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Video

Monitoring NO2 Production of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst

2012-01-24
A combination of laboratory reactor measurements and vehicle FTP testing has been combined to demonstrate a method for diagnosing the formation of NO2 from a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). Using small cores from a production DOC and simulated diesel exhaust, the laboratory reactor experiments are used to support a model for DOC chemical reaction kinetics. The model we propose shows that the ability to produce NO2 is chemically linked to the ability of the catalyst to oxidize hydrocarbon (HC). For thermally damaged DOCs, loss of the HC oxidation function is simultaneous with loss of the NO2 production function. Since HC oxidation is the source of heat generated in the DOC under regeneration conditions, we conclude that a diagnostic of the DOC exotherm is able to detect the failure of the DOC to produce NO2. Vehicle emissions data from a 6.6 L Duramax HD pick-up with DOC of various levels of thermal degradation is provided to support the diagnostic concept.
Video

High Load HCCI Operation Using Different Valving Strategies in a Naturally-Aspirated Gasoline HCCI Engine

2012-02-16
This session focuses on kinetically controlled combustion. Experimental and simulation studies pertaining to various means of controlling combustion are welcome. Examples are research studies dealing with temperature and composition distribution inside the cylinder and their impact on heat release process. Studies clarifying the role of fuel physical and chemical properties in autoignition are also welcome. Presenter Hanho Yun, General Motors Company
Video

Technical Keynote: Leading in Crazy Times

2012-02-09
Leading during normal times is plenty challenging. Leading in crazy times requires extra understanding and skill. This presentation explores how you and your team can be your best, regardless of what craziness may be going on around your organization, your team members, and you. Presenter Theresa Rich, General Motors Company
Video

OBD Challenges for Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2012-01-30
Plug-In Hybrid and Extended Range Electric Vehicle's have quickly become the focus of many OEM's and suppliers. Existing regulations and test procedures did not anticipate this rapid adoption of this new technology, resulting in many product development challenges. The lack of clear requirements is further complicated by CARBs consideration of CO2 inclusion in their next light duty OBD regulation. This presentation provides an overview of the regulatory requirements for OBD systems on hybrid vehicles that intend to certify in California. Near term challenges for EREV?s and PHEV?s are discussed, including concerns with the existing denominator and warm-up cycle calculations. Some proposals are made to address these concerns. Presenter Andrew Zettel, General Motors Company
Video

Worldwide OBD

2012-01-30
OBD system requirements were first developed by the California Air Resources Board, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the European Commission. New OBD requirements should be as consistent as possible with existing requirements to maximize reliability and to minimize system complexity, proliferation of configurations, and consumer cost. New OBD requirements from around the world are briefly reviewed and most are consistent with the original U.S. and European requirements. Worldwide OBD requirements are being further harmonized under the United Nations, Economic Commission for Europe, World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (WP29). Presenter David H. Ferris, General Motors Company
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the Ignition Hazard Posed by Onboard Refueling Vapor Recovery Canisters

2001-03-05
2001-01-0731
ORVR (Onboard Refueling Vapor Recovery) canisters trap vapors during normal operations of a vehicle's engine, and during refueling. This study evaluates the relative risks involved should a canister rupture in a crash. A canister impactor was developed to simulate real-world impacts and to evaluate the canisters' rupture characteristics. Numerous performance aspects of canisters were evaluated: the energy required to rupture a canister; the spread of carbon particles following rupture; the ease of ignition of vapor-laden particles; the vapor concentration in the area of ruptured, vapor-laden canisters; and the potential of crashes to rupture and ignite canisters. Results from these five items were combined into a risk analysis.
Technical Paper

Improving Steering Feel for the National Advanced Driving Simulator

1997-02-24
970567
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's Vehicle Research and Test Center (VRTC) plans to evolve the state-of-the-art of steering system modeling for driving simulators with the ultimate goal being the development of a high fidelity steering feel model for the National Advanced Driving Simulator (NADS). The VRTC plans on developing reliable research tools that can be used to determine the necessary features for a steering model that will provide good objective and subjective steering feel. This paper reviews past and continuing work conducted at the VRTC and provides a plan for future work that will achieve this goal.
Technical Paper

Validation Results from Using NADSdyna Vehicle Dynamics Simulation

1997-02-24
970565
This paper presents an evaluation of a vehicle dynamics model intended to be used for the National Advanced Driving Simulator (NADS). Dynamic validation for high performance simulation is not merely a comparison between experimental and simulation plots. It involves strong insight of vehicle's subsystems mechanics, limitations of the mathematical formulations, and experimental predictions. Lateral, longitudinal, and ride dynamics are evaluated using field test data, and analytical diagnostics. The evaluation includes linear and non-linear range of vehicle dynamics response.
Technical Paper

NVH Research Facilities at The Ohio State University: Existing Facilities and Envisioned Enhancements

1997-05-20
971899
The automotive NVH research infrastructure at Ohio State includes the Center for Automotive Research, the Acoustics and Dynamics Laboratory, and the Gear Dynamics and Gear Noise Research Laboratory. This paper describes the facilities of these laboratories. Two unique existing facilities, namely the transmission error measurement of gears and a laboratory for the experimental measurement of engine breathing systems, will be emphasized. Also covered are the enhancements that are envisioned through a recent grant from the Ohio Board of Regents.
Technical Paper

Experimental Verification of Design Charts for Acoustic Absorbers

1997-05-20
971951
Design charts which predict acoustic absorption of porous insulators were verified experimentally using the two-microphone technique to measure the normal incidence absorption coefficient of three glass fiber materials in two different arrangements - a single-layer sample and a single layer in front of an air space, each backed by a rigid termination. The specific flow resistivities of the materials ranged from 2,000 to 52,000 mks rayls/m. Experimentally determined absorption coefficients were in agreement with those predicted by the design charts. The results indicate that these charts could be a useful tool in designing sound absorbers for practical applications.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Analysis of Layshaft Gears in Automotive Transmission

1997-05-20
971964
In this paper, we will present parametric results of performing dynamic analysis of layshaft gear trains typically used in automotive transmissions with emphasis on the vibratory response due to transmission error excitation. A three-dimensional multiple degrees of freedom lumped parameter dynamic model of a generic layshaft type geared rotor system (with three parallel rotating shafts coupled by two sets of gear pairs) has been formulated analytically. The model includes the effects of both rotational and translational displacements of each gears, and bounce and pitch motions of the counter-shaft. The natural frequencies and mode shapes are computed numerically by solving an eigenvalue problem derived from applying harmonic solutions to the equations of motion. The complete set of mode shapes are then used in forced response calculations based on the modal expansion method to predict gear accelerations, dynamic transmission errors, mesh force and bearing loads.
Technical Paper

Welding Residual Stresses in Splicing Heavy Section Shapes

1997-04-07
971585
Welding residual stress is one of the primary factors responsible for cracking at the access hole interface between the flange and web plate of welded heavy W-shapes. During multi-pass welding, cracks can be found in either the flange plate or the web plate, depending upon welding sequence, joint details and access hole size. In this study, an integrated numerical and experimental investigation was conducted to evaluate the effects of welding parameters and joint geometry on the magnitude and distribution of residual stresses in thick-section butt joints. The results provide guidelines for improved design for welding of heavy W-shapes.
Technical Paper

Wave Propagation in Catalytic Converters: A Preliminary Investigation

1997-05-20
971873
The present study investigates the wave propagation and attenuation in catalytic converters. The relationships for wave propagation in a catalytic monolith are derived first and then coupled to the wave propagation in tapered ducts. Analytical predictions are compared with experimental results to validate the theory.
Technical Paper

Soil Compaction of Four-Wheel Drive and Tracked Tractors Under Various Draft Loads

1995-09-01
952098
The soil response to traffic loads as affected by tire inflation pressure, track width and drawbar pull was measured. The change in soil physical properties caused by a John Deere 8870 tractor at two tire pressure settings and CATERPILLAR Challenger 65 and 75 tractors with 64 and 89 cm wide belt tracks, were measured at two load levels; no draft (tractor only) and tractor pulling a 12.5 m field cultivator. The Ohio State University Soil Physical Properties Measurement System was used to measure cone penetration resistance, air permeability, air-filled porosity, and bulk density. The results show the dual overinflated tires caused the greatest change, followed by the CATERPILLAR Challenger 65 track, then the CATERPILLAR Challenger 75 track, and finally dual correctly inflated tires caused the least effect on soil physical properties. These results were consistent at each depth. The effects of the two draft levels give the same ranking of the tractive units.
Technical Paper

Combine Tractive Devices: Effects on Soil Compaction

1995-09-01
952159
Soil response to differences in tire size and inflation pressure was measured for a JD 9600 combine with 18.4R38 dual tires, 30.5L32 single tires, 68x50.00-32 single tires at 103 and 166 kPa inflation pressure and a John Deere half-track system on two different soils (Kokomo and Crosby) near Urbana, Ohio. A loaded 42.3 m3 grain cart was included on the Kokomo soil for comparative purposes. The Ohio State Soil Physical Properties Measurement System was used to sample and measure the bulk density, air-filled porosity, air permeability and cone penetration resistance between 10 and 50 cm depths. The results for Kokomo soil show the grain cart had the greatest effect with an average decrease in total porosity of 12.90 percent, compared to 7.95%, 6.05%, 4.56%, 3.06%, and 2.04% for singles, tracks, duals, wide overinflated, and wide rated pressure tires, respectively, on the combine.
Technical Paper

Integrated Powertrain Diagnostic System: Linking On- and Off-Board Diagnostic Strategies

1996-02-01
960621
A number of automotive diagnostic equipment and procedures have evolved over the last two decades, leading to two generations of on-board diagnostic requirements (OBDI and OBDII), increasing the number of components and systems to be monitored by the diagnostic tools. The goal of On-Board Diagnostic is to alert the driver to the presence of a malfunction of the emission control system, and to identify the location of the problem in order to assist mechanics in properly performing repairs. The aim of this paper is to suggest a methodology for the development of an Integrated Powertrain Diagnostic System (EPDS) that can combine the information supplied by conventional tailpipe inspection programs with onboard diagnostics to provide fast and reliable diagnosis of malfunctions.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Study of Friction on a Single Cylinder CFR Engine

1996-02-01
960357
Three engine friction models of increasing complexity were developed in order to determine which type of model most effectively captured transient engine operation. Empirical constants for these models were determined through an optimization procedure using experimental data. These constants were then used with a simple dynamic model to produce overall simulations of the engine reciprocating and rotating dynamics. All three friction models appeared to provide useful results, however the two simpler models were much easier to implement. The most complex model presented some implementation problems, but promises to provide a more detailed picture of engine friction. The models were tested on a single cylinder research engine.
Technical Paper

Periodic Response of Nonlinear Engine Mounting Systems

1995-05-01
951297
A new semi-analytical framework for the study of passive or active engine mounting systems is presented. It recognizes that most practical problems incorporate a nonlinear mount or isolation element and the resulting physical system, consisting of the engine, mount and flexible base, involves many degrees of freedom. Unlike linear systems, sinusoidal excitation produces a periodic response, including super- and sub- harmonics. Two example case systems are employed to illustrate key concepts of the framework. The first numerical example case involves a passive hydraulic engine mount with an inertia track. The second example case is a novel experimental system that has been developed to study active and passive, nonlinear mounting problems. New analytical and experimental results are presented and various nonlinear phenomena are considered. The impact of nonlinearity on vibratory power transmission and active control is also investigated.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Intake-Generated Flow Fields in I.C. Engines Using 3-D Particle Tracking Velocimetry (3-D PTV)

1994-03-01
940279
Flow fields generated during the intake stroke of a 4-stroke I.C. engine are studied experimentally using water analog simulation. The fluid is seeded by small flow tracer particles and imaged by two digital cameras at BDC. Using a 3-D Particle Tracking Velocimetry technique recently developed, the 3-D motion of these flow tracers is determined in a completely automated way using sophisticated image processing and PTV algorithms. The resulting 3-D velocity fields are ensemble averaged over a large number of successive cycles to determine the mean characteristics of the flow field as well as to estimate the turbulent fluctuations. This novel technique was applied to three different cylinder head configurations. Each configuration was run for conditions simulating idle operation two different ways: first with both inlet ports open and second with only the primary port open.
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