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Technical Paper

Comparisons of Current Concepts for Press Hardened Steel Tailor Welded Blanks and Tailor Rolled Blanks on Center Pillar Reinforcements

2011-04-12
2011-01-1059
Press hardened steels (PHS) are commonly used in automotive structural applications because of their combination of extremely high strength, load carrying capacity and the ability to form complex shapes in the press hardening process. Recent adoption of increased roof crush standards, side impact requirements and the increased focus on CO2 emissions and mass reduction have led autmotive manufacturers to significantly increase the amount of PHS being designed into future vehicle designs. As a way to further optimize the use of these steels, multi-gauge welded blanks of PHS and multi-material blanks of PHS to microalloyed steels of various thickness have been developed to help achieve these requirements. More recently, tailor rolled PHS, whereby the steel is rolled such that the thickness changes across the width of the sheet, have been developed.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Stamping Tooling Durability for Dual Phase Steels

2011-04-12
2011-01-1060
Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS) have become an essential part of the lightweighting strategy for automotive body structures. The ability to fully realize the benefits of AHSS depends upon the ability to aggressively form, trim, and pierce these steels into challenging parts. Tooling wear has been a roadblock to stamping these materials. Traditional die materials and designs have shown significant problems with accelerated wear, galling and die pickup, and premature wear and breakage of pierce punches. [1] This paper identifies and discusses the tribological factors that contribute to the successful stamping of AHSS. This includes minimizing tool wear and galling/die pick-up; identifying the most effective pierce clearance (wear vs. burr height) when piercing AHSS; and determining optimal die material and coating performance for tooling stamping AHSS.
Technical Paper

Temperature Effects on the Deformation and Fracture of a Quenched-and-Partitioned Steel

2013-04-08
2013-01-0610
Temperature effects on the deformation and fracture of a commercially produced transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steel subject to a two-step quenching and partitioning (Q&P) heat treatment are investigated. Strain field evolution at room temperature is quantified in this 980 MPa grade Q&P steel with a stereo digital image correlation (DIC) technique from quasi-static tensile tests of specimens with 0°, 45°, and 90° orientations. Baseline tensile properties along with the variation of the instantaneous hardening index with strain were computed. Variations of the bake-hardening index were explored under simulated paint bake conditions. Tensile properties were measured at selected temperatures between -100°C and 200°C and the TRIP effect was found to be temperature-dependent due to stress-induced martensitic transformation at lower temperatures versus strain-induced transformation at higher temperatures.
Technical Paper

An Experimental and Numerical Study of the Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of an Extruded Magnesium Alloy at 450 °C and Varied Strain Rates

2013-04-08
2013-01-0976
An extruded Mg-Al-Mn (AM30) magnesium alloy was subjected to uniaxial compression along the extrusion direction (ED) and the extrusion radial direction (RaD) at 450 °C and different strain rates. The microstructure and texture of the AM30 alloy under different deformation conditions were examined. Texture evolution was characterized by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The activity of different deformation modes including twinning were simulated using the visco-plastic self-consistent (VPSC) and the simplistic Sachs polycrystal plasticity models. The results show that the microstructure and the mechanical property of the Mg alloy strongly depend on the strain rate, with twinning activated at strain rates >0.5 s−1. Dynamic recrystallization and twinning interacted with each other and affected the final microstructure and mechanical property of the magnesium alloy.
Technical Paper

Optimization of High-Volume Warm Forming for Lightweight Sheet

2013-04-08
2013-01-1170
Traditional warm forming of aluminum refers to sheet forming in the temperature range of 200°C to 350°C using heated, matched die sets similar to conventional stamping. While the benefits of this process can include design freedom, improved dimensional capability and potentially reduced cycle times, the process is complex and requires expensive, heated dies. The objective of this work was to develop a warm forming process that both retains the benefits of traditional warm forming while allowing for the use of lower-cost tooling. Enhanced formability characteristics of aluminum sheet have been observed when there is a prescribed temperature difference between the die and the sheet; often referred to as a non-isothermal condition. This work, which was supported by the USCAR-AMD initiative, demonstrated the benefits of the non-isothermal warm forming approach on a full-scale door inner panel. Finite element analysis was used to guide the design of the die face and blank shape.
Technical Paper

A Fatigue Prediction Method for Spot Welded Joints

2013-04-08
2013-01-1208
Generally linear finite element analysis (FEA) is used to predict fatigue life of spot welded joints in a vehicle body structure. Therefore, the effect of plastic deformation at the vicinity of the spot welded joints is not included on fatigue prediction. This study introduces a simple technique to include the plastic deformation effect without performing elastic-plastic finite element analysis. The S-N curve obtained from fatigue test results is modified to consider this effect. Tensile strength test results of spot welded joint specimens were utilized to find the load range for FEA equivalent to the applied load range for fatigue tests. To demonstrate the proposed approach, fatigue test results of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) for lap-shear and coach peel specimens were used. Both the specimen types were tested at various constant amplitudes with the load ratios of R=0.1 and 0.3.
Technical Paper

Wrought Magnesium Components for Automotive Chassis Applications

2011-04-12
2011-01-0077
Automotive structural components are exposed to high loads, impact situations and corrosion. In addition, there may be temperature excursions that introduce creep as well as reduced modulus (stiffness). These issues have limited the use of light metals in automotive structural applications primarily to aluminum alloys, and primarily to cast wheels and knuckles (only a few of which are forged), cast brake calipers, and cast control arms. This paper reports on research performed at Chongqing University, Chongqing China, under the auspices of General Motors engineering and directed by the first author, to develop a protocol that uses wrought magnesium in control arms. The goal was to produce a chassis part that could provide the same engineering function as current cast aluminum applications; and since magnesium is 33% less dense than aluminum, would be lighter.
Technical Paper

Lightweight MacPherson Strut Suspension Front Lower Control Arm Design Development

2011-04-12
2011-01-0562
The paper will discuss the results of a study to develop lightweight steel proof-of-concept front lower control arm (FLCA) designs that are less expensive and achieve equivalent structural performance relative to a baseline forged aluminum FLCA assembly. A current production forged aluminum OEM sedan FLCA assembly was selected as an aggressive mass target based on competitive benchmarking of vehicles of its size. CAE structural optimization methods were used to determine the initial candidate sheet steel and forged designs. Two (2) sheet steel FLCA designs and one (1) forged steel FLCA design were selected and developed to meet specified performance criteria. An iterative optimization strategy was used to minimize the mass of each design while meeting the specified stiffness, durability, extreme load, and longitudinal buckling strength requirements.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Strain on Stainless Steel Surface Finish

2011-04-12
2011-01-0774
The bright surface finish of exterior automotive moldings made from stainless steel can become hazed and reflections distorted as a result of forming done during the manufacturing processes. Bright moldings are frequently used to give styling differentiation accents to vehicle exteriors. Stainless steel provides cost effective differentiation with a material that is durable and relatively easy to form to shapes desired by the stylist. Because of the desirable attributes of stainless steel, an understanding of the threshold of unacceptable surface appearance is necessary to maximize showroom appeal and avoid customer complaints that result in warranty claims. This paper quantifies the effect that manufacturing strain and strain rate have on the surface finish of 436M2 stainless steel. Controlled experiments were conducted on production grade stainless steel strips subjected to a variety of strain and strain rates typical of manufacturing processes.
Technical Paper

A Methodology for Evaluating Body Architecture Concepts Using Technical Cost Modeling

2011-04-12
2011-01-0767
The ability to make accurate decisions concerning early body-in-white architectures is critical to an automaker since these decisions often have long term cost and weight impacts. We address this need with a methodology which can be used to assist in body architecture decisions using process-based technical cost modeling (TCM) as a filter to evaluate alternate designs. Despite the data limitations of early design concepts, TCM can be used to identify key trends for cost-effectiveness between design variants. A compact body-in-white architecture will be used as a case study to illustrate this technique. The baseline steel structure will be compared to several alternate aluminum intensive structures in the context of production volume.
Technical Paper

Effects of Gage Section Geometry on Tensile Material Properties by Digital Image Correlation

2012-04-16
2012-01-0184
Accurate material property data in both the elastic and plastic ranges of deformation is essential for accurate material representation in finite element simulations of vehicle systems. Variation of post formed material properties across a part are often of interest in different types of analyses, such as metal forming or fatigue life, for example. Depending on a part's shape it is not always possible to cut standard size tensile test specimens from all areas of interest across the part. Smaller size specimens with curved or tapered gage section may have to be used to promote strain localization and fracture at or near the gage center. This paper presents comparison of quasi-static tensile properties determined using two specimen gage section geometries, straight and tapered. Specifically, the following questions are addressed. How do the engineering strains computed from two-dimensional strain fields obtained by DIC compare to strains measured during standard tensile tests?
Journal Article

Evaluation of Prog-Die Wear Properties on Bare DP1180 Steel

2017-03-28
2017-01-0310
The die wear up to 80,800 hits on a prog-die setup for bare DP1180 steel was investigated in real production condition. In total, 31 die inserts with the combination of 11 die materials and 9 coatings were evaluated. The analytical results of die service life for each insert were provided by examining the evolution of surface wear on inserts and formed parts. The moments of appearance of die defects, propagation of die defects, and catastrophic failure were determined. Moreover, the surface roughness of the formed parts for each die insert was characterized using Wyko NT110 machine. The objectives of the current study are to evaluate the die durability of various tooling materials and coatings for flange operations on bare DP 1180 steel and update OEM tooling standards based on the experimental results. The current study provides the guidance for the die material and coating selections in large volume production for next generation AHSSs.
Journal Article

Self-Pierce Riveting of Magnesium to Aluminum Alloys

2011-04-12
2011-01-0074
Magnesium and aluminum alloys offer lightweighting opportunities in automotive applications. Joining of dissimilar materials, however, generally requires methods that do not involve fusion. This paper explores the use of self-pierce riveting (SPR) to join magnesium to aluminum alloys for structural and closure applications. The preliminary results indicate that SPR is a viable option for joining aluminum extrusions to magnesium die castings, as well as stamped sheet aluminum to quick-plastic-formed (QPF) sheet magnesium.
Journal Article

Structural Evaluation of an Experimental Aluminum/Magnesium Decklid

2011-04-12
2011-01-0075
Experimental decklids for the Cadillac STS sedan were made with Al AA5083 sheet outer panels and Mg AZ31B sheet inner panels using regular-production forming processes and hardware. Joining and coating processes were developed to accommodate the unique properties of Mg. Assembled decklids were evaluated for dimensional accuracy, slam durability, and impact response. The assemblies performed very well in these tests. Explicit and implicit finite element simulations of decklids were conducted, and showed that the Al/Mg decklids have good stiffness and strength characteristics. These results suggest the feasibility of using Mg sheet closure panels from a structural perspective.
Journal Article

Fatigue Behavior and Life Prediction for Aluminum Castings in the Absence of Casting Flaws

2011-04-12
2011-01-0193
Cast aluminum alloys are increasingly used in cyclically loaded automotive structural applications for light weight and fuel economy. The fatigue resistance of aluminum castings strongly depends upon the presence of casting flaws and characteristics of microstructural constituents. The existence of casting flaws significantly reduces fatigue crack initiation life. In the absence of casting flaws, however, crack initiation occurs at the fatigue-sensitive microstructural constituents. Cracking and debonding of large silicon (Si) and Fe-rich intermetallic particles and crystallographic shearing from persistent slip bands in the aluminum matrix play an important role in crack initiation. This paper presents fatigue life models for aluminum castings free of casting flaws, which complement the fatigue life models for aluminum castings containing casting flaws published in [1].
Journal Article

Virtual Manufacturability Analyzer for Casting Components

2011-04-12
2011-01-0528
There is an increasing demand in automated manufacturability analysis of metal castings at the initial stages of their design. This paper presents a system developed for virtual manufacturability analysis of casting components. The system can be used by a casting designer to evaluate manufacturability of a part designed for various manufacture processes including casting, heat treatment, and machining. The system uses computational geometrics and geometric reasoning to extract manufacturing features and geometry characteristics from a part CAD model. It uses an expert system and a design database consisting of metal casting, heat treatment and machining process knowledge and rules to present manufacturability analysis results and advice to the designer. Application of the system is demonstrated for the manufacturability assessment of automotive cast aluminum components.
Journal Article

A Demonstration of Local Heat Treatment for the Preform Annealing Process

2011-04-12
2011-01-0538
The preform annealing process is a two-stage stamping method for shaping non age-hardenable (i.e. 5000 series) aluminum sheet panels in which the panel is heat treated in between the two steps to improve overall formability of the material. The intermediate annealing heat treatment eliminates the cold work accumulated in the material during the first draw. The process enables the ability to form more complex parts than a conventional aluminum stamping process. A demonstration of local annealing for this process was conducted to form a one-piece aluminum liftgate inner panel for a large sport utility vehicle using the steel product geometry without design concessions. In prior work, this process was demonstrated by placing the entire panel in a convection oven for several minutes to completely anneal the cold work.
Journal Article

Modeling of Residual Stresses in Quenched Cast Aluminum Components

2011-04-12
2011-01-0539
Cast aluminum alloys are normally quenched after solution treatment or solidification process to improve aging responses. Rapid quenching can lead to high residual stress and severe distortion which significantly affects dimension stability, functionality and particularly performance of the product. To simulate residual stress and distortion induced during quenching, a finite element based approach was developed by coupling an iterative zone-based transient heat transfer algorithm with material thermo-viscoplastic constitutive model. With the integrated models, the numeric predictions of residual stresses and distortion in the quenched aluminum castings are in a good agreement with experimental measurements.
Journal Article

The Effect of Surface Finish on Aluminum Sheet Friction Behavior

2011-04-12
2011-01-0534
Aluminum sheet is commercially available in three surface finishes, mill finish (MF), electric discharge texture (EDT), and dull finish (DF). This surface finish impacts the friction behavior during sheet metal forming. A study was done to compare ten commercially available sheet samples from several suppliers. The friction behavior was characterized in the longitudinal and transverse directions using a Draw Bead Simulator (DBS) test, resulting in a coefficient of friction (COF) value for each material. Characterization of the friction behavior in each direction provides useful data for formability analysis. To quantitatively characterize the surface finish, three-dimensional MicroTexture measurements were done with a WYKO NT8000 instrument. In general, the MF samples have the smoothest surface, with Sa values of 0.20-0.30 μm and the lowest COF values. The EDT samples have the roughest surface, with Sa values of 0.60-1.00 μm, and the highest COF values.
Journal Article

Effects on Surface Roughness and Friction on Aluminum Sheet under Plain Strain Cyclic Bending and Tension

2011-04-12
2011-01-0535
During sheet metal forming, the friction and surface roughness change as the sheet slides, bends and stretches against the tools. This study assessed evolution of friction and surface roughness changes on aluminum sheet with two surface finish conditions, mill finish (MF) and electron discharge texture (EDT), in both the longitudinal and the transverse rolling directions of the sheet. The sheets were tested using a three pin Draw Bead Simulator (DBS). Surface roughness of the sheet evolved as a result of bending at the first shoulder, reverse bending at the middle pin, bending at the second shoulder and unbending at the exit. Stretching conditions and sheet-pin contact were also varied to see the impact on surface roughness. In general, the largest surface roughness change for the transverse direction was observed at the convex side of the exit shoulder pin and on the convex side of the first shoulder for the longitudinal direction.
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