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Technical Paper

Application of Failure Plastic Strain to Quasi-Static Finite Element Analysis for Projection Weld and Strain-based Spot Weld Evaluation

2011-04-12
2011-01-1074
One of the most critical and important fracture mechanisms in a FMVSS207/210/225[1] test is the pull-thru of bolts from the body structure or spot weld separation. There are no analytically proven methods of making a judgment of pull-thru occurring except through evaluation of the plastic strain or through the thickness strain value around projection welds on Weld nut/stud bolt or spot welds. Therefore it is essential to have accurate criteria to evaluate the pull-thru. During elastic deformation, the sheet steel deforms while the quasi-static force is being applied and then returns to its original shape when the force is released. But when the force causes a stress that exceeds the yield strength, the sheet steel will permanently elongate with each additional unit of force applied, and it will not return to its original shape and size.
Technical Paper

Modeling Dynamic Stiffness of Rubber Isolators

2011-04-12
2011-01-0492
Rubber isolators and bushings are very important components for vehicle performance. However, one often finds it is difficult to get the dynamic properties to be readily used in CAE analysis, either from suppliers or from OEM's own test labs. In this paper, the author provides an analytical method to obtain the dynamic stiffness of an exhaust isolator, using ABAQUS and iSight, with tested or targeted isolator static stiffness information. The analysis contains two steps. The first step is to select the (rubber/EPDM) material properties for the FE isolator model by matching the static stiffness with either the targeted spring rate (linear or nonlinear) or the (tested) load / deflection curve. The second step is to perform dynamic analysis on the statically “validated” FE isolator model to obtain its dynamic properties.
Technical Paper

Design, Analysis, and Development Testing of Large Hood Plastic Mounted Trim Components

2011-04-12
2011-01-0490
Large hood mounted plastic trim components are subjected to complex and often extreme loading conditions. Typical loading conditions include solar and thermal cycling, as well as road and powertrain induced vibrations, aero lift and buffeting, and mechanical loads such as car wash. For the above components understanding and classifying the typical loading conditions is an essential and important step in achieving long term quality. This paper discusses different approaches to the design, analysis, development, and testing of plastic trim components. Samples of analysis and test results are presented to demonstrate how to identify and prevent the loss of the part function. Some useful guidelines and practices for addressing thermal expansion, dimensional variation, and redundancy in attachments are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Understanding CAE Needs for Data on Plastics - A Materials Engineer's Perspective

2011-04-12
2011-01-0015
Delivering the appropriate material data for CAE analysis of plastic components is not as straight forward as it would seem to be. While a few of the properties typically used by resin manufacturers and material engineers to describe a plastic are useful to the analysis community (density, CLTE), most are not (flexural modulus, notched izod). In addition some properties such as yield stress are defined differently by the analysis community than by the materials community. Lastly, secondary operations such as painting or chrome plating significantly change the behavior of components with plastic substrates. The materials engineering community and the CAE analysis community must work together closely to develop the material data necessary to increase the capability of the analysis. This paper will examine case studies where these issues have required modifications to the material property data to increase the fidelity of the CAE analysis.
Technical Paper

Plating on Plastics - Adhesion Testing

2011-04-12
2011-01-0226
Decoratively plated plastic parts continue to be in high demand. One of the essential and challenging features of these finished goods is the adhesion between the metal plating and the plastic. As is the case with any bond between metals and plastics, combating the force from dissimilar thermal growth is an ongoing concern. When a plated plastic part is frozen and the plastic contracts, the failure mode for the plating manifests as a blister or “worm track”. On the other hand, when high heat causes plating failures from growth of the plastic, the problem is one of cracking in the plating. In this study, two methods are discussed that provide insight into the strength of the bond between the metal plating and the ABS and ABS+PC plastics. Peel testing is one means to evaluate the strength of the plating to plastic bond. Peel testing methodology and results are reported for both ABS and ABS+PC samples. A second means to evaluate the bond strength is through thermal cycle testing.
Technical Paper

Dimensional Quality Control of Repeated Molded Polymer Battery Cell Housings in Automotive Energy Systems

2011-04-12
2011-01-0244
Current manufacture of alternative energy sources for automobiles, such as fuel cells and lithium-ion batteries, uses repeating energy modules to achieve targeted balances of power and weight for varying types of vehicles. Specifically for lithium-ion batteries, tens to hundreds of identical plastic parts are assembled in a repeating fashion; this assembly of parts requires complex dimensional planning and high degrees of quality control. This paper will address the aspects of dimensional quality for repeated, injection molded thermoplastic battery components and will include the following: First, dimensional variation associated with thermoplastic components is considered. Sources of variation include the injection molding process, tooling or mold, lot-to-lot material differences, and varying types of environmental exposure. Second, mold tuning and cavity matching between molds for multi-cavity production will be analyzed.
Technical Paper

Determination of Molding Parameter Effects on the Physical Properties of a Carbon Powder Filled, Impact Modified Acetal Copolymer

2011-04-12
2011-01-0250
Polyacetals have high strength, modulus, and chemical resistance with good dimensional stability. Because of these properties, they are used in a number of automotive applications. The injection molding process used for the molding of these components is complex and requires the adjustment of multiple process parameters to produce parts. Typically, physical tests are used to confirm that tensile strength is achieved in processing. A study was undertaken with an impact modified carbon powder filled, acetal copolymer to determine the effect of variation in process parameters on other material properties in addition to tensile strength. These material properties were measured dry as-molded and after exposure to heat and to a test fluid. It was determined that in the case of this specific polymer, the barrel temperature, and to a lesser extent the cooling time during processing, affected the strain at break.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Mechanical Behavior of Thermoplastics with Local Deformation Measurement

2012-04-16
2012-01-0040
In quasi-static tension and compression tests of thermoplastics, full-field strain distribution on the gage section of the specimen can be captured using the two-dimensional digital image correlation method. By loading the test specimens made of a talc-filled and impact-modified polypropylene up to tensile failure and large compressive strains, this study has revealed that inhomogeneous deformation within the gage section occurs quite early for both test types. This leads to the challenge of characterizing the mechanical properties - some mechanical properties such as stress-strain relationship and fracture strain could depend on the measured section length and location. To study this problem, the true stress versus true strain curves determined locally in different regions within the gage length are compared.
Journal Article

Effect of Temperature and Aeration on Fluid-Elastomer Compatibility

2013-04-08
2013-01-0652
To investigate the effect of aeration on fluid-elastomer compatibility, 4 types of elastomers were aged in three gear lubes. The four types of elastomers include a production fluorinated rubber (FKM) and production hydrogenated nitrile rubber (HNBR) mixed by the part fabricator, a standard low temperature flexible fluorinated rubber (FKM, ES-4) and a standard ethylene-acrylic copolymer (AEM, ES-7) mixed by SAE J2643 approved rubber mixer. The three gear lubes are Fluid a, Fluid b and Fluid c, where Fluid b is a modified Fluid with additional friction modifier, and Fluid c is friction modified chemistry from a different additive supplier. The aeration effect tests were performed at 125°C for 504 hours. The aerated fluid aging test was performed by introducing air into fluid aging tubes as described in General Motors Company Materials Specification GMW16445, Appendix B, side-by-side with a standard ASTM D471 test.
Journal Article

Development of Additional SAE J2643 Standard Reference Elastomers

2011-04-12
2011-01-0017
The first set of SAE J2643 Standard Reference Elastomers (SRE) was developed in 2004. It was composed of a group of 10 compounds covering multiple elastomer families. Since then, more advanced materials from many elastomer families have been introduced to the automotive industry. The purpose of this study is to add a few more reference compounds to SAE J2643, to enhance the portfolio on FKM, AEM and ACM to reflect advancements in elastomer technology, and make it suitable for a variety of fluids, such as transmission fluid and engine oil. Fourteen standard elastomer compounds were involved in this study, covering various materials currently used in automotive powertrain static and dynamic sealing applications. Participants include OEMs, major rubber manufacturers, a fluid additive company and an independent lab. Manufacturers of each test compound provided formulations, designated ingredients from defined sources, and detailed mixing and molding procedures.
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