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Technical Paper

POWERMATIC A New Automatic for Chevrolet Transmission Heavy-Duty Trucks

1957-01-01
570012
THIS paper describes the development of a truck automatic transmission, from a statement of broad objectives through the growing pains, to road testing of the final product. Emphasis is placed upon original thinking that led to the decision to undertake such a project, compromises that suggested themselves throughout the various stages, and features tried and found wanting as well as those retained. The finished product is described full though not in detail, stress being placed upon interesting and novel design features.
Technical Paper

WHERE DOES ALL THE POWER GO?

1957-01-01
570058
AS a basis for the analyses of this symposium, a hypothetical car has been used to evaluate the engine power distribution in performance. Effects of fuel,-engine accessories, and certain car accessories are evaluated. The role of the transmission in making engine power useful at normal car speeds is also discussed. Variables encountered in wind and rolling resistance determinations are reevaluated by improved test techniques. Net horsepower of the car in terms of acceleration, passing ability and grade capability are also summarized.
Technical Paper

AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION CONTROL SYSTEMS

1947-01-01
470242
THIS description of the hydraulic control used with the hydra-matic transmission reveals how the control operates to change ratios under power without direction from the driver. The control's pattern of automatic shifting for ordinary, high-range driving has been selected as the best compromise between top performance and low ratio of engine noise to wind noise. The control's low range shifts gears according to performance dictates alone, furnishing greater power for extreme conditions at low speeds and enabling the driver to use his engine as a brake on steep descents. Heart of the control system is a double hydraulic governor, sensitive both to car speed and throttle opening. THIS paper, as well as the two that follow, one by Messrs. Nutt and Smirl and the other by Mr. Kimberly, make up a symposium on automatic transmission components presented at the 1947 SAE Summer Meeting.
Technical Paper

Interrelationship of Design, Lubrication, and Metallurgy in Cam and Tappet Performance

1956-01-01
560017
A PROGRAM was undertaken to evaluate the performance of cams and tappets as influenced by design, lubrication, and metallurgical techniques. Car and dynamometer tests and a newly developed bench test are described. The latter shows promise in lending itself to the determination of the effects of single variables in a practical, short, and economic fashion, while the former do not. For the conditions of high contact stress and boundary lubrication experienced in cam and tappet operation, the authors draw several conclusions from the test work described, categorically related to the design, lubrication, and metallurigical problems present.
Technical Paper

AUTOIGNITION associated with HOT STARTING

1958-01-01
580020
USING a high-speed motion picture camera, flame photographs were taken of the combustion process associated with the starting of hot gasoline engines. Compression ignition at isolated points followed by normal combustion caused peak cylinder pressures to occur prior to top dead-center under some low-speed engine conditions. In addition, an abnormal combustion phenomenon was observed in the last part of the charge to burn. The reaction rate was appreciably faster than normal for the engine speed and much slower than is usually observed in knocking combustion at normal engine speeds.
Technical Paper

some metallurgical aspects of … Pontiac V-8 Engine Pearlitic Malleable Iron Crankshaft

1958-01-01
580013
PEARLITIC malleable iron crankshafts are being used in the new Pontiac engine as a result of recent developments. This paper discusses the physical properties of pearlitic malleable iron such as elastic modulus, fatigue endurance, and tensile strength. According to the author, definite machining economies result from using pearlitic malleable iron crankshafts.
Technical Paper

CHEVROLET TURBOGLIDE TRANSMISSION

1958-01-01
580019
TURBOGLIDE is the deluxe automatic transmission of the General Motors Chevrolet. One of its most important features is that its performance ratio is available at any throttle position, enabling control of torque ratio and engine output by the throttle pedal. The system includes a five-element torque converter, pump, three turbines, and the dual stator. The entire installed unit weighs 148 lb, a result of the general arrangement and the use of aluminum in the case and bell housing. The authors discuss the basic operating principle of the transmission, the arrangement, performance, torque distribution, control system, and valve body.
Journal Article

Automotive Brake Hose Fluid Consumption Characteristics and Its Effects on Brake System Pedal Feel

2010-04-12
2010-01-0082
During the automotive brake system design and development process, a large number of performance characteristics must be comprehended, assessed, and balanced against each other and, at times, competing performance objectives for the vehicle under development. One area in brake development that is critical to customer acceptance due to its impact on a vehicle's perceived quality is brake pedal feel. While a number of papers have focused on the specification, quantification and modeling of brake pedal feel and the various subsystem characteristics that affect it, few papers have focused specifically on brake corner hoses and their effect on pedal feel, in particular, during race-track conditions. Specifically, the effects of brake hose fluid consumption pedal travel and brake system response is not well comprehended during the brake development process.
Technical Paper

Diagnosis of Off-Brake Performance Issues with Low Range Pressure Distribution Sensors

2010-04-12
2010-01-0073
Brake caliper and corner behavior in the off-brake condition can lead, at times, to brake system performance issues such as residual drag (and related issues such as pulsation, judder, and loss of fuel economy), and caliper pryback during aggressive driving maneuvers. The dynamics in the brake corner can be strikingly complex, with numerous friction interfaces, rubber component and grease dynamics, deflections of multiple components, and significant dependence on usage conditions. Displacements of moving parts are usually small, and the residual forces in the caliper interfaces involved are also small in comparison with other forces acting on the same components, making direct observation very difficult. The present work attempts to illuminate off-brake behavior in two different conditions - residual drag and pryback - through the use of low-range pressure distribution sensors placed in between the caliper (pistons and fingers) and the brake pad pressure plates.
Technical Paper

Improvement on Cylinder-to-Cylinder Variation Using a Cylinder Balancing Control Strategy in Gasoline HCCI Engines

2010-04-12
2010-01-0848
Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion offers significant efficiency improvements compared to conventional gasoline engines. However, due to the nature of HCCI combustion, traditional HCCI engines show some degree of sensitivity to in-cylinder thermal conditions; thus higher cylinder-to-cylinder variation was observed especially at low load and high load operating conditions due to different injector characteristics, different amount of reforming as well as non-uniform EGR distribution. To address these issues, a cylinder balancing control strategy was developed for a multi-cylinder engine. In particular, the cylinder balancing control strategy balances CA50 and AF ratio at high load and low load conditions, respectively. Combustion noise was significantly reduced at high load while combustion stability was improved at low load with the cylinder balancing control.
Technical Paper

General Motors Small Front Wheel Drive Six speed Automatic Transmission Family

2010-04-12
2010-01-0857
General Motors introduced a family of small front wheel drive six speed automatic transmissions for the 2008 model year. The family currently has two variants: 6T40 and 6T45, which cover a range of vehicles from small & compact cars to small SUVs and handle engines torque capacities up to 240 Nm Gas(280 Nm Diesel) & 315 Nm Gas (380 Nm Diesel) respectively. The 6T40/45 transmissions replace GM traditional four speed automatic wrap around transmissions 4T40/45. The wrap around transmissions have Torque Converter, Pump & Controls on the engine axis and the rest of the transmission content on the output axis. The 6T40/45 have an on-axis architecture with majority of the transmission content on the engine axis and final drive & differential on the output axis. The 4T40/45 have input chain transfer whereas the 6T40/45 have an output chain transfer.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Characterization and Analysis of Diesel Engines with Two-Stage Turbochargers

2010-04-12
2010-01-1220
Two-stage turbochargers are a recent solution to improve engine performance, reducing the turbo-lag phenomenon and improving the matching. However, the definition of the control system is particularly complex, as the presence of two turbochargers that can be in part operated independently requires effort in terms of analysis and optimization. This work documents a characterization study of two-stage turbocharger systems. The study relies on a mean-value model of a Diesel engine equipped with a two-stage turbocharger, validated on experimental data. The turbocharger is characterized by a VGT actuator and a bypass valve (BPV), both located on the high-pressure turbine. This model structure is representative of a “virtual engine”, which can be effectively utilized for applications related to analysis and control. Using this tool, a complete characterization was conducted considering key operating conditions representative of FTP driving cycle operations.
Technical Paper

Oil Transport Analysis of a Cylinder Deactivation Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-1098
Engine cylinder deactivation is used to save engine pumping loss but raises oil consumption concerns for the deactivated cylinders. In this paper, general mechanisms of oil transport via piston rings are reviewed. The characteristic of oil transport and oil accumulation in a cylinder deactivation mode through the piston ring path are analyzed. Suggestions to reduce the oil transport to the combustion chamber in a deactivated cylinder are discussed. In a deactivated cylinder, the amount of oil brought into the combustion chamber by the top ring up-scraping due to the ring/bore conformability difference between intake stroke and compression stroke is much less compared to a firing cylinder. However, compared to a firing cylinder, a deactivated cylinder has more oil entering the combustion chamber through the top ring end gap and ring groove as a result of the lower cylinder gas pressure, lower ring temperature and more frequent top ring axial movements.
Technical Paper

Comparison of OEM Automatic Transmission Fluids in Industry Standard Tests

2007-10-29
2007-01-3987
As a result of raised awareness regarding the proliferation of individual OEM recommended ATFs, and discussion in various forums regarding the possibility of ‘universal’ service fill fluids, it was decided to study how divergent individual OEM requirements actually are by comparing the fluids performance in industry standard tests. A bench-mark study was carried out to compare the performance of various OEM automatic transmission fluids in selected industry standard tests. All of the fluids evaluated in the study are used by certain OEMs for both factory and service fill. The areas evaluated included friction durability, oxidation resistance, viscosity stability, aeration and foam control. The results of this study are discussed in this paper. Based on the results, one can conclude that each ATF is uniquely formulated to specific OEM requirements.
Technical Paper

Chemiluminescence Measurements of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Combustion

2006-04-03
2006-01-1520
A spectroscopic diagnostic system was designed to study the effects of different engine parameters on the chemiluminescence characteristic of HCCI combustion. The engine parameters studied in this work were intake temperature, fuel delivery method, fueling rate (load), air-fuel ratio, and the effect of partial fuel reforming due to intake charge preheating. At each data point, a set of time-resolved spectra were obtained along with the cylinder pressure and exhaust emissions data. It was determined that different engine parameters affect the ignition timing of HCCI combustion without altering the reaction pathways of the fuel after the combustion has started. The chemiluminescence spectra of HCCI combustion appear as several distinct peaks corresponding to emission from CHO, HCHO, CH, and OH superimposed on top of a CO-O continuum. A strong correlation was found between the chemiluminescence light intensity and the rate of heat release.
Technical Paper

General Motors DEXRON®-VI Global Service-Fill Specification

2006-10-16
2006-01-3242
During early 2005 General Motors released a newly developed ATF for the factory fill of all GM Powertrain stepped gear automatic transmissions. The new fluid provided significantly improved performance in terms of friction durability, viscosity stability, aeration and foam control and oxidation resistance. In addition, the fluid has the potential to enable improved fuel economy and extended drain intervals. Since the performance of the new fluid far exceeded that of the DEXRON®-III service fill fluids available at the time it became necessary to upgrade the DEXRON® service fill specification in order to ensure that similar fluids were available in the market for service and repair situations. This latest upgrade to the service fill specification is designated DEXRON®-VI [1].
Technical Paper

The Oxidative Stability of GM's DEXRON®-VI Global Factory Fill ATF

2006-10-16
2006-01-3241
A detailed description of the oxidative stability of GM's DEXRON®-VI Factory Fill Automatic Transmission Fluid (ATF) is provided, which can be integrated into a working algorithm to estimate the end of useful oxidative life of the fluid. As described previously, an algorithm to determine the end of useful life of an automatic transmission fluid exists and is composed of two simultaneous counters, one monitoring bulk oxidation and the other monitoring friction degradation [1]. When either the bulk oxidation model or the friction model reach the specified limit, a signal can be triggered to alert the driver that an ATF change is required. The data presented in this report can be used to develop the bulk oxidation model. The bulk oxidation model is built from a large series of bench oxidation tests. These data can also be used independent of a vehicle to show the relative oxidation resistance of this fluid, at various temperatures, compared to other common lubricants.
Technical Paper

Adaptation of a Variable Displacement Vane Pump to Engine Lube Oil Applications

2007-04-16
2007-01-1567
Variable valve actuation has become a very popular feature in today's engines. With many of these systems being hydraulically actuated, the engine lubrication system requires enhancement to support their function. To expand the system's operational range with respect to speed and temperature, a traditional solution has been to increase oil pressure by increasing pump displacement. To better optimize the system, a variable displacement vane pump has been adapted to the engine lube oil system. Based on existing transmission pump technology, a pivoting cam ring design is employed that is able to vary the pump's displacement as a function of pump regulating oil pressure which in-turn provides a net reduction in its drive torque. While others have addressed this issue using complex and expensive pressure regulating systems, this passive solution requires no valves or additional hardware.
Technical Paper

Washcoat Technology and Precious Metal Loading Study Targeting the California LEV MDV2 Standard

1996-10-01
961904
Meeting the California Medium-Duty truck emissions standards presents a significant challenge to automotive engineers due to the combination of sustained high temperature exhaust conditions, high flow rates and relatively high engine out emissions. A successful catalyst for an exhaust treatment system must be resistant to high temperature deactivation, maintain cold start performance and display high three-way conversion efficiencies under most operating conditions. This paper describes a catalyst technology and precious metal loading study targeting a California Medium-Duty truck LEV (MDV2) application. At the same time a direction is presented for optimizing toward the Federal Tier 1 standard through reduction of precious metal use. The paper identifies catalytic formulations for a twin substrate, 1.23 L medium-coupled converter. Two are used per vehicle, mounted 45 cm downstream of each manifold on a 5.7 L V8 engine.
Technical Paper

New Transmissions for Off-Highway Dump Trucks

1996-08-01
961767
The new Allison M6600 and M9600 transmissions incorporate continuous improvement items to achieve greater robustness in terms of reliability and durability. This was partially accomplished by incorporating components from higher - capacity transmissions into current products with minimal redesign and tooling. A key life factor for all transmission components is adequate lubrication and cooling, and improvements in this area were accomplished by decreasing restrictions and better utilization of oil that was previously exhausted to sump. The new transmission models have further enhancements to clutch life through improved control of clutch torque and slip times. These clutch improvements were developed through the use of improved computerized evaluation techniques utilizing lap-top computer programs. Also, a transmission -mounted floating-caliper, disc type park brake with integrated controls is being evaluated as a possible replacement for the current drum-type brake.
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