Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Hardware in the Loop Simulation - Economic Commission Europe Category C Brake Assist System

2011-04-12
2011-01-0955
Brake Assist System (BAS) requirements have been established by the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) in R13H. Electronic Stability Control (ESC) systems typically have the value added function of Panic Brake Assist (PBA) which is defined as a Category C (sensitive to multiple criteria) Brake Assist System. PBA is designed to force the vehicle into Antilock Brake System (ABS) and to maintain ABS control when the driver spikes the brake pedal and then temporarily reduces brake pedal force before reasserting more brake pedal force. ECE test protocol requires the use of brake ramp applications to define the mean acceleration force (maF) curve which is used to define the brake pedal force where ABS activates (FABS). After completing the brake ramp application test maneuvers and completing the data processing to define the maF curve, FABS, upper, and FABS, lower, the test driver then proceeds to run the panic brake assist portion of the test.
Technical Paper

Modeling Human-Machine Interactions Using Statecharts: One Hot and Cool Example

2011-04-12
2011-01-1020
In this paper we discuss the use of a formal approach to the problem of describing, evaluating, and specifying human-machine interaction. The statecharts language, originally conceived by David Harel [1], is used to describe the behavior of the machine (i.e., its states and transitions), interface indications (e.g., light indicators on switches), and user interaction (selecting applications, switching modes, entering parameters, etc.). We illustrate how the statecharts language can be used to describe driver interaction with a climate control system, and show how it is possible to systematically evaluate user interaction. The paper concludes with several observations about the utility of formal language for generating sound design specification of human-machine systems.
Technical Paper

HTC Architecture for Rapid FE Modeling

2011-04-12
2011-01-1010
This paper will present the Systems Engineering perspective of HTC (High Throughput Compute) architecture for rapid meshing and assembly that resembles HPC (High Performance Compute) cloud architecture. The architectural framework addresses the modeling requirements in CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) and CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) domains. The architecture for building a rapid modeling framework is discussed along with a brief description of the procedure to create one such application. Meshing and preparing the math model for CAE/CFD analysis is a time and computation intensive process. Reducing the meshing and model preparation time increases the possible number of analysis iterations before the final design intent model is finalized. The HTC architecture helps in relieving the effort of redevelopment for changing business requirements and provides the flexibility to meet the evolving needs of engineering.
Technical Paper

Robust Design of a Light Weight Flush Mount Roof Rack

2011-04-12
2011-01-1274
Roof racks are designed for carrying luggage during customers' travels. These rails need to be strong enough to be able to carry the luggage weight as well as be able to withstand aerodynamic loads that are generated when the vehicle is travelling at high speeds on highways. Traditionally, roof rail gage thickness is increased to account for these load cases (since these are manufactured by extrusion), but doing so leads to increased mass which adversely affects fuel efficiency. The current study focuses on providing the guidelines for strategically placing lightening holes and optimizing gage thickness so that the final design is robust to noise parameters and saves the most mass without adversely impacting wind noise performance while minimizing stress. The project applied Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) techniques to optimize roof rail parameters in order to improve the load carrying capacity while minimizing mass.
Technical Paper

Transmission Algorithm Development using System Simulation (Virtual Vehicle)

2011-04-12
2011-01-1233
Due to the multitude of external design constraints, such as increasing fuel economy standards, and the increasing number of global vehicle programs, developers of automotive transmission controls have had to cope with increasing levels of system complexity while at the same time being forced by the marketplace to improve system quality, reduce development costs, and improve time to market. General Motors Powertrain (GMPT) chose to meet these challenges through General Motors Company's Road-to-Lab-to-Math (RLM) strategy, particularly the Math-based method of a virtual vehicle simulation environment called System Simulation. The use of System Simulation to develop transmission control algorithms has enabled GMPT to improve product quality and reduce development times and costs associated with the dependence on physical prototypes. Additionally, System Simulation has facilitated the reuse of GMPT controls development assets, improving overall controls development efficiency.
Technical Paper

Lubricant Flow and Temperature Prediction in a Planetary Gearset

2011-04-12
2011-01-1235
This study introduces a method to examine the flow path of the lubricant inside a planetary gearset of an automatic transmission. A typical planetary gearbox has several load bearing elements which are in relative sliding motion to each other which causes heat to be released. The major sources of friction as well as heat are the meshing teeth between gears (sun/planet, planet/ring), thrust washers, thrust bearings and needle bearings. The lubricant performs the vital function of both lubricating these sliding interfaces and cooling these sources of heat, thereby preventing failure of the gearbox. The exact flow path that the lubricant takes inside a planetary gearset is unknown. Since the gearset is primarily splash lubricated, it is also not known how much lubricant reaches critical areas. A method is developed using computational fluid dynamic techniques to enable comprehensive flow and thermal analysis and visualization of an automatic transmission assembly.
Technical Paper

A Statistical Approach for Correlation/Validation of Hot-Soak Terminal Temperature of a Vehicle Cabin CFD Model

2013-04-08
2013-01-0854
A Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) statistical approach is presented in this report to correlate a CFD cabin model with test results. The target is the volume-averaged hot-soak terminal temperature. The objective is to develop an effective correlation process for a simplified CFD cabin model so it can be used in practical design process. It is, however, not the objective in this report to develop the most accurate CFD cabin model that would be too expensive computationally at present to be used in routine design analysis. A 3-D CFD model of a vehicle cabin is the central part of the computer modeling in the development of automotive HVAC systems. Hot-soak terminal temperature is a thermal phenomenon in the cabin of a parked vehicle under the Sun when the overall heat transfer reaches equilibrium. It is often part of the simulation of HVAC system operation.
Technical Paper

Determination of Vehicle Frontal Area Using Image Processing

2013-04-08
2013-01-0203
The projected frontal area of a vehicle has a significant impact on aerodynamic drag, and thus is an important parameter, for vehicle development, benchmarking, and modeling. However, determining vehicle frontal area can be tedious, time consuming, expensive, or inaccurate. Existing methods include analysis of engineering drawings, vehicle projections, 3D scanners, planimeter measurements from photographs, and estimations using vehicle dimensions. Currently accepted approximation methods can be somewhat unreliable. This study focuses on introducing a method to find vehicle frontal area using digital images and subtraction functions via MATLABs' Image Processing Toolbox. In addition to an overview of the method, this paper describes several variables that were examined to optimize and improve the process such as camera position, surface glare, and vehicle shadow effects.
Technical Paper

The Simscape Language and Powertrain Applications

2013-04-08
2013-01-0822
Simscape is a physical modeling language developed by Mathworks Inc. The language uses equation statements instead of assignment statements to describe physical systems. The paper focuses on the Simscape language itself instead of using components in the Simscape libraries. The language will be introduced from a perspective different from the Mathworks' Physical Network point of view. Our perspective focuses on two types of variables at the connectors. In additional, internal variables are not separated into through and across variables. The alternative perspective is more general and easier to understand. The paper also illustrates how to develop components in a powertrain library following the proposed new perspective.
Technical Paper

Correlating Measured Combustion Performance with CFD Predicted In-Cylinder Flows for a Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection (SIDI) Engine with Enhanced Charge Motion

2013-04-08
2013-01-1090
A numerical and corresponding experimental study was undertaken to identify the ability to accurately predict combustion performance using our 3-D numerical tools for a direct-injection homogeneous-charge engine. To achieve a significant range of combustion rates, the evaluation was conducted for the engine operating with and without enhanced charge motion. Five charge motion configurations were examined, each having different levels of swirl and tumble flow leading to different turbulence generation and decay characteristics. A detailed CFD analysis provides insight into the in-cylinder flow requirements as well as the accuracy of the submodels. The in-cylinder air-fuel distribution, the mass-averaged swirl and tumble levels along with mean flow and turbulent kinetic energies are calculated throughout the induction and compression processes.
Technical Paper

Accelerated Life Test Methodology for Li-Ion Batteries in Automotive Applications

2013-04-08
2013-01-1548
Determining Li-ion battery life through life modeling is an excellent tool in determining and estimating end-of-life performance. Achieving End-of-Life (EOL) can be challenging since it is difficult to achieve both cycle and calendar life during the same test without years of testing. The plan to correlate testing with the model included three (3) distinct temperature ranges, beginning with the four-Season temperature profile, an aggressive profile with temperatures in the 50 to 55°C range, and using a mid-temperature range (40-45°C) as a final comparison test. A high duty-cycle drive profile was used to cycle all of the batteries as quickly as possible to reach the one potential definition of EOL; significant increases in resistance or capacity fade.
Technical Paper

Understanding Work Task Assessment Sensitivity to the Prediction of Standing Location

2011-04-12
2011-01-0527
Digital human models (DHM) are now widely used to assess worker tasks as part of manufacturing simulation. With current DHM software, the simulation engineer or ergonomist usually makes a manual estimate of the likely worker standing location with respect to the work task. In a small number of cases, the worker standing location is determined through physical testing with one or a few workers. Motion capture technology is sometimes used to aid in quantitative analysis of the resulting posture. Previous research has demonstrated the sensitivity of work task assessment using DHM to the accuracy of the posture prediction. This paper expands on that work by demonstrating the need for a method and model to accurately predict worker standing location. The effect of standing location on work task posture and the resulting assessment is documented through three case studies using the Siemens Jack DHM software.
Technical Paper

Modeling Dynamic Stiffness of Rubber Isolators

2011-04-12
2011-01-0492
Rubber isolators and bushings are very important components for vehicle performance. However, one often finds it is difficult to get the dynamic properties to be readily used in CAE analysis, either from suppliers or from OEM's own test labs. In this paper, the author provides an analytical method to obtain the dynamic stiffness of an exhaust isolator, using ABAQUS and iSight, with tested or targeted isolator static stiffness information. The analysis contains two steps. The first step is to select the (rubber/EPDM) material properties for the FE isolator model by matching the static stiffness with either the targeted spring rate (linear or nonlinear) or the (tested) load / deflection curve. The second step is to perform dynamic analysis on the statically “validated” FE isolator model to obtain its dynamic properties.
Technical Paper

Structural-Acoustic Analysis of Vehicle Body Panel Participation to Interior Acoustic Boom Noise

2011-04-12
2011-01-0496
A structural-acoustic finite element model of an automotive vehicle is developed and applied to evaluate the effect of structural and acoustic modifications to reduce low-frequency ‘boom’ noise in the passenger compartment. The structural-acoustic model is developed from a trimmed body structural model that is coupled with an acoustic model of the passenger compartment and trunk cavities. The interior noise response is computed for shaker excitation loads at the powertrain mount attachment locations on the body. The body panel and modal participation diagrams at the peak response frequencies are evaluated. A polar diagram identifies the dominant body panel contributions to the ‘boom’ noise. A modal participation diagram determines the body modes that contribute to the ‘boom’ noise. Finally, structural and acoustic modifications are evaluated to determine their effect on reducing the ‘boom’ noise and on the overall lower-frequency sound pressure level response.
Technical Paper

Radiated Fuel Tank Slosh Noise Simulation

2011-04-12
2011-01-0495
With the introduction of hybrid vehicles and the associated elimination of engine and exhaust masking noises, sounds from other sources is becoming more noticeable. Fuel tank sloshing is one of these sources. Fuel sloshing occurs when a vehicle is accelerated in any direction and can create noise that may be perceived as a quality issue by the customer. To reduce slosh noise, a fuel tank has to be carefully designed. Reduction in slosh noise using test- based methods can be very costly and timely. This paper shows how, using the combination of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamic), FE (Finite Element) and Acoustic simulation methods, the radiated fuel tank slosh noise performance can be evaluated using CAE methods. Although the de-coupled fluid /structure interaction (FSI) method was used for the examples in this paper, the acoustic simulation method is not limited to the decoupled FSI method.
Technical Paper

The Simulation of Air Induction Noise Using 1D-3D Coupling

2011-04-12
2011-01-0500
Compartment noise has gained significant importance to meet customer expectation. One of the sources of noise is air intake noise. Intake noise is produced by both opening and closing of the inlet valve. This makes source noise critical to the development of air induction system. The new approach has been thought for noise analysis of Air Induction System (AIS) to identify source noise using 1D-3D coupling. It is very difficult to simulate engine and air induction system in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) due to complexities in geometry. The objective of the present study is to predict the pulsed noise and flow noise using 1D-3D coupling. The engine with 1D code and AIS with 3D CFD code is simulated. Engine pulsation from GT-Power is provided as an input boundary condition to ANSYS Fluent. GT-Power exchanges boundary values to 3D computation domain at each CFD time step through special connections. The CFD code is run with implicit discretisation scheme and SAS turbulence model.
Technical Paper

Pressure Sensor Simulation Capability for Side Impact Sensing Calibration

2011-04-12
2011-01-0105
There is a growing interest in using pressure sensors to sense side impacts, where the pressure change inside the door cavity is monitored and used to discriminate trigger and non-trigger incidents. In this paper, a pressure sensor simulation capability for side impact sensing calibration is presented. The ability to use simulations for side impact sensing calibration early in the vehicle program development process could reduce vehicle development cost and time. It could also help in evaluating sensor locations by studying the effects of targeted impact points and contents in the door cavity. There are two modeling methods available in LS-DYNA for predicting pressure change inside a cavity, namely airbag method and fluid structure interaction method. A suite of side impact calibration events of a study vehicle were simulated using these two methods. The simulated door cavity pressure time histories were then extracted to calibrate the side sensing system of the study vehicle.
Technical Paper

Automatic Transmission Rotational Inertia Effect on Shift Quality

2011-04-12
2011-01-0393
The achievable shift quality of a modern automatic transmission may be greatly affected by the equivalent rotational inertia of the gearbox and driveline components. New, more mass- and packaging-efficient higher number of gear powerflows are being developed. These new architectures often result in more components being attached to a given rotational node. The rotational speed multiplication of the components must be considered when determining their inertial torque contribution to a given speed change event. An example of this multiplication effect is presented, with a discussion of the resulting impact to shift quality disturbance. Opportunities to address the negative aspects of the higher inertial torque contribution to transmission output shaft disturbance are discussed. Coordination of engine torque control and clutch torque control is presented as a viable strategy to improve shift quality.
Technical Paper

Ultracapacitor Based Active Energy Recovery Scheme for Fuel Economy Improvement in Conventional Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0345
In this paper, a low-cost means to improve fuel economy in conventional vehicles by employing ultracapacitor based Active Energy Recovery Buffer (AERB) scheme will be presented. The kinetic energy of the vehicle during the coast down events is utilized to charge the ultracapacitor either directly or through a dc-dc converter, allowing the voltage to increase up to the maximum permissible level. When the vehicle starts after a Stop event, the energy stored in the capacitor is discharged to power the accessory loads until the capacitor voltage falls below a minimum threshold. The use of stored capacitor energy to power the accessory loads relieves the generator torque load on the engine resulting in reduced fuel consumption. Two different topologies are considered for implementing the AERB system. The first topology, which is a simple add-on to the conventional vehicle electrical system, comprises of the ultracapacitor bank and the dc-dc converter connected across the dc bus.
Technical Paper

An Engineering Approach to Predict Fracture and Tearing

2011-04-12
2011-01-0002
An engineering approach was developed to extract the failure plastic strain, thinning failure strain, and major in plane failure strain for finite element simulation applications. This approach takes into account the failure strain dependency on the element size when element deletion scheme is invoked in the simulation of material fracture. Both localized necking fracture and tensile shear fracture can be predicted when appropriate elements and material models are used in LS-DYNA simulations. This leads to a more accurate prediction of fracture and tearing in the finite element simulation of vehicle structure and crash loading conditions.
X