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Technical Paper

Wrought Magnesium Components for Automotive Chassis Applications

2011-04-12
2011-01-0077
Automotive structural components are exposed to high loads, impact situations and corrosion. In addition, there may be temperature excursions that introduce creep as well as reduced modulus (stiffness). These issues have limited the use of light metals in automotive structural applications primarily to aluminum alloys, and primarily to cast wheels and knuckles (only a few of which are forged), cast brake calipers, and cast control arms. This paper reports on research performed at Chongqing University, Chongqing China, under the auspices of General Motors engineering and directed by the first author, to develop a protocol that uses wrought magnesium in control arms. The goal was to produce a chassis part that could provide the same engineering function as current cast aluminum applications; and since magnesium is 33% less dense than aluminum, would be lighter.
Technical Paper

Lightweight MacPherson Strut Suspension Front Lower Control Arm Design Development

2011-04-12
2011-01-0562
The paper will discuss the results of a study to develop lightweight steel proof-of-concept front lower control arm (FLCA) designs that are less expensive and achieve equivalent structural performance relative to a baseline forged aluminum FLCA assembly. A current production forged aluminum OEM sedan FLCA assembly was selected as an aggressive mass target based on competitive benchmarking of vehicles of its size. CAE structural optimization methods were used to determine the initial candidate sheet steel and forged designs. Two (2) sheet steel FLCA designs and one (1) forged steel FLCA design were selected and developed to meet specified performance criteria. An iterative optimization strategy was used to minimize the mass of each design while meeting the specified stiffness, durability, extreme load, and longitudinal buckling strength requirements.
Technical Paper

A Methodology for Evaluating Body Architecture Concepts Using Technical Cost Modeling

2011-04-12
2011-01-0767
The ability to make accurate decisions concerning early body-in-white architectures is critical to an automaker since these decisions often have long term cost and weight impacts. We address this need with a methodology which can be used to assist in body architecture decisions using process-based technical cost modeling (TCM) as a filter to evaluate alternate designs. Despite the data limitations of early design concepts, TCM can be used to identify key trends for cost-effectiveness between design variants. A compact body-in-white architecture will be used as a case study to illustrate this technique. The baseline steel structure will be compared to several alternate aluminum intensive structures in the context of production volume.
Journal Article

Self-Pierce Riveting of Magnesium to Aluminum Alloys

2011-04-12
2011-01-0074
Magnesium and aluminum alloys offer lightweighting opportunities in automotive applications. Joining of dissimilar materials, however, generally requires methods that do not involve fusion. This paper explores the use of self-pierce riveting (SPR) to join magnesium to aluminum alloys for structural and closure applications. The preliminary results indicate that SPR is a viable option for joining aluminum extrusions to magnesium die castings, as well as stamped sheet aluminum to quick-plastic-formed (QPF) sheet magnesium.
Journal Article

Fatigue Behavior and Life Prediction for Aluminum Castings in the Absence of Casting Flaws

2011-04-12
2011-01-0193
Cast aluminum alloys are increasingly used in cyclically loaded automotive structural applications for light weight and fuel economy. The fatigue resistance of aluminum castings strongly depends upon the presence of casting flaws and characteristics of microstructural constituents. The existence of casting flaws significantly reduces fatigue crack initiation life. In the absence of casting flaws, however, crack initiation occurs at the fatigue-sensitive microstructural constituents. Cracking and debonding of large silicon (Si) and Fe-rich intermetallic particles and crystallographic shearing from persistent slip bands in the aluminum matrix play an important role in crack initiation. This paper presents fatigue life models for aluminum castings free of casting flaws, which complement the fatigue life models for aluminum castings containing casting flaws published in [1].
Journal Article

Virtual Manufacturability Analyzer for Casting Components

2011-04-12
2011-01-0528
There is an increasing demand in automated manufacturability analysis of metal castings at the initial stages of their design. This paper presents a system developed for virtual manufacturability analysis of casting components. The system can be used by a casting designer to evaluate manufacturability of a part designed for various manufacture processes including casting, heat treatment, and machining. The system uses computational geometrics and geometric reasoning to extract manufacturing features and geometry characteristics from a part CAD model. It uses an expert system and a design database consisting of metal casting, heat treatment and machining process knowledge and rules to present manufacturability analysis results and advice to the designer. Application of the system is demonstrated for the manufacturability assessment of automotive cast aluminum components.
Journal Article

A Demonstration of Local Heat Treatment for the Preform Annealing Process

2011-04-12
2011-01-0538
The preform annealing process is a two-stage stamping method for shaping non age-hardenable (i.e. 5000 series) aluminum sheet panels in which the panel is heat treated in between the two steps to improve overall formability of the material. The intermediate annealing heat treatment eliminates the cold work accumulated in the material during the first draw. The process enables the ability to form more complex parts than a conventional aluminum stamping process. A demonstration of local annealing for this process was conducted to form a one-piece aluminum liftgate inner panel for a large sport utility vehicle using the steel product geometry without design concessions. In prior work, this process was demonstrated by placing the entire panel in a convection oven for several minutes to completely anneal the cold work.
Journal Article

Modeling of Residual Stresses in Quenched Cast Aluminum Components

2011-04-12
2011-01-0539
Cast aluminum alloys are normally quenched after solution treatment or solidification process to improve aging responses. Rapid quenching can lead to high residual stress and severe distortion which significantly affects dimension stability, functionality and particularly performance of the product. To simulate residual stress and distortion induced during quenching, a finite element based approach was developed by coupling an iterative zone-based transient heat transfer algorithm with material thermo-viscoplastic constitutive model. With the integrated models, the numeric predictions of residual stresses and distortion in the quenched aluminum castings are in a good agreement with experimental measurements.
Journal Article

The Effect of Surface Finish on Aluminum Sheet Friction Behavior

2011-04-12
2011-01-0534
Aluminum sheet is commercially available in three surface finishes, mill finish (MF), electric discharge texture (EDT), and dull finish (DF). This surface finish impacts the friction behavior during sheet metal forming. A study was done to compare ten commercially available sheet samples from several suppliers. The friction behavior was characterized in the longitudinal and transverse directions using a Draw Bead Simulator (DBS) test, resulting in a coefficient of friction (COF) value for each material. Characterization of the friction behavior in each direction provides useful data for formability analysis. To quantitatively characterize the surface finish, three-dimensional MicroTexture measurements were done with a WYKO NT8000 instrument. In general, the MF samples have the smoothest surface, with Sa values of 0.20-0.30 μm and the lowest COF values. The EDT samples have the roughest surface, with Sa values of 0.60-1.00 μm, and the highest COF values.
Journal Article

Effects on Surface Roughness and Friction on Aluminum Sheet under Plain Strain Cyclic Bending and Tension

2011-04-12
2011-01-0535
During sheet metal forming, the friction and surface roughness change as the sheet slides, bends and stretches against the tools. This study assessed evolution of friction and surface roughness changes on aluminum sheet with two surface finish conditions, mill finish (MF) and electron discharge texture (EDT), in both the longitudinal and the transverse rolling directions of the sheet. The sheets were tested using a three pin Draw Bead Simulator (DBS). Surface roughness of the sheet evolved as a result of bending at the first shoulder, reverse bending at the middle pin, bending at the second shoulder and unbending at the exit. Stretching conditions and sheet-pin contact were also varied to see the impact on surface roughness. In general, the largest surface roughness change for the transverse direction was observed at the convex side of the exit shoulder pin and on the convex side of the first shoulder for the longitudinal direction.
Journal Article

Formability Analysis Predictions for Preform Annealing of Aluminum Sheet

2011-04-12
2011-01-0533
It is important to understand the accuracy level of the formability analysis for any new process so that correct predictions can be made in product and die design. This report focuses on the formability analysis methodology developed for the preform anneal process. In this process, the aluminum panel is partially formed, annealed to eliminate the cold work from the first step, and then formed to the final shape using the same die. This process has the ability to form more complex parts than conventional aluminum stamping, and has been demonstrated on a complex one-piece door inner and a complex one-piece liftgate inner with AA5182-O3. Both panels only required slight design modifications to the original steel product geometry. This report focuses on the formability analysis correlation with physical panels for the liftgate inner, considering both full panel anneal in a convection oven and local annealing of critical areas.
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