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Technical Paper

Advances in Complex Eigenvalue Analysis for Brake Noise

2001-04-30
2001-01-1603
Brake squeal has been analyzed by finite elements for some time. Among several methods, complex eigenvalue analysis is proving useful in the design process. It requires hardware verification and it falls into a simulation process. However, it is fast and it can provide guidance for resolving engineering problems. There are successes as well as frustrations in implementing this analysis tool. Its capability, robustness and reliability are closely examined in many companies. Generally, the low frequency squealing mechanism is a rotor axial direction mode that couples the pads, rotor, and other components; while higher frequency squeal mainly exhibits a rotor tangential mode. Design modifications such as selection of rotor design, insulator, chamfer, and lining materials are aimed specifically to cure these noise-generating mechanisms. In GM, complex eigenvalue analysis is used for brake noise analysis and noise reduction. Finite element models are validated with component modal testing.
Technical Paper

Automotive A/C System Integrated with Electrically-Controlled Variable Capacity Scroll Compressor and Fuzzy Logic Refrigerant Flow Management

2001-03-05
2001-01-0587
This paper describes the recent efforts on developing an automotive climate control system throughout integrating an electrically-controlled variable capacity scroll compressor with a fuzzy logic control-based refrigerant flow management. Applying electrically-controlled variable capacity compressor technology to climate control systems has a significant impact on improving vehicle fuel economy, achieving higher passenger comfort level, and extending air and refrigerant temperature controllability as well. In this regard, it is very important for automotive climate control engineers to layout a system-level temperature control strategy so that the operation of variable capacity compressor can be optimized through integrating the component control schemes into the system-level temperature control. Electronically controlled expansion devices have become widely available in automotive air conditioning (A/C) systems for the future vehicle applications(1, 2, 3 and 4).
Technical Paper

An Economic and Environmental Life Cycle Evaluation of 100% Regrind ABS for Automotive Parts

1998-11-30
982196
The use of regrind acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) for automotive parts and components results in two types of financial savings. The first is the shared monetary savings between General Motors and the molder for the difference in the virgin resin price versus price of the ABS regrind. The second is a societal energy savings seen in the life cycle of virgin ABS versus reground ABS. An added benefit is the preservation of natural resources used to produce virgin ABS.
Technical Paper

The 1997 Chevrolet Corvette Structure Architecture Synthesis

1997-02-24
970089
This paper describes the design, synthesis-analysis and development of the unique vehicle structure architecture for the fifth generation Chevrolet Corvette, ‘C5’, which starts in the 1997 model year. The innovative structural layout of the ‘C5’ enables torsional rigidity in an open roof vehicle which exceeds that of all current production open roof vehicles by a wide margin. The first structural mode of the ‘C5’ in open roof configuration approaches typical values measured in similar size fixed roof vehicles. Extensive use of CAE and a systems methodology of benchmarking and requirements rolldown were employed to develop the ‘C5’ vehicle architecture. Simple computer models coupled with numerical optimization were used early in the design process to evaluate every design concept and alternative iteration for mass and structural efficiency.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Fluid Flow Through a Vane Pump Flow Control Valve

1995-04-01
951113
The recent development of a new vane-type pump for power steering applications involved paying special attention to the fluid flow dynamics within the pump casing, especially in the flow control or supercharge region, where excess pump fluid flow is diverted to the intake region. Durability testing of initial designs revealed the presence of cavitation damage to the pump casing in the supercharging region. Subsequent Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analyses as well as experimental Flow Visualization studies aided in resolving the cavitation-damage problem. The purpose of this paper is to describe the processes used in the CFD analyses and flow visualization studies. A two-dimensional (2D) convergence study was conducted to determine the CFD meshing requirements across the small orifice at the intersection of the flow-control valve and the supercharge port. An iterative procedure was employed to determine the operating position of the flow-control valve.
Technical Paper

Viscosity Effects on Engine Wear Under High-Temperature, High-Speed Conditions

1978-02-01
780982
Four multigrade engine oils, containing the same base oil plus SE additive package but VI improvers of differing shear stability, were evaluated in 80 000 km of high-speed, high-temperature vehicle service. Bearing, piston ring and valve guide wear, as well as oil consumption, oil filter plugging and engine cleanliness were all worse for the engines operated on the low-shear stability oils. The wear differences were traced to differences in high-shear-rate viscosity, while the cleanliness, filter plugging and oil consumption differences occurred because of excessive wear or polymer shear degradation. These results suggest that engine oil viscosity should be specified under high-shear-rate conditions.
Technical Paper

The Automotive Primary Power Supply System

1974-02-01
741208
This paper describes the major electrical characteristics of the automotive power supply system. It is a compilation of existing data and new information that will be helpful to both the electrical component and electronic assembly designers. Previously available battery/alternator data is organized to be useful to the designer. New dynamic information on battery impedance is displayed along with “cogging” transients, regulation limits and load dump characteristics.
Technical Paper

Running Loss Test Procedure Development

1992-02-01
920322
A running loss test procedure has been developed which integrates a point-source collection method to measure fuel evaporative running loss from vehicles during their operation on the chassis dynamometer. The point-source method is part of a complete running loss test procedure which employs the combination of site-specific collection devices on the vehicle, and a sampling pump with sampling lines. Fugitive fuel vapor is drawn into these collectors which have been matched to characteristics of the vehicle and the test cell. The composite vapor sample is routed to a collection bag through an adaptation of the ordinary constant volume dilution system typically used for vehicle exhaust gas sampling. Analysis of the contents of such bags provides an accurate measure of the mass and species of running loss collected during each of three LA-4* driving cycles. Other running loss sampling methods were considered by the Auto-Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program (AQIRP or Program).
Technical Paper

AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION CONTROL SYSTEMS

1947-01-01
470242
THIS description of the hydraulic control used with the hydra-matic transmission reveals how the control operates to change ratios under power without direction from the driver. The control's pattern of automatic shifting for ordinary, high-range driving has been selected as the best compromise between top performance and low ratio of engine noise to wind noise. The control's low range shifts gears according to performance dictates alone, furnishing greater power for extreme conditions at low speeds and enabling the driver to use his engine as a brake on steep descents. Heart of the control system is a double hydraulic governor, sensitive both to car speed and throttle opening. THIS paper, as well as the two that follow, one by Messrs. Nutt and Smirl and the other by Mr. Kimberly, make up a symposium on automatic transmission components presented at the 1947 SAE Summer Meeting.
Technical Paper

CHEVROLET TURBOGLIDE TRANSMISSION

1958-01-01
580019
TURBOGLIDE is the deluxe automatic transmission of the General Motors Chevrolet. One of its most important features is that its performance ratio is available at any throttle position, enabling control of torque ratio and engine output by the throttle pedal. The system includes a five-element torque converter, pump, three turbines, and the dual stator. The entire installed unit weighs 148 lb, a result of the general arrangement and the use of aluminum in the case and bell housing. The authors discuss the basic operating principle of the transmission, the arrangement, performance, torque distribution, control system, and valve body.
Technical Paper

1958 Chevrolet LEVEL AIR SUSPENSION

1958-01-01
580049
CHEVROLET has made its new air-suspension system easily interchangeable in production line assembly with standard full-coil suspension by adopting a 4-link-type rear suspension with short and long arms. A feature of the system is the mounting of the leveling valves within the air-spring assemblies. These valves correct riding height continually at a moderate rate, regardless of whether the springs are leveling or operating in ride motion. The system provides constant frequency ride—ride comfort remains the same whether the car is occupied by the driver alone or is fully loaded.
Technical Paper

Human Volunteer Testing of GM Air Cushions

1972-02-01
720443
From November 1970 through August 1971 an extensive program of static and dynamic air cushion inflation tests utilizing human volunteers was conducted at Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico, sponsored by the Department of Transportation. Forty-one full cushion deployment static firings were made, with air cushion hardware and seating buck environment designed by General Motors. The static series was followed by 35 dynamic sled firings of human volunteers, beginning at 8.6 g (15.1 mph) and culminating at 21.7 g (31.5 mph). A major objective of both the static and dynamic test series was to identify changes in air-cushion design found necessary to improve its protective capability for human beings. Because of the severity of cushion deployment, one modification was made following the initial static tests: The orifice diameter size of the bag inlet was reduced from 1.0 to 0.6 in to diminish the rapidity of bag inflation. This modification proved effective in the dynamic series.
Technical Paper

Microcomputers in Instrumentation

1974-02-01
741095
Microcomputer technology has added a new dimension to the design of test instrumentation, but the connotations of the name microcomputer have a tendency to build barriers rather than offer solutions to problems. Historically, computers have been treated as systems or identifiable subsystems in instrumentation applications. The implications of complex hardware and mystical programming is often sufficient to direct the user to alternate technologies. In a new light, clear of earlier prejudices, the microcomputer becomes a functional module like other LSI devices. Flexible and economical systems involving logical control, data gathering, and numerical calculations are possible utilizations of these relatively new devices. This paper discusses a facility to assist the designer in development of test instrumentation. Emphasis is placed on use of the microcomputer as an integral part of system design. Test instrument applications are cited.
Technical Paper

Studying Valve Dynamics with Electronic Computers

1962-01-01
620289
Dynamic conditions of automotive type valve trains have been investigated by means of digital computers. It has been possible to include the effect of such nonlinearities as valve lash, linkage separation, valve seating, and valve spring surge. Comparison with experimental results has shown that computer solutions are realistic. The advantage of being able to simulate and predict performance of any proposed type of valve train is obvious. This paper presents methods of approach for analyzing valve dynamics, correlation of computed results with experimental values, and examples of application of interrelated methods. Included in this paper are: (1) Methods of approach for analyzing valve dynamics, (2) Correlation of computed results with experimental values and, (3) Examples of application of interrelated methods.
Technical Paper

Electro-Hydraulic Fully Flexible Valve Actuation System for Engine Test Cell

2010-04-12
2010-01-1200
Fully Flexible Valve Actuation (FFVA) systems provide maximum flexibility to adjust lift profiles of engine intake and exhaust valves. A research grade electro-hydraulic servo valve based FFVA system was designed to be used with an engine in a test cell to precisely follow desired lift profiles. Repetitive control was chosen as the control strategy. Crank angle instead of time is used to trigger execution to ensure repeatability. A single control is used for different engine speeds even though the period for one revolution changes with engine speeds. The paper also discusses lift profile extension, instantaneous lift profile switching capability and built-in safety features.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Head Gasket Geometry on Engine-Out HC Emissions from S.I. Engines

1999-10-25
1999-01-3580
This study evaluated multi-layer steel and composite head gaskets of various thicknesses (0.43 to 1.5 mm) and fire-ring diameters to determine the influence of head gasket crevices on engine-out hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. The upper limit in the percent reduction in HC emissions from gasket-design modifications is estimated to be about 15%. At part-load conditions, the lowest HC emissions were measured for head-gasket thickness of about 1 mm. Significantly smaller thicknesses of the order of 0.4 mm result in an increase in HC emissions. Substantial hydrocarbon-emissions advantage may be realized by minimizing the gasket-to-cylinder bore offset.
Technical Paper

Form vs. Function: A Systems Approach to Achieving Harmony

1999-03-01
1999-01-1266
Today's world places increased emphasis on society's members to know more, to do more, to see more. Increasingly, information is thrown to the consumer that he/she has to process almost continually, regardless of their surroundings. Due to this heightened need, the customer is becoming increasingly perceptive of their vehicle surroundings, expecting their vehicle to be an extension of their home and/or office, to assist in getting things done in an environment that is as convenient and comfortable as their primary workplace. Similarly, there is also increased emphasis on vehicles to be styled so that they are visually appealing, so that all the parts work as a whole to make the environment as enjoyable as consumers' most pleasant surroundings outside the vehicle.
Technical Paper

From Painted “Scrap” to Painted Production Parts

2000-03-06
2000-01-0024
Saturn currently injection molds and paints PPE+PA66 exterior body panels in its Spring Hill, TN facility. These manufacturing operations result in a continuous stream of waste material that needs to be responsibly and economically managed. This paper will summarize the process that General Motors and Saturn used to evaluate and validate the use of post-industrial painted PPE+PA66 reprocessed material in Saturn and General Motors' wheel trim applications (wheel covers). Not only did this project increase the amount of recycled content in General Motors' vehicles, but it also provided Saturn Corporation with a favored outlet for an internal waste stream.
Technical Paper

Combining DFSS and Multi-body Dynamics for Vehicle Ride Tuning

2007-04-16
2007-01-0586
A methodology involving Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) and Multi-body dynamic simulation is employed to tune a body-on-frame vehicle, for improved ride (shake) performance. The design space is limited to four sets of symmetric body mounts for a vehicle. The stiffness and damping characteristics of the mounts are the control factors in the virtual experiment. Variation of these design parameters from the nominal settings, as well as axle size, tire and wheel combinations, tire pressure, shock damping, and vehicle speed constitute the noise factors. This approach proves to be an excellent predictor of the vehicle behavior, by which much insight as to influence of each parameter on vehicle performance is gained. Ultimately, specific recommendations for the control factor settings are provided. Subsequent hardware builds show excellent agreement with the analytical model and suggested tuning.
Technical Paper

The Bulge of Tubes and a Failure Criterion for Tube Hydroforming

2001-03-05
2001-01-1132
The bulge test in hydroforming is a simple fundamental experiment used to obtain basic knowledge in tube expansion. The results can be used to assist design and manufacturing of hydroformed automotive parts. It also can be used to develop a failure criterion for tubes in hydroforming. For these purposes, a section of a long unsupported tube with fixed ends was simulated numerically to obtain the mechanical states of the tube subjected to internal pressure. Steel and aluminum tubes are used. For the bulge tests, the internal pressure reaches a maximum and then decreases in value without failure while the stress, strain and volume of the tube keep increasing. A failure criterion for the bursting of a tube is proposed based on the stress-strain curve of the material.
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