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Technical Paper

THE CADILLAC FRAME: A New Design Concept for Lower Cars

1958-01-01
580014
THE 1957 Cadillac frame is a significant step in design progress toward the ever lower passenger cars demanded by customers and, therefore, car manufacturers. Stemming from tests and experimental designs in process since 1950, this frame combines reduction in height with a slight increase in structural efficiency. It reverses the trend toward the more costly and heavier structures usually associated with lower cars. Mr. Milliken discusses in Part I the steps Cadillac has taken in the last 19 years to reduce the height 9½ in. to 55½ in. The “Tubular Cenrer-X” frame of the 1957 Eldorado Brougham was the latest and most successful answer to the problem. In Part II Mr. Parker describes the A. O. Smith Corp.'s development of the basic idea and the experimental phases and testing which led to the production designs.
Technical Paper

THE BUICK Air Poise SUSPENSION

1958-01-01
580046
THIS paper describes the springs, control system, and ride of the air suspension system on the 1958 Buick. The system is a semiclosed one, providing a variable-rate suspension, automatic leveling and trim control, and manual lift. The latter feature is a knob below the instrument panel which can be operated when necessary to cope with unusual clearance conditions. The car remains at the same height with loads of up to five passengers and 500 lb in the trunk. The authors describe the road-holding ability of a car with this suspension system as excellent.
Technical Paper

Monotonic and Fatigue Behavior of Magnesium Extrusion Alloy AM30: An International Benchmark Test in the “Magnesium Front End Research and Development Project”

2010-04-12
2010-01-0407
Magnesium alloys are the lightest structural metal and recently attention has been focused on using them for structural automotive components. Fatigue and durability studies are essential in the design of these load-bearing components. In 2006, a large multinational research effort, Magnesium Front End Research & Development (MFERD), was launched involving researchers from Canada, China and the US. The MFERD project is intended to investigate the applicability of Mg alloys as lightweight materials for automotive body structures. The participating institutions in fatigue and durability studies were the University of Waterloo and Ryerson University from Canada, Institute of Metal Research (IMR) from China, and Mississippi State University, Westmorland, General Motors Corporation, Ford Motor Company and Chrysler Group LLC from the United States.
Technical Paper

Mechanical and Thermophysical Properties of Magnesium Alloy Extrusions

2010-04-12
2010-01-0410
Magnesium alloy extrusions offer potentially more mass saving compared to magnesium castings. One of the tasks in the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) ?Magnesium Front End Research and Development? (MFERD) project is to evaluate magnesium extrusion alloys AM30, AZ31 and AZ61 for automotive body applications. Solid and hollow sections were made by lowcost direct extrusion process. Mechanical properties in tension and compression were tested in extrusion, transverse and 45 degree directions. The tensile properties of the extrusion alloys in the extrusion direction are generally higher than those of conventional die cast alloys. However, significant tension-compression asymmetry and plastic anisotropy need to be understood and captured in the component design.
Technical Paper

FEA Predictions and Test Results from Magnesium Beams in Bending and Axial Compression

2010-04-12
2010-01-0405
Finite element analysis (FEA) predictions of magnesium beams are compared to load versus displacement test measurements. The beams are made from AM60B die castings, AM30 extrusions and AZ31 sheet. The sheet and die cast beams are built up from two top hat sections joined with toughened epoxy adhesive and structural rivets. LS-DYNA material model MAT_124 predicts the magnesium behavior over a range of strain rates and accommodates different responses in tension and compression. Material test results and FEA experience set the strain to failure limits in the FEA predictions. The boundary conditions in the FEA models closely mimic the loading and constraint conditions in the component testing. Results from quasi-static four-point bend, quasi-static axial compression and high-speed axial compression tests of magnesium beams show the beam's behavior over a range of loadings and test rates. The magnesium beams exhibit significant material cracking and splitting in all the tests.
Journal Article

Automotive Brake Hose Fluid Consumption Characteristics and Its Effects on Brake System Pedal Feel

2010-04-12
2010-01-0082
During the automotive brake system design and development process, a large number of performance characteristics must be comprehended, assessed, and balanced against each other and, at times, competing performance objectives for the vehicle under development. One area in brake development that is critical to customer acceptance due to its impact on a vehicle's perceived quality is brake pedal feel. While a number of papers have focused on the specification, quantification and modeling of brake pedal feel and the various subsystem characteristics that affect it, few papers have focused specifically on brake corner hoses and their effect on pedal feel, in particular, during race-track conditions. Specifically, the effects of brake hose fluid consumption pedal travel and brake system response is not well comprehended during the brake development process.
Technical Paper

Friction Damped Disc Brake Rotor

2010-04-12
2010-01-0077
Over the last five years, the automotive industry has experienced a trend towards niche performance vehicles equipped with high-output powertrains. These high performance vehicles also demand higher output braking systems. One method used to provide enhanced pedal feel and fade performance is to equip vehicles with higher apparent friction linings. The challenge then becomes how to design and manufacture these brake systems without high-frequency disc brake squeal and without paying a significant mass penalty. One alternative is to design disc brake rotors with increased damping. There are several options for increasing rotor damping. The classical approach is to increase the rotor's cast iron carbon content, thus increasing the internal material damping of the rotor. However, this methodology provides only a small increase in rotor damping. Alternatively, the rotor damping can be increased by introducing friction, sometimes referred to as Coulomb damping.
Technical Paper

Combining DFSS and Multi-body Dynamics for Vehicle Ride Tuning

2007-04-16
2007-01-0586
A methodology involving Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) and Multi-body dynamic simulation is employed to tune a body-on-frame vehicle, for improved ride (shake) performance. The design space is limited to four sets of symmetric body mounts for a vehicle. The stiffness and damping characteristics of the mounts are the control factors in the virtual experiment. Variation of these design parameters from the nominal settings, as well as axle size, tire and wheel combinations, tire pressure, shock damping, and vehicle speed constitute the noise factors. This approach proves to be an excellent predictor of the vehicle behavior, by which much insight as to influence of each parameter on vehicle performance is gained. Ultimately, specific recommendations for the control factor settings are provided. Subsequent hardware builds show excellent agreement with the analytical model and suggested tuning.
Technical Paper

Robust Weld Verification for Chassis Structure

1996-08-01
961776
The development of a major structural welded assembly is a lengthy and expensive project. The design and the development must generate a product that meets requirements and customer expectations. Product engineers and test engineers developing structural weldments are the target audience for this paper. The purpose of this paper is to describe a Design Of Experiments approach that was developed which helps provide qualitative information on a structural weldment's sensitivity to MIG weld variation.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Stress Correlation and Modeling of Driveline Bending Integrity for 4WD Sport Utility Vehicles

2002-03-04
2002-01-1044
Reducing the high cost of hardware testing with analytical methods has been highly accelerated in the automotive industry. This paper discusses an analytical model to simulate the driveline bending integrity test for the longitudinal 4WD-driveline configuration. The dynamic stresses produced in the adapter/transfer case and propeller shaft can be predicted analytically using this model. Particularly, when the 4WD powertrain experiences its structural bending during the operation speed and the propeller shaft experiences the critical whirl motion and its structural bending due to the inherent imbalance. For a 4WD-Powertrain application, the dynamic coupling effect of a flexible powertrain with a flexible propeller shaft is significant and demonstrated in this paper. Three major subsystems are modeled in this analytical model, namely the powertrain, the final rear drive, and the propeller shafts.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Cross Wind Air Flow Analysis

1997-04-08
971517
CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) has been used to analyze vehicle air flow. In cross wind conditions an asymmetrical flow field around the vehicle is present. Under these circumstances, in addition to the forces present with symmetric air flow (drag and lift forces and pitching moment), side forces and moments (rolling and yawing) occur. Issues related to fuel economy, driveability, sealing effects (caused by suction exerted on the door), structural integrity (sun roof, spoiler), water management (rain deposit), and dirt deposit (shear stress) have been investigated. Due to the software developments and computer hardware improvements, results can be obtained within a reasonable time frame with excellent accuracy (both geometry and analytical solution). The flow velocity, streamlines, pressure field, and component forces can be extracted from the analysis results through visualization to identify potential improvement areas.
Technical Paper

The 1997 Chevrolet Corvette Structure Architecture Synthesis

1997-02-24
970089
This paper describes the design, synthesis-analysis and development of the unique vehicle structure architecture for the fifth generation Chevrolet Corvette, ‘C5’, which starts in the 1997 model year. The innovative structural layout of the ‘C5’ enables torsional rigidity in an open roof vehicle which exceeds that of all current production open roof vehicles by a wide margin. The first structural mode of the ‘C5’ in open roof configuration approaches typical values measured in similar size fixed roof vehicles. Extensive use of CAE and a systems methodology of benchmarking and requirements rolldown were employed to develop the ‘C5’ vehicle architecture. Simple computer models coupled with numerical optimization were used early in the design process to evaluate every design concept and alternative iteration for mass and structural efficiency.
Technical Paper

SEA in Vehicle Development Part I: Balancing of Path Contribution for Multiple Operating Conditions

2003-05-05
2003-01-1546
The application of Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) to vehicle development is discussed, with a new technique to implement noise path analysis within a SEA model to enable efficient solution and optimization of acoustic trim. A whole vehicle Performance-Based SEA model is used, in which Sound Transmission Loss (STL) and acoustic absorption coefficient characterize subsystem performance. In such a model, the net contribution from each body panel/path, such as the floor, to a specific interior subsystem, such as the driver's head space, is extremely important for vehicle interior noise development. First, it helps to identify the critical path to root-cause potential problems. Second, it is necessary in order to perform balancing of path contributions. With current software, the power based noise contribution analysis is for direct paths/adjacent subsystems.
Journal Article

Analysis of Contamination Protection for Brake Rotor

2016-09-18
2016-01-1930
Contamination protection of brake rotors has been a challenge for the auto industry for a long time. As contamination of a rotor causes corrosion, and that in turn causes many issues like pulsation and excessive wear of rotors and linings, a rotor splash protection shield became a common part for most vehicles. While the rotor splash shield provides contamination protection for the brake rotor, it makes brake cooling performance worse because it blocks air reaching the brake rotor. Therefore, balancing between contamination protection and enabling brake cooling has become a key critical factor when the splash shield is designed. Although the analysis capability of brake cooling performance has become quite reliable, due to lack of technology to predict contamination patterns, the design of the splash protection shield has relied on engineering judgment and/or vehicle tests. Optimization opportunities were restricted by cost and time associated with vehicle tests.
Journal Article

High-Fidelity Transient Thermal Modeling of a Brake Corner

2016-09-18
2016-01-1929
There is an increasing interest in transient thermal simulations of automotive brake systems. This paper presents a high-fidelity CFD tool for modeling complete braking cycles including both the deceleration and acceleration phases. During braking, this model applies the frictional heat at the interface on the contacting rotor and pad surfaces. Based on the conductive heat fluxes within the surrounding parts, the solver divides the frictional heat into energy fluxes entering the solid volumes of the rotor and the pad. The convective heat transfer between the surfaces of solid parts and the cooling airflow is simulated through conjugate heat transfer, and the discrete ordinates model captures the radiative heat exchange between solid surfaces. It is found that modeling the rotor rotation using the sliding mesh approach provides more realistic results than those obtained with the Multiple Reference Frames method.
Technical Paper

Sound Quality of Impulsive Noises: An Applied Study of Automotive Door Closing Sounds

1999-05-17
1999-01-1684
This paper discusses four general attributes which quantify the character of an impulsive sound event. These attributes include the time duration, amplitude and frequency content of the impulsive noise. A three dimensional plot relating time, frequency and amplitude have been developed for the presentation of the measured data. This format allows graphic illustration of the noise event, providing fast interpretation and communication of the measured sound. Application of this methodology to the sound of an automotive door closing event is presented here. Representative door closing sound events are analyzed, with correlation presented between the attributes above to dynamic events of the physical hardware within the door and vehicle systems. Modifications of the door-in-white, internal door hardware, seal systems and additional content are investigated for their effect on the sound quality of the door closing event. Finally, recommended values for these attributes are presented.
Technical Paper

Development of the 2001 Pontiac Aztek Body Structure

2000-03-06
2000-01-1343
This paper documents the development process of the 2001 Pontiac Aztek body structure for improved noise & vibration performance. Successful vehicle development under an accelerated timing schedule demands clearly defined body structure vibration performance targets and critical dependence on the math based modeling process. Specifications for global body structure vibration performance were generated through a two step process. First, a benchmarking activity was undertaken to comprehend competitive vehicle performance. Secondly, a frequency domain “mode map” was constructed to minimize vehicle subsystem interaction. Computer simulation models were developed to predict the body structure performance. A coarse full body structure model was used to define body structure section size and joint requirements. Detailed analysis models of body joint areas were used to synthesize the joint design.
Technical Paper

Daytime Running Lights (Drls)-A North American Success Story

2001-06-04
2001-06-0044
Many traffic collisions are the result of the driver's failure to notice the other vehicle. It is often cited in police reports that the driver "looked but did not see.'' The purpose of Daytime Running Lights (DRLs) is to increase the visual contrast of DRL-equipped vehicles. Visual contrast, which is the difference in brightness between two areas, is an important characteristic enabling a driver to detect objects. This paper begins with a brief regulatory history of DRLs in the U.S. and how General Motors Corporation (GM) introduced DRL-equipped vehicles. It also describes a DRL effectiveness study conducted by Exponent Failure Analysis Associates of San Francisco for General Motors Corporation. The study compared the collision rates of specific General Motors Corporation, Saab, Volvo and Volkswagen vehicles before and immediately after the introduction of DRLs. Since DRLs are not visible from behind a vehicle, rear-end collisions were not included in the study.
Technical Paper

Advances in Complex Eigenvalue Analysis for Brake Noise

2001-04-30
2001-01-1603
Brake squeal has been analyzed by finite elements for some time. Among several methods, complex eigenvalue analysis is proving useful in the design process. It requires hardware verification and it falls into a simulation process. However, it is fast and it can provide guidance for resolving engineering problems. There are successes as well as frustrations in implementing this analysis tool. Its capability, robustness and reliability are closely examined in many companies. Generally, the low frequency squealing mechanism is a rotor axial direction mode that couples the pads, rotor, and other components; while higher frequency squeal mainly exhibits a rotor tangential mode. Design modifications such as selection of rotor design, insulator, chamfer, and lining materials are aimed specifically to cure these noise-generating mechanisms. In GM, complex eigenvalue analysis is used for brake noise analysis and noise reduction. Finite element models are validated with component modal testing.
Technical Paper

2002 Pontiac Montana Frequency Improvements Employing Structural Foam

2001-04-30
2001-01-1609
This paper documents a joint development process between General Motors and Dow Automotive to improve primary body structure frequencies on the GM family of midsize vans by utilizing cavity-filling structural foam. Optimum foam locations, foam quantity, and foam density within the body structure were determined by employing both math-based modeling and vehicle hardware testing techniques. Finite element analysis (FEA) simulations of the Body-In-White (BIW) and “trimmed body” were used to predict the global body structure modes and associated resonant frequencies with and without structural foam. The objective of the FEA activity was to quantify frequency improvements to the primary body structure modes of matchboxing, bending, and torsion when using structural foam. Comprehensive hardware testing on the vehicle was also executed to validate the frequency improvements observed in the FEA results.
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