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OBD Challenges for Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2012-01-30
Plug-In Hybrid and Extended Range Electric Vehicle's have quickly become the focus of many OEM's and suppliers. Existing regulations and test procedures did not anticipate this rapid adoption of this new technology, resulting in many product development challenges. The lack of clear requirements is further complicated by CARBs consideration of CO2 inclusion in their next light duty OBD regulation. This presentation provides an overview of the regulatory requirements for OBD systems on hybrid vehicles that intend to certify in California. Near term challenges for EREV?s and PHEV?s are discussed, including concerns with the existing denominator and warm-up cycle calculations. Some proposals are made to address these concerns. Presenter Andrew Zettel, General Motors Company
Technical Paper

Gen2 GF6 Transmission Hardware and Controls Updates

2011-04-12
2011-01-1428
In an effort to increase fuel economy and improve shift quality - the GF6 family of General Motors transmissions has been analyzed for potential enhancements. The focus of this analysis was to improve fuel economy, while increasing downshift responsiveness, and manual mode sport delays. This paper describes a variety of the hardware philosophy changes, and control methods which have contributed to the next generation of GM clutch-to-clutch 6-speed transmissions. These changes to hardware and controls have led to a composite fuel economy improvement of 4.5% with no changes to shift or torque-converter scheduling. In addition, the downshift responsiveness has been significantly improved to reduce delay times by approximately 50% while virtually eliminating the dependency on engine torque reductions - ultimately allowing for stacked downshifts to progress with minimal, if any, time between shifts. Additionally, “tap shift” delays have been significantly decreased to levels near 150 ms.
Technical Paper

Advanced Field Study of Rollover Sensor Equipped Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-1113
General Motors (GM), OnStar and the University of Michigan International Center for Automotive Medicine (ICAM) have formed a partnership to investigate and analyze real world rollover crashes involving GM vehicles equipped with rollover sensing technology and rollover-capable roof rail airbag systems. Candidates for the study are initially identified by OnStar, who receive notification of a rollover crash through the vehicle's Automatic Crash Response system. If the customer agrees to participate in the study, medical, vehicle and crash scene information are quickly gathered. This information is then reviewed by the medical and GM engineering communities to provide field relevant learning on injury mechanisms and vehicle system performance in rollover events. This paper provides a detailed review of the field case studies collected to date.
Technical Paper

Estimating Variation in Roof Strength Test

2011-04-12
2011-01-1120
As part of the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, requirements for roof strength need to be met for all vehicles. On the other hand, automobile manufactures need to minimize vehicle mass for fuel economy and other objectives. It is important, therefore, for manufacturers to have a good understanding of the sources of variation in measured roof strength. An accurate estimation of such variation is important to achieving these objectives. This paper presents a method of using CAE simulation and vehicle tests to effectively estimate the range of variability in the roof crush tests. A number of vehicle and test variables which could potentially affect the measured roof strength were chosen, and their sensitivity was evaluated through CAE simulation. This knowledge of the sensitivity was then used to design a small number of vehicle tests, producing an estimation of the variation range in roof strength.
Technical Paper

Making Connections: Methods of Direct Interaction in Distance Learning

2011-04-12
2011-01-1107
In today's fast pace world of innovation and technology, lifelong learning has become a necessity for anyone working in industry. This is especially true for those in alternative propulsion or other such rapidly evolving fields. Universities and other learning institutions are delivering ever more Distance Learning certificates, degrees, and programs in an effort to re-tool the technical workerforce. To ensure Distance Learning programs are effective, successful, and advantageous, personal interaction and direct connection in some form between the students, industry, and academia is instrumental. Communication and interaction are vital to learning, whether it is Distance Learning or other more traditional methods, and personal interaction should not be overlooked for any of these learning delivery methods.
Technical Paper

Automotive AC System Oil Migration HFO-1234yf Vs. R134a

2011-04-12
2011-01-1173
1 As global automotive manufacturers prepare for the introduction of HFO-1234yf as the low Global Warming Potential (GWP) refrigerant solution in Europe and North America concerns over compressor durability due to oil migration still remain. This preliminary study evaluates several different variables that affect oil migration. Several compressor suppliers each having their own unique oil formulation for HFO-1234yf were included. Comparisons between vehicle tests and various accelerated lab test methods are made. In R134a automotive system the thresholds that cause compressor warranty are well understood. This study will compare AC systems running with HFO-1234yf at the same time identical systems with R134a are run to understand the relative effect of HFO-1234yf versus R134a.
Technical Paper

Comprehensive Overview of Human Interface for an Extended Range Electric Vehicle

2011-04-12
2011-01-1023
An Extended Range Electric vehicle brings a wealth of new features since it is capable of driving on battery alone, has a range extending engine, and has a high voltage battery pack that can be recharged by plugging into wall power. The customer is able to interact with the vehicle's plug-in charging system through mobile applications. Along with all these new features is the challenge of designing a driver interface to provide important information to the customer. This paper will describe the unique customer interface features added to the vehicle, and will include some additional specifics related to the hardware used to provide the information.
Technical Paper

HTC Architecture for Rapid FE Modeling

2011-04-12
2011-01-1010
This paper will present the Systems Engineering perspective of HTC (High Throughput Compute) architecture for rapid meshing and assembly that resembles HPC (High Performance Compute) cloud architecture. The architectural framework addresses the modeling requirements in CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) and CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) domains. The architecture for building a rapid modeling framework is discussed along with a brief description of the procedure to create one such application. Meshing and preparing the math model for CAE/CFD analysis is a time and computation intensive process. Reducing the meshing and model preparation time increases the possible number of analysis iterations before the final design intent model is finalized. The HTC architecture helps in relieving the effort of redevelopment for changing business requirements and provides the flexibility to meet the evolving needs of engineering.
Technical Paper

Fault-Tree Generation for Embedded Software Implementing Dual-Path Checking

2011-04-12
2011-01-1004
Given the fast changing market demands, the growing complexity of features, the shorter time to market, and the design/development constraints, the need for efficient and effective verification and validation methods are becoming critical for vehicle manufacturers and suppliers. One such example is fault-tree analysis. While fault-tree analysis is an important hazard analysis/verification activity, the current process of translating design details (e.g., system level and software level) is manual. Current experience indicates that fault tree analysis involves both creative deductive thinking and more mechanical steps, which typically involve instantiating gates and events in fault trees following fixed patterns. Specifically for software fault tree analysis, a number of the development steps typically involve instantiating fixed patterns of gates and events based upon the structure of the code. In this work, we investigate a methodology to translate software programs to fault trees.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Battery Sizing and Vehicle Lightweighting for an Extended Range Electric Vehicle

2011-04-12
2011-01-1078
In designing vehicles with significant electric driving range, optimizing vehicle energy efficiency is a key requirement to maximize the limited energy capacity of the onboard electrochemical energy storage system. A critical factor in vehicle energy efficiency is the vehicle mass. Optimizing mass allows for the possibility of either increasing electric driving range with a constant level of electrochemical energy storage or holding the range constant while reducing the level of energy storage, thus reducing storage cost. In this paper, a methodology is outlined to study the tradeoff between the battery cost savings achieved by vehicle mass reduction for a constant electric driving range and the cost associated with lightweighting a vehicle. This methodology enables informed business decisions about the available engineering options for lightweighting early in the vehicle development process. The methodology was applied to a compact extended-range electric vehicle (EREV) concept.
Technical Paper

Hood Slam Process Automator

2011-04-12
2011-01-1066
This paper deals with the development of a Hood Slam Process Automator (PA) to automate the pre-processing tasks of the virtual slam assessment with non-linear Nastran Transient Sol. 129 on all types of hoods. The slam analysis generally consumes a lot of analyst's time for building the slam models, typically six hours and is very tedious and has the potential for errors. The Hood Slam PA will automatically create and perform slam analysis pre-processing tasks within HyperMesh software such as creating latch striker interface, creating seals and bumpers with CBUSH1D elements, assigning transient slam speed to the hood and will finally generate the Nastran non-linear transient (Sol.129) hood slam analysis input files. The ready to run analysis input files will be submitted to the Nastran solver and the analysis results will then be post processed using HyperView software.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Exhaust System Design To Minimize Shipping Costs

2011-04-12
2011-01-1256
The design of an existing GM exhaust system is analyzed for possible design modifications that may result in lower shipping costs between the supplier facility that manufactures the exhaust system and the assembly plant that installs the system. Investment, changes in piece cost, and other factors are examined in order to determine design changes based upon a rate of return on the investment.
Technical Paper

SAE's Green Technology Systems Group: Focus on Environmental Sustainability for the Automotive Industry

2011-04-12
2011-01-1258
The environmental issues confronting the automotive industry are legion at a time when the industry has not been in the best position to respond. Concerns have been raised that the industry needs to be producing “green mobility products” without definition, specificity, or expression of customer need. Business infrastructure and the regulatory landscapes are uncertain, but likely to be restrictive for the automotive sector, especially with regard to the environment and green issues. Actions the automotive industry could consider include: develop a common dictionary of terms related to “green mobility products”; address the issues affecting the industry before regulations are imposed; make the Mobility Sector part of the solution; focus on being environmentally responsive, cost-saving, and time-sensitive; and assure that the Mobility Sector is recognized as a leader for new, green technology.
Technical Paper

Application of Mizenboushi (GD3) Method of Problem Prevention to Vehicle, Component and Subsystem Validation

2011-04-12
2011-01-1275
The GD₃ or GD Cubed method of problem prevention has been applied to product changes and to test results at the component, subsystem and vehicle level. GD₃ stands for Good Design - Good Discussion - Good Dissection. Good Discussion of changes (Design Review Based on Failure Mode) identifies BUDS of PROBLEMS that may arise from interfaces and areas of change. Good Dissection (Design Review Based on Test Results) is applied to physical test samples during and after tests to identify Buds of Problems that may not be obvious from inspection of the parts or test results. The paper first describes implementation of the GD₃ principles and methods supporting Good Discussion (DRBFM) and Good Dissection, and then discusses how they are applied and embedded in the Vehicle Development Process at General Motors Co.
Technical Paper

Effects of Base Stocks on Lubricant Aeration

2011-04-12
2011-01-1210
Aeration properties of lubricants is an increasing concern as the design of powertrain components, specifically transmissions, continue to become more compact leading to smaller sumps and higher pressure requirements. Although good design practices are the most important factors in mitigating the aeration level of the fluid, the fluid properties themselves are also a contributing factor. This paper investigates the aeration properties of specific base oils commonly used to formulate modern transmission fluids using the General Motors Company Aeration Bench Test found in GMN10060. The test matrix includes thirteen different fluids representing a cross-section of base oil types, manufacturers, and viscosity grades. Per the procedure found in GMN10060, the bench test measures the aeration time, de-aeration time, and percent maximum aeration of the fluid at three temperatures, 60°C, 90°C, and 120°C. In the end, the results are compared with four commercially available transmission fluids.
Technical Paper

Transmission Algorithm Development using System Simulation (Virtual Vehicle)

2011-04-12
2011-01-1233
Due to the multitude of external design constraints, such as increasing fuel economy standards, and the increasing number of global vehicle programs, developers of automotive transmission controls have had to cope with increasing levels of system complexity while at the same time being forced by the marketplace to improve system quality, reduce development costs, and improve time to market. General Motors Powertrain (GMPT) chose to meet these challenges through General Motors Company's Road-to-Lab-to-Math (RLM) strategy, particularly the Math-based method of a virtual vehicle simulation environment called System Simulation. The use of System Simulation to develop transmission control algorithms has enabled GMPT to improve product quality and reduce development times and costs associated with the dependence on physical prototypes. Additionally, System Simulation has facilitated the reuse of GMPT controls development assets, improving overall controls development efficiency.
Technical Paper

Driver Visibility: Customer Insights and Metric Development

2013-04-08
2013-01-1029
In recent years, there has been a growing interest in driver visibility. This is, in part, due to increasing emphasis placed on design factors influencing visibility such as: aerodynamics, styling, structural stiffness and vehicle packaging. During the development process of a vehicle, it is important to be able to quantify all of these factors. Visibility, however, owing to its sensory nature, has been harder to quantify. As a result, General Motors (GM) has undertaken a study to gain deeper insight into customer perceptions surrounding visibility. Clinics were conducted to help determine the relative importance of different metrics. The paper also explores several new metrics that can help predict customer satisfaction based on vehicle configuration.
Technical Paper

Developing the AC17 Efficiency Test for Mobile Air Conditioners

2013-04-08
2013-01-0569
Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) have collaborated over the past two years to develop an efficiency test for mobile air conditioner (MAC) systems. Because the effect of efficiency differences between different MAC systems and different technologies is relatively small compared to overall vehicle fuel consumption, quantifying these differences has been challenging. The objective of this program was to develop a single dynamic test procedure that is capable of discerning small efficiency differences, and is generally representative of mobile air conditioner usage in the United States. The test was designed to be conducted in existing test facilities, using existing equipment, and within a sufficiently short time to fit standard test facility scheduling. Representative ambient climate conditions for the U.S. were chosen, as well as other test parameters, and a solar load was included.
Technical Paper

Determination of Vehicle Frontal Area Using Image Processing

2013-04-08
2013-01-0203
The projected frontal area of a vehicle has a significant impact on aerodynamic drag, and thus is an important parameter, for vehicle development, benchmarking, and modeling. However, determining vehicle frontal area can be tedious, time consuming, expensive, or inaccurate. Existing methods include analysis of engineering drawings, vehicle projections, 3D scanners, planimeter measurements from photographs, and estimations using vehicle dimensions. Currently accepted approximation methods can be somewhat unreliable. This study focuses on introducing a method to find vehicle frontal area using digital images and subtraction functions via MATLABs' Image Processing Toolbox. In addition to an overview of the method, this paper describes several variables that were examined to optimize and improve the process such as camera position, surface glare, and vehicle shadow effects.
Technical Paper

Temperature Effects on the Deformation and Fracture of a Quenched-and-Partitioned Steel

2013-04-08
2013-01-0610
Temperature effects on the deformation and fracture of a commercially produced transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steel subject to a two-step quenching and partitioning (Q&P) heat treatment are investigated. Strain field evolution at room temperature is quantified in this 980 MPa grade Q&P steel with a stereo digital image correlation (DIC) technique from quasi-static tensile tests of specimens with 0°, 45°, and 90° orientations. Baseline tensile properties along with the variation of the instantaneous hardening index with strain were computed. Variations of the bake-hardening index were explored under simulated paint bake conditions. Tensile properties were measured at selected temperatures between -100°C and 200°C and the TRIP effect was found to be temperature-dependent due to stress-induced martensitic transformation at lower temperatures versus strain-induced transformation at higher temperatures.
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