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Technical Paper

Robust Weld Verification for Chassis Structure

The development of a major structural welded assembly is a lengthy and expensive project. The design and the development must generate a product that meets requirements and customer expectations. Product engineers and test engineers developing structural weldments are the target audience for this paper. The purpose of this paper is to describe a Design Of Experiments approach that was developed which helps provide qualitative information on a structural weldment's sensitivity to MIG weld variation.
Technical Paper

Counter-Gravity Casting Process for Making Thinwall Steel Exhaust Manifolds

Casting technology developmentshave led to a manufacturing process that allows the casting of thin wall (2-3mm) heat resistant ferritic stainless steel exhaust manifolds which can replace stamped and tubular weldments as well as iron castings where temperature requirements are increased. This casting process combines the thin wall and clean metal benefits of the counter gravity, vacuum-assist casting process using thin, light-weight bonded sand molds supported by vacuum-ridgidized sand. This combination is called the LSVAC (Loose Sand Vacuum Assisted Casting) process, a patented process. This process will significantly contribute to the growth of near-net shape steellstainless steel castings for automotive and allied industries. For exhaust manifolds, a modified grade of ferritic stainless steel with good oxidation resistance to 950°C in high dew point synthetic exhaust gas atmospheres was developed.
Technical Paper

Life Cycle Management in the Auto Manufacturing Industry - A Report from President Clinton's Council on Sustainable Development Auto Team

An assessment of automobile painting at General Motor's Lake Orion, Michigan, USA assembly facility from a life cycle perspective was conducted. The Orion Facility produces the new Oldsmobile Aurora and Buick Riviera models. Improvements in on-site pollution prevention, energy conservation and regulatory barriers to technology innovation were identified. The environmental implications of auto body substrate material choice were analyzed. A life cycle inventory framework was developed for paint suppliers and other parts of the auto painting life cycle. An Alternative Regulatory System was proposed for the entire U.S. auto industry that will, if implemented, facilitate the integration of environmental management into core business strategies and planning.
Technical Paper

Influence of Laser Welding Parameters on Formability and Robustness of Blank Manufacturing: An Application to a Body Side Frame

A design of experiments is used to study the effect of laser weld parameters on formability of welded blanks for two different material combinations of cold rolled (bare) steel to cold rolled steel and cold rolled steel to hot dipped galvanized steel. Critical weld parameters influencing the formability of welded blanks are identified and the optimum weld set-up condition is obtained based on formability performance and consistency of formability for laser welded blanks. The results are applied to an automotive body side frame. The robustness of welded blank production is also assessed and the final welded set-up condition for the body side frame is obtained based on both the formability of welded blanks and the robustness of welded blank production. The body side frame is successfully made from the welded blanks with this final weld set-up condition.
Technical Paper

Formability of Mash Seam Welded Blanks: Effects of Welding Set-Up Conditions

It is known that the formability of tailored welded blanks depends on the welding set-up conditions. Little information is available on the correlation between the formability of welded blanks and weld set-up conditions. In this investigation, effects of mash seam welding parameters of weld current, weld force, material overlap and planish on formability performance of welded blanks are studied. The systematic design of experiments approach is used to identify the key weld parameters influencing the formability performance of welded blanks. It is found that high weld force decreases formability of welded blanks and high weld force coupled with a small material overlap results in very low forming limit of the weld zone. Weld current has little effect on formability of welded blanks and planishing significantly reduces it. Overall, the mash seam welded blanks produced with appropriate weld set-up conditions are robust with respect to formability.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a Dynamic Explicit Finite Element Code for Binder Forming Calculations

In order to develop a binder forming analysis model based on contact principle of mechanics and to search for an accurate finite element computer code to analyze the model, ABAQUS/Explicit was evaluated using a benchmark example of a step-die. Because the step-die is a quasi-static problem and ABAQUS/Explicit is a dynamic finite element code, we are particularly interested in avoiding oscillations of the blank in the die cavity after the binder is closed. The study reveals that the oscillations can be eliminated and an asymptotic solution obtained if the die close speed is not too high. The optimum die close time for the benchmark is obtained based on the efficiency of computing and accuracy of the solution. The issues of oscillations and asymptotic solutions related to analyzing a quasi-static binder forming problem by a dynamic finite element code are settled in this paper.
Technical Paper

Free Form Fabrication Beginners Workshop

Free form fabrication, or rapid prototyping as it is commonly known, is the creation of a physical entity, directly from numerical description, using an additive process. The mathematical data used is typically in the form of a 3D CAD file, but it may also be obtained from a reverse engineering process. This paper presents a review of three of the leading FFF (free form fabrication) systems which are commercially available. Time constraints will allow us to describe only three of these products. Although this does not do justice to a technology where there are more than 30 different systems in various stages of development, these examples represent the vast majority of machines which are in the marketplace today.
Technical Paper

The Use of Finite Element Analysis to Predict Body Build Distortion

Finite element methods can be used to simulate a class of variation problems induced by build distortion in the assembly process. The FEM approach was used to study two representative assembly problems: 1) Front fender mounting and resulting distortion due to various fastening sequences; and, 2) Coupe door assembly process and resulting deformation due to clamping and welding of flexible sheet metal parts. FEM is used to generate sensitivities of various process conditions. Correlation with measured Co-ordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) data is shown. The use of FEM to simulate manufacturing/assembly processes in the automotive industry is in it's infancy. As the new methods are developed this capability can be used to study the assembly process and provide guidance in designing more robust parts and assembly processes.
Technical Paper

Glass Drop Design for Automobile Windows - Design of Glass Contour, Shape, Drop Motion, and Motion Guidance Systems

This paper presents a new computerized approach for designing the automobile window glass contour, the glass drop motion, and the regulator systems. The three-dimensional geometrical relationship of the glass contour, the drop path, and its guidance system have been studied. Methods for barrel and helical drops are presented for optimizing the glass profile and drop path trajectories. Criteria for perfecting the glass contour are developed for shaping the profile of the vehicle clay model. Methods for correcting the glass contour and shape are presented. Examples are provided to illustrate how to improve the design. This approach integrates the development works of glass contour, drop motion and regulator systems. Through this design approach the window glass can fit and move perfectly in the door assembly.
Technical Paper

A Connectorized Passive Optical Star for Automotive Networking Applications

This paper introduces for the first time a fully connectorized passive optical star for use with plastic optical fiber that addresses all automotive application requirements. A unique mixing element is presented that offers linear expandability, uniformity of insertion loss, and packaging flexibility. The star is constructed of all plastic molded components to make it low cost and produceable in high volume and is single-ended to facilitate vehicle integration. The star is connectorized to facilitate assembly into the vehicle power and signal distribution system.
Technical Paper

Using a Geometric Toolkit to Link Finite Element Calculations in Sheet Metal Forming Analysis

Sheet metal forming of automobile body panel consists of two processes performed in series: binder forming and punch forming. Due to differences in deformation characteristics of the two forming processes, their analysis methods are different. The binder wrap surface shape and formed part shape are calculated using different mathematical models and different finite element codes, e.g., WRAPFORM and PANELFORM, respectively. The output of the binder forming analysis may not be directly applicable to the subsequent punch forming analysis. Interpolation, or approximation, of the calculated binder wrap surface geometry is needed. This surface representation requirement is carried out using computer aided geometric design tools. This paper discusses the use of such a tool, SURFPLAN, to link WRAPFORM and PANELFORM calculations.
Technical Paper

A Predictive Process for Spring Failure Rates in Automotive Parts Applications

This paper discusses an analytical technique for computing the failure rate of steel springs used in automotive part applications. Preliminary computations may be performed and used to predict spring failure rates quickly at a very early stage of a product development cycle and to establish program reliability impact before commitment. The analytical method is essentially a combination of various existing procedures that are logically sequenced to compute a spring probability of failure under various operational conditions. Fatigue life of a mechanical component can be computed from its S-N curve. For steels, the S-N curve can be approximated by formulae which describe the fatigue life as a function of its endurance limit and its alternating stress. Most springs in service are preloaded and the actual stress fluctuates about a mean level. In order to compute an equivalent alternating stress with zero mean, an analytical method based on the Goodman Diagram is used.
Technical Paper

The Automotive Primary Power Supply System

This paper describes the major electrical characteristics of the automotive power supply system. It is a compilation of existing data and new information that will be helpful to both the electrical component and electronic assembly designers. Previously available battery/alternator data is organized to be useful to the designer. New dynamic information on battery impedance is displayed along with “cogging” transients, regulation limits and load dump characteristics.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a New, Dual-Phase, Cold-Rolled Steel - Mechanical Properties, Aging Responses, and Weldability

Mechanical properties and welding characteristics of a commercial, dual-phase, low-carbon, cold-rolled steel are described. The new steel, HI-FORM 80d, exhibits a total elongation of about 24% as produced and develops a yield strength of about 625 MPa (91 ksi) in a formed and paint-baked part. Property uniformity is excellent and the weldability essentially equivalent to an AISI 1006 steel. In addition, the aging response of HI-FORM 80d is such that yield strengths near 550 MPa (80 ksi) can be achieved with strains of less than 2% and lower paint-bake temperatures than are currently in use.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Trends and Catalytic Devices

In 1968, a major oil company cancelled its annual automobile economy run after sponsoring it for 18 consecutive years -presumably due to lack of interest from the public and the press. Almost coincident with that cancellation was the beginning of production automobile exhaust emission control on a national basis and a downward inflection in the historic trend of automobile fuel economy. In contrast, the past year has seen a major revival of interest, by both the public and the press, in fuel economy. In the next few weeks, the nation will be introduced to a new direction in automotive exhaust emission control which will profoundly affect the fuel economy trend. Perhaps equally, or even more important, the next few months are expected to see major national decisions on future automobile emission control which will likely have a significant influence on the direction taken by automobile fuel economy a few years hence.
Technical Paper

The Design of Passenger Car Cast Aluminum Wheels

Permanent mold cast aluminum wheels have been widely used as original equipment on passenger cars for a number of years. Testing and field experience together with manufacturing and plant processing experience has resulted in the development of a number of recommended design practices which are outlined in this paper. Methods used to test that design requirements have been met will be presented. Basic wheel designs, rigid and flexible, will be discussed together with the currently used mounting face configurations. Detail design features such as rim contour, nut boss, valve hole, hub pilot, mounting face and window openings will be reviewed. Future design and manufacturing trends will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Nylon RIM Development for Automotive Body Panels

The performance and production requirements for future passenger vehicles has increased the efforts to replace metal body panels with plastic materials. This has been accomplished, to a large extent on some production vehicles that have been introduced recently. Unfortunately, these plastic body applications have necessitated special off-line handling or low temperature paint processing. However, the advantages of RIM nylon, offer the potential for uniquely new plastic body designs, that can be processed through existing assembly plants, much like the steel panels they are intended to replace. The intent of this paper is to discuss the rationale for future plastic body panel material selection and related nylon RIM development efforts.
Technical Paper

Keynote Address

Just-In-Time processing is changing the way the automotive industry operates. This paper explains Just-In-Time systems, how they are being applied at General Motors, and how the U.S. auto industry is applying them. The paper is based on three main premises: 1) the design of the product and the design of the process must be integrated, 2) the construction process is critical, and 3) the first day of operation of the process must be the first day efforts are made to improve it.
Technical Paper

Mechanical and Thermophysical Properties of Magnesium Alloy Extrusions

Magnesium alloy extrusions offer potentially more mass saving compared to magnesium castings. One of the tasks in the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) ?Magnesium Front End Research and Development? (MFERD) project is to evaluate magnesium extrusion alloys AM30, AZ31 and AZ61 for automotive body applications. Solid and hollow sections were made by lowcost direct extrusion process. Mechanical properties in tension and compression were tested in extrusion, transverse and 45 degree directions. The tensile properties of the extrusion alloys in the extrusion direction are generally higher than those of conventional die cast alloys. However, significant tension-compression asymmetry and plastic anisotropy need to be understood and captured in the component design.
Technical Paper

Effect of Simulated Material Properties and Residual Stresses on High Cycle Fatigue Prediction in a Compacted Graphite Iron Engine Block

Casting, machining and structural simulations were completed on a V8 engine block made in Compacted Graphite Iron (CGI) for use in a racing application. The casting and machining simulations generated maps of predicted tensile strength and residual stress in the block. These strength and stress maps were exported to a finite element structural model of the machined part. Assembly and operating loads were applied, and stresses due to these loads were determined. High cycle fatigue analysis was completed, and three sets of safety factors were calculated using the following conditions: uniform properties and no residual stress, predicted properties and no residual stress, and predicted properties plus residual stress.