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Technical Paper

Piston Fuel Film Observations in an Optical Access GDI Engine

A gasoline direct injection fuel spray was observed using a fired, optical access, square cross-section single cylinder research engine and high-speed video imaging. Spray interaction with the piston is described qualitatively, and the results are compared with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation results using KIVA-3V version 2. CFD simulations predicted that within the operating window for stratified charge operation, between 1% and 4% of the injected fuel would remain on the piston as a liquid film, dependent primarily on piston temperature. The experimental results support the CFD simulations qualitatively, but the amount of fuel film remaining on the piston appears to be under-predicted. High-speed video footage shows a vigorous spray impingement on the piston crown, resulting in vapor production.
Technical Paper

Performance of Coatings for Underbody Structural Components

The Auto/Steel Partnership established the Light Truck Frame Project Group in 1996 with two objectives: (a) to develop materials, design and fabrication knowledge that would enable the frames on North American OEM (original equipment manufacturer) light trucks to be reduced in weight, and (b) to improve corrosion resistance of frames on these vehicles, thereby allowing a reduction in the thickness of the components and a reduction in frame weight. To address the issues relating to corrosion, a subgroup of the Light Truck Frame Project Group was formed. The group comprised representatives from the North American automotive companies, test laboratories, frame manufacturers, and steel producers. As part of a comprehensive test program, the Corrosion Subgroup has completed tests on frame coatings. Using coated panels of a low carbon hot rolled and pickled steel sheet and two types of accelerated cyclic corrosion tests, seven frame coatings were tested for corrosion performance.
Technical Paper

Engine Mount for Integral Body Vehicle

A typical problem in integral body vehicles is the isolation of high frequency vibration and noise. A method of attacking this problem is presented for isolation of engine noise. A mount concept which acts as a mechanical low pass filter was analyzed, designed and tested. Results in reducing engine noise in the vehicle show it to be an effective method.
Technical Paper

Technical Potential for Thermally Driven Mobile A/C Systems

Aqua-ammonia absorption refrigeration cycle and R-134a Vapor jet-ejector refrigeration cycle for automotive air-conditioning were studied and analyzed. Thermally activated refrigeration cycles would utilize combustion engine exhaust gas or engine coolant to supply heat to the generator. For the absorption system, the thermodynamic cycle was analyzed and pressures, temperatures, concentrations, enthalpies, and mass flow rates at every point were computed based on input parameters simulate practical operating conditions of vehicles. Then, heat addition to the generator, heat removal rates from absorber, condenser, and rectifying unit, and total rejection heat transfer area were all calculated. For the jet-ejector system, the optimum ejector vapor mass ratio based on similar input parameters was found by solving diffuser's conservation equations of continuity, momentum, energy, and flow through primary ejector nozzle simultaneously.
Technical Paper

Engine Crankcase Pumping Flow Model

A transient, one-dimensional, two-phase (crankcase gases and liquids) flow network model was developed (and coded in FORTRAN) to calculate the crankcase pressures versus crank angle during engine operation and the consequent crankcase pumping mean effective pressure (CPMEP). The two-phase flow was represented by an empirical expression. Note, CPMEP is one of the components of engine FMEP (friction mean effective pressure) and is being introduced here as a new term. The model was calibrated with engine crankcase pressure measurements. The motivation for the present work was the fact that no commercial (or public domain) software is available to adequately address this subject in sufficient detail. The model also predicts that closing (i.e. sealing) the individual bays of an engine can result in (nearly) zero CPMEP. This was confirmed by motored single cylinder engine measurements.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Densification in Powder Metal Forging

Finite Element Method (FEM) simulation of the powder metal forging process can be a useful tool in new product or process development because the simulation provides tooling load estimates, press size requirements, preform design feasibility and allows accurate and inexpensive parametric studies of forging process variables. Several examples of simulations using ALPID-P code are presented. Axisymmetric and plane strain simulations at several cross sections of an automotive P/M connecting rod forging indicate that die wall friction has a large effect on the densification process. Also, simulations indicate a significant die wall velocity effect on densification.
Technical Paper

Three-Dimensional Navier-Stokes Analysis of Front End Air Flow for a Simplified Engine Compartment

A computer code for predicting cooling air flow through the radiator and the condenser has been developed. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, together with the porous flow model for the radiator and the condenser, were solved to simulate front end air flow and the engine compartment flow simultaneously. These transport equations were discretized based on a finite-volume method in a transformed domain. The computational results for a simplified engine compartment showed overall flow information, such as the cooling air flow through the radiator and the condenser, the effects of an air dam, and the effects of fresh air vents near the top of the radiator and the condenser. Comparison of the available experimental data with the analysis showed excellent prediction of the cooling air flow through the radiator and the condenser.
Technical Paper

A Sampling System for the Measurement of PreCatalyst Emissions from Vehicles Operating Under Transient Conditions

A proportional sampler for vehicle feedgas and tailpipe emissions has been developed that extracts a small, constant fraction of the total exhaust flow during rapid transient changes in engine speed. Heated sampling lines are used to extract samples either before or after the catalytic converter. Instantaneous exhaust mass flow is measured by subtracting the CVS dilution air volume from the total CVS volume. This parameter is used to maintain a constant dilution ratio and proportional sample. The exhaust sample is diluted with high-purity air or nitrogen and is delivered into Tedlar sample bags. These transient test cycle weighted feedgas samples can be collected for subsequent analysis of hydrocarbons and oxygenated hydrocarbon species. This “mini-diluter” offers significant advantages over the conventional CVS system. The concentration of the samples are higher than those collected from the current CVS system because the dilution ratio can be optimized depending on the fuel.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Total Vehicle Evaporative Emissions

A sealed plastic enclosure was proposed in February 1967 by HEW as a technique for measurement of fuel system evaporative emissions from an automobile. Early work with this technique uncovered problems such as car background emissions. Subsequent experimental work, however, has solved these problems and has shown the sealed enclosure capable of correctly measuring total vehicle evaporative emissions. Fuel vapors that actually reach the atmosphere can be measured in a simple, direct way without the necessity for vehicle modification. A complete description of the enclosure is given and its use by GM is described.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Exhaust System Geometry on Exhaust Dilution and Odor Intensity

Diesel exhaust gas dilution and odor intensity were measured in the immediate vicinity of a transit bus equipped with a rear-mounted horizontal exhaust pipe, a rear-mounted vertical exhaust pipe, and a roof-top diffusion system. Exhaust dilution ratios were measured indoors during vehicle idle operation, using propane added to the exhaust gas as a tracer. Exhaust odor intensities were measured also indoors during vehicle idle operation by a human panel, using a threshold odor measurement technique. On the average, the dilution of the exhaust gas around the bus with the vertical exhaust pipe was about eight times greater than it was with the horizontal pipe. Odor intensity, as measured by the threshold response distance, was about 35% less with the vertical pipe than with the horizontal pipe. The roof-top diffuser was not as effective as the vertical exhaust pipe in increasing exhaust gas dilution or in reducing exhaust odor intensity.
Technical Paper

Plasma Jet Ignition of Lean Mixtures

The development of a plasma jet ignition system is described on a 4-cyl, 140 in3 engine. Performance was evaluated on the basis of combustion flame photographs in a single-cylinder engine at 20/1 A/F dynamometer tests on a modified 4-cyl engine, and cold start emissions, fuel economy, and drivability in a vehicle at 19/1 air fuel ratio. In addition to adjustable engine variables such as air-fuel ratio and spark advance, system electrical and mechanical parameters were varied to improve combustion of lean mixtures. As examples, the air-fuel ratio range was 16-22/1, secondary ignition current was varied from 40 to 6000 mA, and plasma jet cavity and electrode geometry were optimized. It is shown that the plasma jet produces on ignition source which penetrates the mixture ahead of the initial flame front and reduces oxides of nitrogen emission, in comparison to a conventional production combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Viscosity Effects on Engine Wear Under High-Temperature, High-Speed Conditions

Four multigrade engine oils, containing the same base oil plus SE additive package but VI improvers of differing shear stability, were evaluated in 80 000 km of high-speed, high-temperature vehicle service. Bearing, piston ring and valve guide wear, as well as oil consumption, oil filter plugging and engine cleanliness were all worse for the engines operated on the low-shear stability oils. The wear differences were traced to differences in high-shear-rate viscosity, while the cleanliness, filter plugging and oil consumption differences occurred because of excessive wear or polymer shear degradation. These results suggest that engine oil viscosity should be specified under high-shear-rate conditions.
Technical Paper

the potential of Unconventional Powerplants for Vehicle Propulsion

COMPARISON of work capacity per unit mass and volume of different energy carriers shows that liquid hydrocarbons are superior to other energy sources. Solar and nuclear powerplants as well as their use in conjunction with a steam engine are examined in this paper. Suitability of an electric drive is discussed. Using a production 2-stroke diesel engine and its development forecast, a comparison is made of spark ignition, diesel, and gas turbine engines. The status of the free-piston engine turbine combination is reviewed.
Technical Paper

a new look at High Compression Engines

THE automotive and petroleum industries have been concerned for many years with the mutual problem of improving the thermal efficiency of gasoline engines. Great progress in refining technology, as well as advances in engine design in recent years, have made it desirable to take a new look at high-compression engines. This paper describes an investigation of the effect of compression ratio on engine efficiency over a range of compression ratios from 9/1 to 25/1. The results show that the thermal efficiency of the multicylinder engines used in this study peaked at a compression ratio of 17/1. The decrease in thermal efficiency at higher compression ratios is due primarily to delay in the completion of the combustion process. This paper received the 1958 Horning Memorial Award.
Technical Paper

Studying Valve Dynamics with Electronic Computers

Dynamic conditions of automotive type valve trains have been investigated by means of digital computers. It has been possible to include the effect of such nonlinearities as valve lash, linkage separation, valve seating, and valve spring surge. Comparison with experimental results has shown that computer solutions are realistic. The advantage of being able to simulate and predict performance of any proposed type of valve train is obvious. This paper presents methods of approach for analyzing valve dynamics, correlation of computed results with experimental values, and examples of application of interrelated methods. Included in this paper are: (1) Methods of approach for analyzing valve dynamics, (2) Correlation of computed results with experimental values and, (3) Examples of application of interrelated methods.
Technical Paper

General Motors High Performance 4.3L V6 Engine

FIGURE 1 The 200 HP high performance 4.3L Vortec V6 engine has been developed to satisfy the need for a fuel efficient performance powerplant in the General Motors small truck platforms. Marketing requirements included strong low and mid range torque, relatively high specific power, smoothness and noise comparable to the best competitive six cylinder engines, excellent driveability, and a new technology image. Maintaining the 4.3L engine record of high reliability and customer satisfaction was an absolute requirement. Fuel economy and exhaust emission performance had to meet expected customer and legislated requirements in the mid 1990's.
Technical Paper

The Northstar DOHC V-8 Engine for Cadillac

General Motors Powertrain Division has developed a new V-8 engine for Cadillac vehicles in the 1990s. The Northstar engine incorporates the use of aluminum for both the cylinder block and head and other lightweight materials throughout. The valve train incorporates direct acting hydraulic lifters actuating the four valves per cylinder through dual overhead camshafts. The primary focus of the project has been to produce an engine of unquestioned reliability and exceptional value which is pleasing to the customer throughout the range of loads and speeds. The engine was designed with a light weight valve train, low valve overlap and moderate lift, resulting in a very pleasing combination of smooth idle and a broad range of power. The use of analytical methods early in the design stage enabled systems to be engineered to optimize reliability, pleaseability and value by reducing frictional losses, noise, and potential leak paths, while increasing efficiency and ease of manufacture.
Technical Paper

Selection and Development of a Particulate Trap System for a Light Duty Diesel Engine

In order to meet progressively stringent regulations on particulate emission from diesel engines, GM has developed and tested a variety of trap oxidizer systems over the years. A particulate trap system for a light duty diesel engine has been selected and developed based on this experience, with particular emphasis on production feasibility. The system components have been designed and developed in collaboration with potential suppliers, to the extent possible. The technical performance of this system has been demonstrated by successful system durability testing in the test cell and vehicle experience in computer controlled automatic operation mode. Although the system shows promise, its production readiness will require more development and extensive vehicle validation under all operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Thermal Durability of a Ceramic Wall-Flow Diesel Filter for Light Duty Vehicles

The thermal durability of a large frontal area cordierite ceramic wall-flow filter for light-duty diesel engine is examined under various regeneration conditions. The radial temperature distribution during burner regeneration, obtained by eight different thermocouples at six different axial sections of a 75″ diameter x 8″ long filter, is used together with physical properties of the filter to compute thermal stresses via finite element analysis. The stress-time history of the filter is then compared with the strength and fatigue characteristics of extruded cordierite ceramic monolith. The successful performance of the filter over as many as 1000 regenerations is attributed to three important design parameters, namely unique filter properties, controlled regeneration conditions, and optimum packaging design. The latter induces significant radial and axial compression in the filter thereby enhancing its strength and reducing the operating stresses.
Technical Paper

Central Port Fuel Injection

The primary objective of Central Port Fuel Injection is to be a low cost multi-point fuel injection system with the additional attributes of compactness, packaging flexibility, and reliability. Performance of this fuel system closely resembles that of a simultaneous multi-point fuel injection system in flow control, dynamic range, cylinder-to-cylinder distribution, idle quality, transient response, and emissions. The system provides significantly improved performance in the areas of hot fuel handling, cold startability, vacuum and voltage sensitivity and system noise. This performance comes at a significant cost savings and greater packaging and targeting flexibility over a conventional multi-point fuel injection system.