01-0569
Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) have collaborated over the past two years to develop an efficiency test for mobile air conditioner (MAC) systems. Because the effect of efficiency differences between different MAC systems and different technologies is relatively small compared to overall vehicle fuel consumption, quantifying these differences has been challenging. The objective of this program was to develop a single dynamic test procedure that is capable of discerning small efficiency differences, and is generally representative of mobile air conditioner usage in the United States. The test was designed to be conducted in existing test facilities, using existing equipment, and within a sufficiently short time to fit standard test facility scheduling. Representative ambient climate conditions for the U.S. were chosen, as well as other test parameters, and a solar load was included.
Technical Paper

Modeling Dynamic Stiffness of Rubber Isolators

2011-04-12
2011-01-0492
Rubber isolators and bushings are very important components for vehicle performance. However, one often finds it is difficult to get the dynamic properties to be readily used in CAE analysis, either from suppliers or from OEM's own test labs. In this paper, the author provides an analytical method to obtain the dynamic stiffness of an exhaust isolator, using ABAQUS and iSight, with tested or targeted isolator static stiffness information. The analysis contains two steps. The first step is to select the (rubber/EPDM) material properties for the FE isolator model by matching the static stiffness with either the targeted spring rate (linear or nonlinear) or the (tested) load / deflection curve. The second step is to perform dynamic analysis on the statically “validated” FE isolator model to obtain its dynamic properties.
Technical Paper

Random Frequency Response Analysis of Battery Systems Using ‘Virtual Shaker Table’

2011-04-12
2011-01-0665
This paper presents ‘Virtual Shaker Table’: a CAE method that enables random frequency structural response and random vibration fatigue analyses of a battery system. The Virtual Shaker Table method is a practical and systematic procedure that effectively assesses battery system vibration performance prior to final design, build and testing. A random structural frequency response analysis identifies the critical frequencies and modes at which the battery system is excited by random inputs. Fatigue life may be predicted after PSD stresses have been ascertained. This method enables frequency response analysis techniques to be applied quickly and accurately, thereby allowing assessment of multiple design alternatives. Virtual Shaker Table facilitates an elegant solution to some of the significant challenges inherent to complex battery system design and integration.
Technical Paper

Development of 3-D Digital Proving Ground Profiles for Use in Virtual Prediction of Vehicle System/Sub-System Loads

2011-04-12
2011-01-0189
The usage of multi-body dynamics tools for the prediction of vehicle system/sub-system loads, has significantly reduced the need to measure vehicle loads at proving grounds. The success of these tools is limited by the quality of the digital representations being used to simulate the physical test roads. The development of these digital roads is not a trivial task due to the large quantity of data and processing required. In the end, the files must be manageable in size, have a globally common format, and be simulation-friendly. The authors present a methodology for the development of high quality 3-dimensional (3-D) digital proving ground profiles. These profiles will be used in conjunction with a multi-body dynamics software package (ADAMS) and the FTire™ model. The authors present a case study below.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Diesel Injector Nozzle Flow Number Impact on Emissions and Performance of a Euro5 Automotive Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0891
The present paper describes the results of a research project aimed at studying the impact of nozzle flow number on a Euro5 automotive diesel engine, featuring Closed-Loop Combustion Control. In order to optimize the trade-offs between fuel economy, combustion noise, emissions and power density for the next generation diesel engines, general trend among OEMs is lowering nozzle flow number and, as a consequence, nozzle hole size. In this context, three nozzle configurations have been characterized on a 2.0L Euro5 Common Rail Diesel engine, coupling experimental activities performed on multi-cylinder and optical single cylinder engines to analysis on spray bomb and injector test rigs. More in detail, this paper deeply describes the investigation carried out on the multi-cylinder engine, specifically devoted to the combustion evolution and engine performance analysis, varying the injector flow number.
Technical Paper

Load Transfer Through Hybrid III Shoulder and its Possible Effect on Chest Acceleration

2011-04-12
2011-01-1096
This paper illustrates that the shoulder complex of the Hybrid III allows a load transfer from the upper extremities that can be associated with an increase of the thoracic spine acceleration. The force transferred by the Hybrid III shoulder and clavicle joints is a result of both inertial forces and contact forces acting on upper extremities. Its possible effect on the 3ms chest injury parameter raises some concerns. First, the Hybrid III shoulder joint compliance has been questioned by other publications. Second, there appears to be no documentation in the literature that supports a relationship between shoulder joint load and chest injury risk in humans. Lastly, kinematics of the upper extremities can vary from test to test, especially between different test facilities, which could contribute to variation of chest response. In this paper, original experimental and simulation data are used to explore this topic.
Journal Article

Study of the Motion of Floating Piston Pin against Pin Bore

2013-04-08
2013-01-1215
One of the major problems that the automotive industry faces is reducing friction to increase efficiency. Researchers have shown that 30% of the fuel energy was consumed to overcome the friction forces between the moving parts of any automobile, Holmberg et al. [1]. The interface of the piston pin and pin bore is one of the areas that generate high friction under severe working conditions of high temperature and lack of lubrication. In this research, experimental investigation and theoretical simulation have been carried out to analyze the motion of the floating pin against pin bore. In the experimental study, the focus was on analyzing the floating pin motion by using a bench test rig to simulate the floating pin motion in an internal combustion engine. A motion data acquisition system was developed to capture and record the pin motion. Thousands of images were recorded and later analyzed by a code written by MATLAB.
Journal Article

Dynamic Torque Characteristics of the Hydrodynamic Torque Converter

2011-05-17
2011-01-1540
The objective of this investigation is to characterize the torsional characteristics of the hydrodynamic torque converter. Analytical and experimental techniques are used to quantify the relationship between torsional oscillations imposed on the pump to those at the turbine as a function of frequency, operating point and design. A detailed model of the hydrodynamic torque converter based upon one-dimensional flow theory is used to establish fundamental torsional behavior independent of the downstream mechanical system. A simplified linear spring-mass-damper representation of the hydrodynamic torque converter is derived whose coefficients are proportional to pump speed for a particular design. A transmission dynamometer test cell with the capability to produce torsional oscillations was used to develop frequency response functions for various torque converters in a transmission, operating at steady state conditions.
Journal Article

Iterative Learning Control for a Fully Flexible Valve Actuation in a Test Cell

2012-04-16
2012-01-0162
An iterative learning control (ILC) algorithm has been developed for a test cell electro-hydraulic, fully flexible valve actuation system to track valve lift profile under steady-state and transient operation. A dynamic model of the plant was obtained from experimental data to design and verify the ILC algorithm. The ILC is implemented in a prototype controller. The learned control input for two different lift profiles can be used for engine transient tests. Simulation and bench test are conducted to verify the effectiveness and robustness of this approach. The simple structure of the ILC in implementation and low cost in computation are other crucial factors to recommend the ILC. It does not totally depend on the system model during the design procedure. Therefore, it has relatively higher robustness to perturbation and modeling errors than other control methods for repetitive tasks.
Journal Article

Understanding Driver Perceptions of a Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) Communication System Using a Test Track Demonstration

2011-04-12
2011-01-0577
Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication systems can enable a number of wireless-based vehicle features that can improve traffic safety, driver convenience, and roadway efficiency and facilitate many types of in-vehicle services. These systems have an extended communication range that can provide drivers with information about the position and movements of nearby V2Vequipped vehicles. Using this technology, these vehicles are able to communicate roadway events that are beyond the driver's view and provide advisory information that will aid drivers in avoiding collisions or congestion ahead. Given a typical communication range of 300 meters, drivers can potentially receive information well in advance of their arrival to a particular location. The timing and nature of presenting V2V information to the driver will vary depending on the nature and criticality of the scenario.
Journal Article

Scanning Frequency Ranges of Harmonic Response for a Spot-Welded Copper-Aluminum Plate Using Finite Element Method

2011-04-12
2011-01-1076
In this paper, a finite element methodology is given in which finite element models of a three-weld Al-Cu plate is created with support and loading conditions emulating those seen in an optical lab. Harmonic response is sought for the models under the presumption that various defective welds are present. The numerical results are carefully examined to determine the guideline frequency range so the actual optical experiment can be carried out more efficiently.
Journal Article

Challenges for Tire Noise Evaluation on Common Pavements

2011-05-17
2011-01-1582
Developing common methods of noise evaluation and facilities can present a number of challenges in the area of tire/pavement noise. Some of the issues involved include the design and construction of pavements globally, the change in pavement over time, and variation in the noise produced with standard test tires used as references. To help understand and address these issues for airborne tire/pavement noise, acoustic intensity measurement methods based on the On-board Sound Intensity (OBSI) technique have been used. Initial evaluations have included measurements conducted at several different proving grounds. Also included were measurements taken on a 3m diameter tire noise dynamometer with surfaces replicating test track pavements. Variation between facilities appears to be a function of both design/construction and pavement age. Consistent with trends in the literature, for smooth asphalt surfaces, the newest surface produced levels lower than older surfaces.
Journal Article

Development of a Camera-Based Forward Collision Alert System

2011-04-12
2011-01-0579
Forward Collision Alert (or Forward Collision Warning) systems provide alerts intended to assist drivers in avoiding or mitigating the harm caused by rear-end crashes. These systems currently use front-grille mounted, forward-looking radar devices as the primary sensor. In contrast, Lane Departure Warning (LDW) systems employ forward-looking cameras mounted behind the windshield to monitor lane markings ahead and warn drivers of unintended lane violations. The increasing imaging sensor resolution and processing capability of forward-looking cameras, as well recent important advances in machine vision algorithms, have pushed the state-of-the-art for camera-based features. Consequently, camera-based systems are emerging as a key crash avoidance system component in both a primary and supporting sensing role. There are currently no production vehicles with cameras used as the sole FCA sensing device.
Technical Paper

Power Modules and Inverter Evaluation for GM Electrification Architectures

2012-04-16
2012-01-0340
GM has recently developed two kinds of vehicle electrification architectures. First is VOLTec, a heavy electrification architecture, and second is eAssist, a light electrification architecture. An overview, of IGBT power modules & inverters used in VOLTec and eAssist, is presented. Alternative power modules from few cooperative suppliers are also described in a benchmarking study using key metrics. Inverter test set up, procedure and instrumentation used in GM Power Electronics Development Lab, Milford are described. GM electrification journey depends on Power Electronics lab' passive test benches; double pulse tester, inductive resistive load bench and active emulator test cell without electric machines. Such test benches are preferred before dyne test cells are used for inverter software/hardware integration and motor durability tests cycles. Specific test results are presented.
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