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Technical Paper

Reducing Disturbances Caused by Reductions in Regenerative Brake Torque

2011-04-12
2011-01-0972
This paper presents a method to reduce the number of occurrences of vehicle deceleration disturbances due to the reduction of regenerative braking in the presence of wheel slip. Usually, regenerative braking is disabled when wheel slip is detected in order to allow the ABS system to efficiently cycle brake pressure. When this happens, the vehicle will momentarily lose deceleration due to the reduction in both regenerative brake torque and friction brake pressure, until friction brake pressure is reapplied. Some ABS activations can be defined as nuisance events, in which full ABS control is not necessary and is exited rapidly; for example, a vehicle driving through a pothole. In these cases it is desirable to continue regenerative braking in order to keep vehicle deceleration as smooth as possible.
Technical Paper

Hardware in the Loop Simulation - Economic Commission Europe Category C Brake Assist System

2011-04-12
2011-01-0955
Brake Assist System (BAS) requirements have been established by the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) in R13H. Electronic Stability Control (ESC) systems typically have the value added function of Panic Brake Assist (PBA) which is defined as a Category C (sensitive to multiple criteria) Brake Assist System. PBA is designed to force the vehicle into Antilock Brake System (ABS) and to maintain ABS control when the driver spikes the brake pedal and then temporarily reduces brake pedal force before reasserting more brake pedal force. ECE test protocol requires the use of brake ramp applications to define the mean acceleration force (maF) curve which is used to define the brake pedal force where ABS activates (FABS). After completing the brake ramp application test maneuvers and completing the data processing to define the maF curve, FABS, upper, and FABS, lower, the test driver then proceeds to run the panic brake assist portion of the test.
Technical Paper

Relative Torque Estimation on Transmission Output Shaft with Speed Sensors

2011-04-12
2011-01-0392
Automobile drivers/passengers perceive automatic transmission (AT) shift quality through the torque transferred by transmission output shaft, so that torque regulation is critical in transmission shift control and etc. However, since a physical torque sensor is expensive, current shift control in AT is usually achieved by tracking a turbine speed profile due to the lack of the transmission output torque information. A direct torque feedback has long been desired for transmission shift control enhancement. This paper addresses a “virtual” torque sensor (VTS) algorithm that can provide an accurate estimate on the torque variation in the vehicle transmission output shaft using (existing) speed sensors. We have developed the algorithm using both the transmission output speed sensor and anti-lock braking system speed sensors. Practical solutions are provided to enhance the accuracy of the algorithm. The algorithm has been successfully implemented on both FWD and RWD vehicles.
Technical Paper

Analytical Evaluation of Propulsion System Architectures for Future Urban Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0861
Today, nearly half of the world population lives in urban areas. As the world population continues to migrate to urban areas for increased economic opportunities, addressing personal mobility challenges such as air pollution, Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) and traffic congestion in these regions will become even a greater challenge especially in rapidly growing nations. Road transportation is a major source of air pollution in urban areas causing numerous health concerns. Improvements in automobile technology over the past several decades have resulted in reducing conventional vehicle tailpipe emissions to exceptionally low levels. This transformation has been attained mainly through advancements in engine and transmission technologies and through partial electrification of vehicles. However, the technological advancements made so far alone will not be able to mitigate the issues due to increasing GHGs and air pollution in urban areas.
Technical Paper

An Approach to the Safety Design and Development of a Brake-by-Wire Control System

2011-04-12
2011-01-0212
The increasing usage of brake-by-wire systems in the automotive industry has provided manufacturers with the opportunity to improve both vehicle and manufacturing efficiency. The replacement of traditional mechanical and hydraulic control systems with electronic control devices presents different potential vehicle-level safety hazards than those presented by conventional braking systems. The proper design, development, and integration of a brake-by-wire control system requires that hazards are reasonably prevented or mitigated in order to maximize the safety of the vehicle operator, occupant(s), and passers-by.
Journal Article

Analysis of Various Operating Strategies for a Parallel-Hybrid Diesel Powertrain with a Belt Alternator Starter

2012-04-16
2012-01-1008
The sustainable use of energy and the reduction of pollutant emissions are main concerns of the automotive industry. In this context, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) offer significant improvements in the efficiency of the propulsion system and allow advanced strategies to reduce pollutant and noise emissions. The paper presents the results of a simulation study that addresses the minimization of fuel consumption, NOx emissions and combustion noise of a medium-size passenger car. Such a vehicle has a parallel-hybrid diesel powertrain with a high-voltage belt alternator starter. The simulation reproduces real-driver behavior through a dynamic modeling approach and actuates an automatic power split between the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and the Electric Machine (EM). Typical characteristics of parallel hybrid technologies, such as Stop&Start, regenerative braking and electric power assistance, are implemented via an operating strategy that is based on the reduction of total losses.
Journal Article

Development of General Motors' eAssist Powertrain

2012-04-16
2012-01-1039
General Motors' (GM) eAssist powertrain builds upon the knowledge and experience gained from GM's first generation 36Volt Belt-Alternator-Starter (BAS) system introduced on the Saturn VUE Green Line in 2006. Extensive architectural trade studies were conducted to define the eAssist system. The resulting architecture delivers approximately three times the peak electric boost and regenerative braking capability of 36V BAS. Key elements include a water-cooled induction motor/generator (MG), an accessory drive with a coupled dual tensioner system, air cooled power electronics integrated with a 115V lithium-ion battery pack, a direct-injection 2.4 liter 4-cylinder gasoline engine, and a modified 6-speed automatic transmission. The torque-based control system of the eAssist powertrain was designed to be fully integrated with GM's corporate common electrical and controls architectures, enabling the potential for broad application across GM's global product portfolio.
Journal Article

Understanding Driver Perceptions of a Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) Communication System Using a Test Track Demonstration

2011-04-12
2011-01-0577
Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication systems can enable a number of wireless-based vehicle features that can improve traffic safety, driver convenience, and roadway efficiency and facilitate many types of in-vehicle services. These systems have an extended communication range that can provide drivers with information about the position and movements of nearby V2Vequipped vehicles. Using this technology, these vehicles are able to communicate roadway events that are beyond the driver's view and provide advisory information that will aid drivers in avoiding collisions or congestion ahead. Given a typical communication range of 300 meters, drivers can potentially receive information well in advance of their arrival to a particular location. The timing and nature of presenting V2V information to the driver will vary depending on the nature and criticality of the scenario.
Journal Article

Light Vehicle Dry Stopping Distance - Vehicle Speed Correction, Tire Burnish, and Surface Friction Correction

2011-04-12
2011-01-0966
Consistent and accurate vehicle stopping distance measurements have been difficult to achieve across the industry including media vehicle evaluations. Initial test speed, brake pedal force application, tire burnish, road surface friction, and Anti-lock Brake System (ABS) efficiency are five test variables influencing variation in stopping distance measurements. This paper will discuss these five test variables and how to apply consistent test methods to reduce test variation.
Journal Article

FMVSS126 Electronic Stability Control Sine With Dwell Incomplete Vehicle Type 2 Analysis

2011-04-12
2011-01-0956
Incomplete vehicles are partially manufactured by an Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) and subsequently sold to and completed by a final-stage manufacturer. Section S8.8, Final-Stage Manufacturers and Alterers, of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 126 states “Vehicle that are manufactured in two or more stages or that are altered (within the meaning of 49 CFR 567.7) after having been previously certified in accordance with Part 567 of this chapter, are not subject to the requirements of S8.1 through S8.5. Instead, all vehicles produced by these manufacturers on or after September 1, 2012, must comply with this standard.” The FMVSS 126 compliance of the completed vehicle can be certified in three ways: by the OEM provided no alterations are made to identified components (TYPE 1), conditionally by the OEM provided the final-stage manufacturer follows specific guidelines (TYPE 2), or by the final-stage manufacturer (TYPE 3).
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