Refine Your Search

Topic

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 11 of 11
Technical Paper

Developing the AC17 Efficiency Test for Mobile Air Conditioners

2013-04-08
2013-01-0569
Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) have collaborated over the past two years to develop an efficiency test for mobile air conditioner (MAC) systems. Because the effect of efficiency differences between different MAC systems and different technologies is relatively small compared to overall vehicle fuel consumption, quantifying these differences has been challenging. The objective of this program was to develop a single dynamic test procedure that is capable of discerning small efficiency differences, and is generally representative of mobile air conditioner usage in the United States. The test was designed to be conducted in existing test facilities, using existing equipment, and within a sufficiently short time to fit standard test facility scheduling. Representative ambient climate conditions for the U.S. were chosen, as well as other test parameters, and a solar load was included.
Technical Paper

A Dual Clutch Torque Converter for Dual Input Shaft Transmissions

2013-04-08
2013-01-0232
This paper presents an alternative launch device for layshaft dual clutch transmissions (DCT's). The launch device incorporates a hydrodynamic torque converter, a lockup clutch with controlled slip capability and two wet multi-plate clutches to engage the input shafts of the transmission. The device is intended to overcome the deficiencies associated with using conventional dry or wet launch clutches in DCT's, such as limited torque capacity at vehicle launch, clutch thermal capacity and cooling, launch shudder, lubricant quality and requirement for interval oil changes. The alternative device enhances drive quality and performance at vehicle launch and adds the capability of controlled capacity slip to attenuate gear rattle without early downshifting. Parasitic torque loss will increase but is shown not to drastically influence fuel consumption compared to a dry clutch system, however synchronizer engagement can become a concern at cold operating temperatures.
Technical Paper

Ultracapacitor Based Active Energy Recovery Scheme for Fuel Economy Improvement in Conventional Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0345
In this paper, a low-cost means to improve fuel economy in conventional vehicles by employing ultracapacitor based Active Energy Recovery Buffer (AERB) scheme will be presented. The kinetic energy of the vehicle during the coast down events is utilized to charge the ultracapacitor either directly or through a dc-dc converter, allowing the voltage to increase up to the maximum permissible level. When the vehicle starts after a Stop event, the energy stored in the capacitor is discharged to power the accessory loads until the capacitor voltage falls below a minimum threshold. The use of stored capacitor energy to power the accessory loads relieves the generator torque load on the engine resulting in reduced fuel consumption. Two different topologies are considered for implementing the AERB system. The first topology, which is a simple add-on to the conventional vehicle electrical system, comprises of the ultracapacitor bank and the dc-dc converter connected across the dc bus.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of NOx Reduction by Passive Ammonia-SCR for Stoichiometric SIDI Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-0307
As vehicle fuel economy requirements continue to increase it is becoming more challenging and expensive to simultaneously improve fuel consumption and meet emissions regulations. The Passive Ammonia SCR System (PASS) is a novel aftertreatment concept which has the potential to address NOx emissions with application to both lean SI and stoichiometric SI engines. PASS relies on an underfloor (U/F) SCR for storage of ammonia which is generated by the close-coupled (CC) TWCs. For lean SI engines, it is required to operate with occasional rich pulses in order to generate the ammonia, while for stoichiometric application ammonia is passively generated through the toggling of air/fuel ratio. PASS serves as an efficient and cost-effective enhancement to standard aftertreatment systems. For this study, the PASS concept was demonstrated first using lab reactor results which highlight the oxygen tolerance and temperature requirements of the SCR.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects on Combustion and Emissions of a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine Operating at Moderate to High Engine Speed and Load

2012-04-16
2012-01-0863
It is advantageous to increase the specific power output of diesel engines and to operate them at higher load for a greater portion of a driving cycle to achieve better thermal efficiency and thus reduce vehicle fuel consumption. Such operation is limited by excessive smoke formation at retarded injection timing and high rates of cylinder pressure rise at more advanced timing. Given this window of operation, it is desired to understand the influence of fuel properties such that optimum combustion performance and emissions can be retained over the range of fuels commonly available in the marketplace. Data are examined from a direct-injection single-cylinder research engine for eight common diesel fuels including soy-based biodiesel blends at two high load operating points with no exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and at a moderate load with four levels of EGR.
Technical Paper

Impact of Biodiesel on Particle Emissions and DPF Regeneration Management in a Euro5 Automotive Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0839
Biofuel usage is increasingly expanding thanks to its significant contribution to a well-to-wheel (WTW) reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In addition, stringent emission standards make mandatory the use of Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) for the particulate emissions control. The different physical properties and chemical composition of biofuels impact the overall engine behaviour. In particular, the PM emissions and the related DPF regeneration strategy are clearly affected by biofuel usage due mainly to its higher oxygen content and lower low heating value (LHV). More specifically, the PM emissions and the related DPF regeneration strategy are clearly affected by biofuel usage due mainly to its higher oxygen content and lower low heating value, respectively. The particle emissions, in fact, are lower mainly because of the higher oxygen content. Subsequently less frequent regenerations are required.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on the Effects on Performance and Emissions of an Automotive Euro 5 Diesel Engine Fuelled with B30 from RME and HVO

2013-04-08
2013-01-1679
The effects of using blended renewable diesel fuel (30% vol.), obtained from Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME) and Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO), in a Euro 5 small displacement passenger car diesel engine have been evaluated in this paper. The hydraulic behavior of the common rail injection system was verified in terms of injected volume and injection rate with both RME and HVO blends fuelling in comparison with commercial diesel. Further, the spray obtained with RME B30 was analyzed and compared with diesel in terms of global shape and penetration, to investigate the potential differences in the air-fuel mixing process. Then, the impact of a biofuel blend usage on engine performance at full load was first analyzed, adopting the same reference calibration for all the tested fuels.
Journal Article

Performance Characterization of a Triple Input Clutch, Layshaft Automatic Transmission Using Energy Analysis

2013-12-15
2013-01-9042
This paper details the design and operating attributes of a triple input clutch, layshaft automatic transmission (TCT) with a torque converter in a rear wheel drive passenger vehicle. The objectives of the TCT design are to reduce fuel consumption while increasing acceleration performance through the design of the gearing arrangement, shift actuation system and selection of gear ratios and progression. A systematic comparison of an 8-speed TCT design is made against a hypothetical 8-speed planetary automatic transmission (AT) with torque converter using an energy analysis model based upon empirical data and first principles of vehicle-powertrain systems. It was found that the 8-speed TCT design has the potential to provide an approximate 3% reduction in fuel consumption, a 3% decrease in 0-100 kph time and 30% reduction in energy loss relative to a comparable 8-speed planetary AT with an idealized logarithmic ratio progression.
Journal Article

The GM “Voltec” 4ET50 Multi-Mode Electric Transaxle

2011-04-12
2011-01-0887
The Chevrolet Volt is an electric vehicle (EV) that operates exclusively on battery power as long as useful energy is available in the battery pack under normal conditions. After the battery is depleted of available energy, extended-range (ER) driving uses fuel energy in an internal combustion engine (ICE), an on-board generator, and a large electric driving motor. This extended-range electric vehicle (EREV) utilizes electric energy in an automobile more effectively than a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), which characteristically blends electric and engine power together during driving. A specialized EREV powertrain, called the "Voltec," drives the Volt through its entire range of speed and acceleration with battery power alone, within the limit of battery energy, thereby displacing more fuel with electricity, emitting less CO₂, and producing less cold-start emissions than a PHEV operating in real-world conditions.
Journal Article

A Comparison of Spray-Guided Stratified-Charge Combustion Performance with Outwardly-Opening Piezo and Multi-Hole Solenoid Injectors

2011-04-12
2011-01-1217
This investigation was aimed at measuring the relative performance of two spray-guided, single-cylinder, spark-ignited direct-injected (SIDI) engine combustion system designs. The first utilizes an outwardly-opening poppet, piezo-actuated injector, and the second a conventional, solenoid operated, inwardly-opening multi-hole injector. The single-cylinder engine tests were limited to steady state, warmed-up conditions. The comparison showed that these two spray-guided combustion systems with two very different sprays had surprisingly close results and only differed in some details. Combustion stability and smoke emissions of the systems are comparable to each other over most of the load range. Over a simulated Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle, the multi-hole system had 15% lower hydrocarbon and 18% lower carbon monoxide emissions.
Journal Article

Analysis of Various Operating Strategies for a Parallel-Hybrid Diesel Powertrain with a Belt Alternator Starter

2012-04-16
2012-01-1008
The sustainable use of energy and the reduction of pollutant emissions are main concerns of the automotive industry. In this context, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) offer significant improvements in the efficiency of the propulsion system and allow advanced strategies to reduce pollutant and noise emissions. The paper presents the results of a simulation study that addresses the minimization of fuel consumption, NOx emissions and combustion noise of a medium-size passenger car. Such a vehicle has a parallel-hybrid diesel powertrain with a high-voltage belt alternator starter. The simulation reproduces real-driver behavior through a dynamic modeling approach and actuates an automatic power split between the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and the Electric Machine (EM). Typical characteristics of parallel hybrid technologies, such as Stop&Start, regenerative braking and electric power assistance, are implemented via an operating strategy that is based on the reduction of total losses.
X