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Video

Monitoring NO2 Production of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst

2012-01-24
A combination of laboratory reactor measurements and vehicle FTP testing has been combined to demonstrate a method for diagnosing the formation of NO2 from a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). Using small cores from a production DOC and simulated diesel exhaust, the laboratory reactor experiments are used to support a model for DOC chemical reaction kinetics. The model we propose shows that the ability to produce NO2 is chemically linked to the ability of the catalyst to oxidize hydrocarbon (HC). For thermally damaged DOCs, loss of the HC oxidation function is simultaneous with loss of the NO2 production function. Since HC oxidation is the source of heat generated in the DOC under regeneration conditions, we conclude that a diagnostic of the DOC exotherm is able to detect the failure of the DOC to produce NO2. Vehicle emissions data from a 6.6 L Duramax HD pick-up with DOC of various levels of thermal degradation is provided to support the diagnostic concept.
Video

High Load HCCI Operation Using Different Valving Strategies in a Naturally-Aspirated Gasoline HCCI Engine

2012-02-16
This session focuses on kinetically controlled combustion. Experimental and simulation studies pertaining to various means of controlling combustion are welcome. Examples are research studies dealing with temperature and composition distribution inside the cylinder and their impact on heat release process. Studies clarifying the role of fuel physical and chemical properties in autoignition are also welcome. Presenter Hanho Yun, General Motors Company
Video

Technical Keynote: Leading in Crazy Times

2012-02-09
Leading during normal times is plenty challenging. Leading in crazy times requires extra understanding and skill. This presentation explores how you and your team can be your best, regardless of what craziness may be going on around your organization, your team members, and you. Presenter Theresa Rich, General Motors Company
Video

OBD Challenges for Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2012-01-30
Plug-In Hybrid and Extended Range Electric Vehicle's have quickly become the focus of many OEM's and suppliers. Existing regulations and test procedures did not anticipate this rapid adoption of this new technology, resulting in many product development challenges. The lack of clear requirements is further complicated by CARBs consideration of CO2 inclusion in their next light duty OBD regulation. This presentation provides an overview of the regulatory requirements for OBD systems on hybrid vehicles that intend to certify in California. Near term challenges for EREV?s and PHEV?s are discussed, including concerns with the existing denominator and warm-up cycle calculations. Some proposals are made to address these concerns. Presenter Andrew Zettel, General Motors Company
Video

GreenZone Driving for Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2012-05-29
Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) have a large battery which can be used for electric only powertrain operation. The control system in a PHEV must decide how to spend the energy stored in the battery. In this paper, we will present a prototype implementation of a PHEV control system which saves energy for electric operation in pre-defined geographic areas, so called Green Zones. The approach determines where the driver will be going and then compares the route to a database of predefined Green Zones. The control system then reserves enough energy to be able to drive the Green Zone sections in electric only mode. Finally, the powertrain operation is modified once the vehicle enters the Green Zone to ensure engine operation is limited. Data will be presented from a prototype implementation in a Ford Escape PHEV Presenter Johannes Kristinsson
Video

Worldwide OBD

2012-01-30
OBD system requirements were first developed by the California Air Resources Board, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the European Commission. New OBD requirements should be as consistent as possible with existing requirements to maximize reliability and to minimize system complexity, proliferation of configurations, and consumer cost. New OBD requirements from around the world are briefly reviewed and most are consistent with the original U.S. and European requirements. Worldwide OBD requirements are being further harmonized under the United Nations, Economic Commission for Europe, World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (WP29). Presenter David H. Ferris, General Motors Company
Technical Paper

Emissions Performance of Bi-fuel CNG and Bi-fuel LPG Passenger Cars Using Sequential Multi-point Injection Systems

2001-03-05
2001-01-1195
This paper describes a study into the emissions performance of a passenger car running on natural gas and liquified petroleum gas. The gasoline engine was modified to allow the introduction of the alternative fuels into the engine. The effect of fuel system hardware on emissions was investigated. Modifications were carried out to the gasoline EMS to allow control of the alternative fuel systems. A number of changes were made to the gasoline calibration to allow operation on the alternative fuels. Emissions tests were conducted on commercial grade natural gas and liquid petroleum gas. The results were compared with gasoline emission results of an equivalent vehicle.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Dynamic Parameters of Automotive Exhaust Hangers

2001-04-30
2001-01-1446
Different methodologies to test and analyze the dynamic stiffness (K) and damping (C) properties of several silicone and EPDM rubber automotive exhaust hangers were investigated in this research. One test method utilized a standard MTS hydraulic test machine with a single sine excitation at discrete frequencies and amplitude levels, while a second method utilized an electrodynamic shaker with broadband excitation. Analysis techniques for extracting the equivalent stiffness and damping were developed in the shaker tests using data from time domain, frequency domain, as well as force transmissibility. A comparison of all of the shaker testing methods for repeatability and accuracy was done with the goal of determining the appropriate method that generates the most consistent results over the range of testing. The shaker testing in the frequency domain using a frequency response function model produced good results and the set-up is relatively inexpensive.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Different Input Excitation on the Dynamic Characterization of an Automotive Shock Absorber

2001-04-30
2001-01-1442
This paper deals with the dynamic characterization of an automotive shock absorber, a continuation of an earlier work [1]. The objective of this on-going research is to develop a testing and analysis methodology for obtaining dynamic properties of automotive shock absorbers for use in CAE-NVH low-to-mid frequency chassis models. First, the effects of temperature and nominal length on the stiffness and damping of the shock absorber are studied and their importance in the development of a standard test method discussed. The effects of different types of input excitation on the dynamic properties of the shock absorber are then examined. Stepped sine sweep excitation is currently used in industry to obtain shock absorber parameters along with their frequency and amplitude dependence. Sine-on-sine testing, which involves excitation using two different sine waves has been done in this study to understand the effects of the presence of multiple sine waves on the estimated dynamic properties.
Technical Paper

Flow-Acoustic Coupling in Quarter-Wave Resonators Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

2001-04-30
2001-01-1430
Quarter-wave resonators are commonly used as acoustic silencers in automotive air induction systems. Similar closed side branches can also be formed in the idle air bypass, exhaust gas recirculation, and positive crankcase ventilation systems of engines. The presence of a mean flow across these side branches can lead to an interaction between the mean flow and the acoustic resonances of the side branch. At discrete flow conditions, this coupling between the flow and acoustic fields may produce high amplitude acoustic pressure pulsations. For the quarter-wave resonator, this interaction can turn the silencer into a noise generator, while for systems where a valve is located at the closed end of the side branch the large pressure pulsations can cause the valve to fail. This phenomenon is not limited to automotive applications, and also occurs in natural gas pipelines, aircraft, and numerous other internal and external flows.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Manifold Radiated Noise Prediction Methodology

2001-04-30
2001-01-1433
The spark ignition engine is a prime source of vibration energy. NVH disturbances generated by the engine ultimately reach the customer in the form of objectionable noise or NVH. Exhaust Manifolds are one of the many sources of noise contributors among the engine components. Often, the exhaust manifold is identified as a source of objectionable NVH late in the design and development process. Due to the lack of an upfront NVH analysis tool, a new CAE NVH methodology for evaluating new exhaust manifold designs has been investigated and developed by the Ford Motor Company's V-Engine CAE and Exhaust Manifold Design Sections. This new CAE methodology has been developed to compare the NVH performance of current production exhaust manifolds to new design levels. Mechanical induced radiated shell noise is the predominate cause of objectionable NVH in exhaust manifolds.
Technical Paper

Serpentine Accessory Belt Drive Tool: Virtual Prototyping for V-Ribbed Belt Drives

2001-04-30
2001-01-1424
Serpentine accessory belts are commonly used in industries such as automotive and general machinery. The purpose of this analytical tool is to provide design engineers the capability to model belt drive systems using ADAMS (Automated Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems). The generated ADAMS models can be used to analyze several different characteristics concerning V-Ribbed belt drive systems. The general solution of the governing nonlinear equations provides the coupled longitudinal and transverse response of the translating belt drive system. Typical simulation outputs include pulley hubloads, belt impact dynamic forces, and belt slip rates at the pulleys.
Technical Paper

Thermal Management for the HEV Liquid-Cooled Electric Machine

2001-05-14
2001-01-1713
The future of the Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) is very promising for the automotive industry. In order to take a full advantage of this concept, a better thermal performance of the electric motor is required. In this study, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model was first verified through several prototypes testing and then is going to be used to execute a series of design of experiment via simulation. Based on the thermal studies in this paper, the integrated coolant jacket design has a better performance than that of separated one. The thermal performance of the stator with the 3M coating is better than the one with paper liner. In addition, using 3M coating reduces the packaging size of the stator.
Technical Paper

Effects of Vehicle Windshield Defrosting and Demisting Process on Passenger Comfort

2001-05-15
2001-01-1729
This paper describes an investigation into the fluid flow and heat transfer on the windshield as well the effect of the air discharge from the defroster vents on passenger comfort. The investigation is both experimental and computational. Full-scale tests are conducted on a current vehicle model using non-intrusive diagnostic methods. The results presented are from numerical simulations validated by experimental measurements. The numerical predictions compare well with the experimental measurements. The locations of maximum velocity and pressure, as well as width and length of re-circulation regions, are correctly predicted.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling of Engine Noise Radiation through the use of Acoustic Transfer Vectors - A Case Study

2001-04-30
2001-01-1514
This paper presents the numerical modeling of noise radiated by an engine, using the so-called Acoustic Transfer Vectors and Modal Acoustic Transfer Vectors concept. Acoustic Transfer Vectors are input-output relations between the normal structural velocity of the radiating surface and the sound pressure level at a specific field point and can thus be interpreted as an ensemble of Acoustic Transfer Functions from the surface nodes to a single field point or microphone position. The modal counter part establishes the same acoustic transfer expressed in modal coordinates of the radiating structure. The method is used to evaluate the noise radiated during an engine run-up in the frequency domain. The dynamics of the engine is described using a finite element model loaded with a rpm-dependent excitation. The effectiveness of the method in terms of calculation speed, compared with classical boundary element methods, is illustrated.
Technical Paper

Errors in the Driveline System Balancing Process

2001-04-30
2001-01-1504
Single-plane balancing is a very well-understood process, whereby an imbalance vector is determined and then opposed by a similar vector of equal magnitude but 180° out of phase. This is used in many situations to improve machine performance, vibration, noise etc. However, there is inherent in this process a sensitivity to errors of measurement and correction, since a large imbalance vector and the equally large correction vector must be of exactly equal magnitude and exactly 180° apart for perfect balance. This paper examines the effect of errors in measurement of the initial imbalance and correction of it on the residual balance of automotive drivelines. In particular, it examines the effects of the errors present in a system whereby a system balance correction is made, on a driveline assembly, at discrete points around a given plane (at bolt locations). Errors occur in measurement of vibration, in calculating correction masses and in applying those correction masses.
Technical Paper

Computation of Wind Noise Radiated from a Flexible and Elastically Supported Panel

2001-04-30
2001-01-1495
A numerical methodology based on the finite element and boundary element methods is presented for computing the noise radiated from an elastically supported structure subject to turbulent boundary layer excitation. The new algorithm utilizes the fluctuating wall pressure in order to define the excitation on the structural-acoustic system. The developments target wind noise prediction for the sound radiated by the side glass window of an automobile. The glass-seal assembly is modeled as a flexible plate mounted on an elastic foundation with stiffness and damping characteristics. Numerical predictions are compared successfully to wind tunnel test data. Parametric analyses are performed in order to identify the characteristics of the seal that can lead to noise reduction.
Technical Paper

Experimental Determination of Automotive System Response Characteristics

2001-04-30
2001-01-1477
Vehicle NVH performance is significantly affected by the dynamics of various primary systems. In the automotive industry, different design activities or vendors are responsible for designing various different systems simultaneously. Therefore, it is highly desirable to gain a better understanding of the individual system characteristics and the interaction between the primary systems to achieve a desirable overall NVH performance. Unfortunately, it is usually quite difficult to construct a proper fixture to accurately measure and quantify the actual uncoupled system characteristics. This paper examines an alternate approach of applying the FRF-based substructuring method to back-calculate the system response characteristics from the full vehicle system measurements. The results are then used to forward-compute the dynamic response of the vehicle, which are also validated by comparison to the direct response function measurements.
Technical Paper

Wavelet-Based Visualization of Impulsive and Transient Sounds in Stationary Background Noise

2001-04-30
2001-01-1475
Scalograms based on shift-invariant orthonormal wavelet transforms can be used to analyze impulsive and transient sounds in the presence of more stationary sound backgrounds, such as wind noise or drivetrain noise. The visual threshold of detection for impulsive features on the scalogram (signal energy content vs. time and frequency,) is shown to be similar to the audible threshold of detection of the human auditory system for the corresponding impulsive sounds. Two examples of impulsive sounds in a realistic automotive sound background are presented: automotive interior rattle in a vehicle passenger compartment, and spark knock recorded in an engine compartment.
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