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Technical Paper

POWERMATIC A New Automatic for Chevrolet Transmission Heavy-Duty Trucks

THIS paper describes the development of a truck automatic transmission, from a statement of broad objectives through the growing pains, to road testing of the final product. Emphasis is placed upon original thinking that led to the decision to undertake such a project, compromises that suggested themselves throughout the various stages, and features tried and found wanting as well as those retained. The finished product is described full though not in detail, stress being placed upon interesting and novel design features.
Technical Paper


AS a basis for the analyses of this symposium, a hypothetical car has been used to evaluate the engine power distribution in performance. Effects of fuel,-engine accessories, and certain car accessories are evaluated. The role of the transmission in making engine power useful at normal car speeds is also discussed. Variables encountered in wind and rolling resistance determinations are reevaluated by improved test techniques. Net horsepower of the car in terms of acceleration, passing ability and grade capability are also summarized.
Technical Paper


THIS description of the hydraulic control used with the hydra-matic transmission reveals how the control operates to change ratios under power without direction from the driver. The control's pattern of automatic shifting for ordinary, high-range driving has been selected as the best compromise between top performance and low ratio of engine noise to wind noise. The control's low range shifts gears according to performance dictates alone, furnishing greater power for extreme conditions at low speeds and enabling the driver to use his engine as a brake on steep descents. Heart of the control system is a double hydraulic governor, sensitive both to car speed and throttle opening. THIS paper, as well as the two that follow, one by Messrs. Nutt and Smirl and the other by Mr. Kimberly, make up a symposium on automatic transmission components presented at the 1947 SAE Summer Meeting.
Technical Paper


TURBOGLIDE is the deluxe automatic transmission of the General Motors Chevrolet. One of its most important features is that its performance ratio is available at any throttle position, enabling control of torque ratio and engine output by the throttle pedal. The system includes a five-element torque converter, pump, three turbines, and the dual stator. The entire installed unit weighs 148 lb, a result of the general arrangement and the use of aluminum in the case and bell housing. The authors discuss the basic operating principle of the transmission, the arrangement, performance, torque distribution, control system, and valve body.
Journal Article

Automotive Brake Hose Fluid Consumption Characteristics and Its Effects on Brake System Pedal Feel

During the automotive brake system design and development process, a large number of performance characteristics must be comprehended, assessed, and balanced against each other and, at times, competing performance objectives for the vehicle under development. One area in brake development that is critical to customer acceptance due to its impact on a vehicle's perceived quality is brake pedal feel. While a number of papers have focused on the specification, quantification and modeling of brake pedal feel and the various subsystem characteristics that affect it, few papers have focused specifically on brake corner hoses and their effect on pedal feel, in particular, during race-track conditions. Specifically, the effects of brake hose fluid consumption pedal travel and brake system response is not well comprehended during the brake development process.
Technical Paper

General Motors Small Front Wheel Drive Six speed Automatic Transmission Family

General Motors introduced a family of small front wheel drive six speed automatic transmissions for the 2008 model year. The family currently has two variants: 6T40 and 6T45, which cover a range of vehicles from small & compact cars to small SUVs and handle engines torque capacities up to 240 Nm Gas(280 Nm Diesel) & 315 Nm Gas (380 Nm Diesel) respectively. The 6T40/45 transmissions replace GM traditional four speed automatic wrap around transmissions 4T40/45. The wrap around transmissions have Torque Converter, Pump & Controls on the engine axis and the rest of the transmission content on the output axis. The 6T40/45 have an on-axis architecture with majority of the transmission content on the engine axis and final drive & differential on the output axis. The 4T40/45 have input chain transfer whereas the 6T40/45 have an output chain transfer.
Technical Paper

Comparison of OEM Automatic Transmission Fluids in Industry Standard Tests

As a result of raised awareness regarding the proliferation of individual OEM recommended ATFs, and discussion in various forums regarding the possibility of ‘universal’ service fill fluids, it was decided to study how divergent individual OEM requirements actually are by comparing the fluids performance in industry standard tests. A bench-mark study was carried out to compare the performance of various OEM automatic transmission fluids in selected industry standard tests. All of the fluids evaluated in the study are used by certain OEMs for both factory and service fill. The areas evaluated included friction durability, oxidation resistance, viscosity stability, aeration and foam control. The results of this study are discussed in this paper. Based on the results, one can conclude that each ATF is uniquely formulated to specific OEM requirements.
Technical Paper

The Oxidative Stability of GM's DEXRON®-VI Global Factory Fill ATF

A detailed description of the oxidative stability of GM's DEXRON®-VI Factory Fill Automatic Transmission Fluid (ATF) is provided, which can be integrated into a working algorithm to estimate the end of useful oxidative life of the fluid. As described previously, an algorithm to determine the end of useful life of an automatic transmission fluid exists and is composed of two simultaneous counters, one monitoring bulk oxidation and the other monitoring friction degradation [1]. When either the bulk oxidation model or the friction model reach the specified limit, a signal can be triggered to alert the driver that an ATF change is required. The data presented in this report can be used to develop the bulk oxidation model. The bulk oxidation model is built from a large series of bench oxidation tests. These data can also be used independent of a vehicle to show the relative oxidation resistance of this fluid, at various temperatures, compared to other common lubricants.
Technical Paper

New Transmissions for Off-Highway Dump Trucks

The new Allison M6600 and M9600 transmissions incorporate continuous improvement items to achieve greater robustness in terms of reliability and durability. This was partially accomplished by incorporating components from higher - capacity transmissions into current products with minimal redesign and tooling. A key life factor for all transmission components is adequate lubrication and cooling, and improvements in this area were accomplished by decreasing restrictions and better utilization of oil that was previously exhausted to sump. The new transmission models have further enhancements to clutch life through improved control of clutch torque and slip times. These clutch improvements were developed through the use of improved computerized evaluation techniques utilizing lap-top computer programs. Also, a transmission -mounted floating-caliper, disc type park brake with integrated controls is being evaluated as a possible replacement for the current drum-type brake.
Technical Paper

A Five-Speed Starting Clutch Automatic Transmission Vehicle

A wet multi-plate clutch, designated as the “starting clutch”, is used to replace the torque converter in the automatic transmission in order to improve vehicle fuel economy. The transmission ratio spread must be increased to compensate for the torque multiplication of the torque converter and avoid penalizing the 0-60 mph acceleration performance. The main challenge of this concept is the control of the starting clutch to ensure acceptable vehicle drivability. This paper describes the system of a five-speed starting clutch automatic transmission vehicle and shows vehicle test results. Vehicle test data show that (i) the fuel economy benefit of the starting clutch is significant, and (ii) a starting clutch transmission can be designed to equal or better the 0-60 mph acceleration performance of a torque converter transmission by proper selection of the gear ratios.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy and Performance Potential of a Five-Speed 4T60-E Starting Clutch Automatic Transmission Vehicle

A wet multi-plate clutch, designated as the “starting clutch”, and a two-speed simple planetary gearset are used to replace the torque converter in the 4T60-E automatic transmission in order to study the potential improvement of vehicle fuel economy without sacrificing 0 - 60 mph acceleration performance. The starting clutch and the two-speed simple planetary gearset are designed to fit in the torque converter compartment. This paper describes the modified five-speed 4T60-E starting clutch automatic transmission system and provides vehicle test results to demonstrate its fuel economy and 0-60 mph performance potential.
Technical Paper

Technical Potential for Thermally Driven Mobile A/C Systems

Aqua-ammonia absorption refrigeration cycle and R-134a Vapor jet-ejector refrigeration cycle for automotive air-conditioning were studied and analyzed. Thermally activated refrigeration cycles would utilize combustion engine exhaust gas or engine coolant to supply heat to the generator. For the absorption system, the thermodynamic cycle was analyzed and pressures, temperatures, concentrations, enthalpies, and mass flow rates at every point were computed based on input parameters simulate practical operating conditions of vehicles. Then, heat addition to the generator, heat removal rates from absorber, condenser, and rectifying unit, and total rejection heat transfer area were all calculated. For the jet-ejector system, the optimum ejector vapor mass ratio based on similar input parameters was found by solving diffuser's conservation equations of continuity, momentum, energy, and flow through primary ejector nozzle simultaneously.
Technical Paper

Variation in Cyclic Deformation and Strain-Controlled Fatigue Properties Using Different Curve Fitting and Measurement Techniques

The strain-life approach is now commonly used for fatigue life analysis and predictions in the ground vehicle industry. This approach requires the use of material properties obtained from strain-controlled uniaxial fatigue tests. These properties include fatigue strength coefficient (σf′), fatigue strength exponent (b), fatigue ductility coefficient (εf′), fatigue ductility exponent (c), cyclic strength coefficient (K′), and cyclic strain hardening exponent (n′). To obtain the aforementioned properties for the material, raw data from stable cyclic stress-strain loops are fitted in log-log scale. These data include total, elastic and plastic strain amplitudes, stress amplitude, and fatigue life. Values of the low cycle fatigue properties (σf′, b, εf′, c) determined from the raw data depend on the method of measurement and fitting. This paper examines the merits and influence of using different measurement and fitting methods on the obtained properties.
Technical Paper

Three-Dimensional Navier-Stokes Analysis of Front End Air Flow for a Simplified Engine Compartment

A computer code for predicting cooling air flow through the radiator and the condenser has been developed. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, together with the porous flow model for the radiator and the condenser, were solved to simulate front end air flow and the engine compartment flow simultaneously. These transport equations were discretized based on a finite-volume method in a transformed domain. The computational results for a simplified engine compartment showed overall flow information, such as the cooling air flow through the radiator and the condenser, the effects of an air dam, and the effects of fresh air vents near the top of the radiator and the condenser. Comparison of the available experimental data with the analysis showed excellent prediction of the cooling air flow through the radiator and the condenser.
Technical Paper

Statistical Energy Analysis of Airborne and Structure-Borne Automobile Interior Noise

This paper describes the application of Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) and Experimental SEA (ESEA) to calculating the transmission of air-borne and structure-borne noise in a mid-sized sedan. SEA can be applied rapidly in the early stages of vehicle design where the degree of geometric detail is relatively low. It is well suited to the analysis of multiple paths of vibrational energy flow from multiple sources into the passenger compartment at mid to high frequencies. However, the application of SEA is made difficult by the geometry of the vehicle's subsystems and joints. Experience with current unibody vehicles leads to distinct modeling strategies for the various frequency ranges in which airborne or structure-borne noise predominates. The theory and application of ESEA to structure-borne noise is discussed. ESEA yields loss factors and input powers which are combined with an analytical SEA model to yield a single hybrid model.
Technical Paper

Impact of Engine Design on Vehicle Heating System Performance

A global thermal model of a vehicle powertrain is used to quantify how different engine design and powertrain calibration strategies influence the performance of a vehicle heating system. Each strategy is evaluated on its ability to improve the warm-up and heat rejection characteristics of a small-displacement, spark-ignition engine while minimizing any adverse effect on fuel consumption or emissions. An energy audit analysis shows that the two strategies having the greatest impact on heating system performance are advancing the spark and forcing the transmission to operate in a lower gear. Changes in head mass, exhaust port diameter, and coolant flow rate influence the coolant warm-up rate but have relatively little effect on steady state heat transfer at the heater core.
Technical Paper

Dual Fan Alternator Design Analysis

Component operating temperatures affect both the reliability and performance of automotive alternators. It is desirable to keep the rectifier bridge and regulator temperatures below 175 C because of the semiconductors contained in this area. At temperatures greater than this, expected lifespans have been observed to decay exponentially [1]. The air flow field surrounding an alternator and component temperature fields were investigated with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. The objectives of the simulations were to examine the velocity field for the flow passage and the temperature fields for the components. Design proposals have been made to improve the air flow and to reduce the operating temperature. An initial investigation was performed by setting an alternator in a test configuration and applying the appropriate heat generation for each component. The high temperatures in the alternator components occurred in the stator and the rectifier.