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Technical Paper

AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION CONTROL SYSTEMS

1947-01-01
470242
THIS description of the hydraulic control used with the hydra-matic transmission reveals how the control operates to change ratios under power without direction from the driver. The control's pattern of automatic shifting for ordinary, high-range driving has been selected as the best compromise between top performance and low ratio of engine noise to wind noise. The control's low range shifts gears according to performance dictates alone, furnishing greater power for extreme conditions at low speeds and enabling the driver to use his engine as a brake on steep descents. Heart of the control system is a double hydraulic governor, sensitive both to car speed and throttle opening. THIS paper, as well as the two that follow, one by Messrs. Nutt and Smirl and the other by Mr. Kimberly, make up a symposium on automatic transmission components presented at the 1947 SAE Summer Meeting.
Technical Paper

Interrelationship of Design, Lubrication, and Metallurgy in Cam and Tappet Performance

1956-01-01
560017
A PROGRAM was undertaken to evaluate the performance of cams and tappets as influenced by design, lubrication, and metallurgical techniques. Car and dynamometer tests and a newly developed bench test are described. The latter shows promise in lending itself to the determination of the effects of single variables in a practical, short, and economic fashion, while the former do not. For the conditions of high contact stress and boundary lubrication experienced in cam and tappet operation, the authors draw several conclusions from the test work described, categorically related to the design, lubrication, and metallurigical problems present.
Technical Paper

AUTOIGNITION associated with HOT STARTING

1958-01-01
580020
USING a high-speed motion picture camera, flame photographs were taken of the combustion process associated with the starting of hot gasoline engines. Compression ignition at isolated points followed by normal combustion caused peak cylinder pressures to occur prior to top dead-center under some low-speed engine conditions. In addition, an abnormal combustion phenomenon was observed in the last part of the charge to burn. The reaction rate was appreciably faster than normal for the engine speed and much slower than is usually observed in knocking combustion at normal engine speeds.
Technical Paper

some metallurgical aspects of … Pontiac V-8 Engine Pearlitic Malleable Iron Crankshaft

1958-01-01
580013
PEARLITIC malleable iron crankshafts are being used in the new Pontiac engine as a result of recent developments. This paper discusses the physical properties of pearlitic malleable iron such as elastic modulus, fatigue endurance, and tensile strength. According to the author, definite machining economies result from using pearlitic malleable iron crankshafts.
Technical Paper

CHEVROLET TURBOGLIDE TRANSMISSION

1958-01-01
580019
TURBOGLIDE is the deluxe automatic transmission of the General Motors Chevrolet. One of its most important features is that its performance ratio is available at any throttle position, enabling control of torque ratio and engine output by the throttle pedal. The system includes a five-element torque converter, pump, three turbines, and the dual stator. The entire installed unit weighs 148 lb, a result of the general arrangement and the use of aluminum in the case and bell housing. The authors discuss the basic operating principle of the transmission, the arrangement, performance, torque distribution, control system, and valve body.
Journal Article

Automotive Brake Hose Fluid Consumption Characteristics and Its Effects on Brake System Pedal Feel

2010-04-12
2010-01-0082
During the automotive brake system design and development process, a large number of performance characteristics must be comprehended, assessed, and balanced against each other and, at times, competing performance objectives for the vehicle under development. One area in brake development that is critical to customer acceptance due to its impact on a vehicle's perceived quality is brake pedal feel. While a number of papers have focused on the specification, quantification and modeling of brake pedal feel and the various subsystem characteristics that affect it, few papers have focused specifically on brake corner hoses and their effect on pedal feel, in particular, during race-track conditions. Specifically, the effects of brake hose fluid consumption pedal travel and brake system response is not well comprehended during the brake development process.
Technical Paper

Diagnosis of Off-Brake Performance Issues with Low Range Pressure Distribution Sensors

2010-04-12
2010-01-0073
Brake caliper and corner behavior in the off-brake condition can lead, at times, to brake system performance issues such as residual drag (and related issues such as pulsation, judder, and loss of fuel economy), and caliper pryback during aggressive driving maneuvers. The dynamics in the brake corner can be strikingly complex, with numerous friction interfaces, rubber component and grease dynamics, deflections of multiple components, and significant dependence on usage conditions. Displacements of moving parts are usually small, and the residual forces in the caliper interfaces involved are also small in comparison with other forces acting on the same components, making direct observation very difficult. The present work attempts to illuminate off-brake behavior in two different conditions - residual drag and pryback - through the use of low-range pressure distribution sensors placed in between the caliper (pistons and fingers) and the brake pad pressure plates.
Technical Paper

Improvement on Cylinder-to-Cylinder Variation Using a Cylinder Balancing Control Strategy in Gasoline HCCI Engines

2010-04-12
2010-01-0848
Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion offers significant efficiency improvements compared to conventional gasoline engines. However, due to the nature of HCCI combustion, traditional HCCI engines show some degree of sensitivity to in-cylinder thermal conditions; thus higher cylinder-to-cylinder variation was observed especially at low load and high load operating conditions due to different injector characteristics, different amount of reforming as well as non-uniform EGR distribution. To address these issues, a cylinder balancing control strategy was developed for a multi-cylinder engine. In particular, the cylinder balancing control strategy balances CA50 and AF ratio at high load and low load conditions, respectively. Combustion noise was significantly reduced at high load while combustion stability was improved at low load with the cylinder balancing control.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Characterization and Analysis of Diesel Engines with Two-Stage Turbochargers

2010-04-12
2010-01-1220
Two-stage turbochargers are a recent solution to improve engine performance, reducing the turbo-lag phenomenon and improving the matching. However, the definition of the control system is particularly complex, as the presence of two turbochargers that can be in part operated independently requires effort in terms of analysis and optimization. This work documents a characterization study of two-stage turbocharger systems. The study relies on a mean-value model of a Diesel engine equipped with a two-stage turbocharger, validated on experimental data. The turbocharger is characterized by a VGT actuator and a bypass valve (BPV), both located on the high-pressure turbine. This model structure is representative of a “virtual engine”, which can be effectively utilized for applications related to analysis and control. Using this tool, a complete characterization was conducted considering key operating conditions representative of FTP driving cycle operations.
Technical Paper

Oil Transport Analysis of a Cylinder Deactivation Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-1098
Engine cylinder deactivation is used to save engine pumping loss but raises oil consumption concerns for the deactivated cylinders. In this paper, general mechanisms of oil transport via piston rings are reviewed. The characteristic of oil transport and oil accumulation in a cylinder deactivation mode through the piston ring path are analyzed. Suggestions to reduce the oil transport to the combustion chamber in a deactivated cylinder are discussed. In a deactivated cylinder, the amount of oil brought into the combustion chamber by the top ring up-scraping due to the ring/bore conformability difference between intake stroke and compression stroke is much less compared to a firing cylinder. However, compared to a firing cylinder, a deactivated cylinder has more oil entering the combustion chamber through the top ring end gap and ring groove as a result of the lower cylinder gas pressure, lower ring temperature and more frequent top ring axial movements.
Technical Paper

Chemiluminescence Measurements of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Combustion

2006-04-03
2006-01-1520
A spectroscopic diagnostic system was designed to study the effects of different engine parameters on the chemiluminescence characteristic of HCCI combustion. The engine parameters studied in this work were intake temperature, fuel delivery method, fueling rate (load), air-fuel ratio, and the effect of partial fuel reforming due to intake charge preheating. At each data point, a set of time-resolved spectra were obtained along with the cylinder pressure and exhaust emissions data. It was determined that different engine parameters affect the ignition timing of HCCI combustion without altering the reaction pathways of the fuel after the combustion has started. The chemiluminescence spectra of HCCI combustion appear as several distinct peaks corresponding to emission from CHO, HCHO, CH, and OH superimposed on top of a CO-O continuum. A strong correlation was found between the chemiluminescence light intensity and the rate of heat release.
Technical Paper

Adaptation of a Variable Displacement Vane Pump to Engine Lube Oil Applications

2007-04-16
2007-01-1567
Variable valve actuation has become a very popular feature in today's engines. With many of these systems being hydraulically actuated, the engine lubrication system requires enhancement to support their function. To expand the system's operational range with respect to speed and temperature, a traditional solution has been to increase oil pressure by increasing pump displacement. To better optimize the system, a variable displacement vane pump has been adapted to the engine lube oil system. Based on existing transmission pump technology, a pivoting cam ring design is employed that is able to vary the pump's displacement as a function of pump regulating oil pressure which in-turn provides a net reduction in its drive torque. While others have addressed this issue using complex and expensive pressure regulating systems, this passive solution requires no valves or additional hardware.
Technical Paper

Washcoat Technology and Precious Metal Loading Study Targeting the California LEV MDV2 Standard

1996-10-01
961904
Meeting the California Medium-Duty truck emissions standards presents a significant challenge to automotive engineers due to the combination of sustained high temperature exhaust conditions, high flow rates and relatively high engine out emissions. A successful catalyst for an exhaust treatment system must be resistant to high temperature deactivation, maintain cold start performance and display high three-way conversion efficiencies under most operating conditions. This paper describes a catalyst technology and precious metal loading study targeting a California Medium-Duty truck LEV (MDV2) application. At the same time a direction is presented for optimizing toward the Federal Tier 1 standard through reduction of precious metal use. The paper identifies catalytic formulations for a twin substrate, 1.23 L medium-coupled converter. Two are used per vehicle, mounted 45 cm downstream of each manifold on a 5.7 L V8 engine.
Technical Paper

Aeroacoustics of an Automotive A-Pillar Raingutter: A Numerical Study with the Ffowcs-Williams Hawkings Method

2005-05-16
2005-01-2492
A numerical simulation of the flow structure around an idealized automotive A-pillar rain-gutter and the sound radiated from it is reported. The idealized rain-gutter is an infinitesimally thin backward facing elbow mounted on a flat plate. It is kept in a virtual wind-tunnel with rectangular cross-section. The transient flow structure around the rain-gutter is described and time-averaged pressure distribution along the base plate is provided. Time-varying static pressure was recorded on every grid point on the base-plate as well as the rain-gutter surfaces and used to calculate sound pressure signal at a microphone held above the rain-gutter using the Ffowcs-Williams-Hawkings (FWH) integral method was used for calculating sound propagation. Both the transient flow simulation as well as the FWH sound calculation were performed using the commercial CFD code FLUENT6.1.22.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Cross Wind Air Flow Analysis

1997-04-08
971517
CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) has been used to analyze vehicle air flow. In cross wind conditions an asymmetrical flow field around the vehicle is present. Under these circumstances, in addition to the forces present with symmetric air flow (drag and lift forces and pitching moment), side forces and moments (rolling and yawing) occur. Issues related to fuel economy, driveability, sealing effects (caused by suction exerted on the door), structural integrity (sun roof, spoiler), water management (rain deposit), and dirt deposit (shear stress) have been investigated. Due to the software developments and computer hardware improvements, results can be obtained within a reasonable time frame with excellent accuracy (both geometry and analytical solution). The flow velocity, streamlines, pressure field, and component forces can be extracted from the analysis results through visualization to identify potential improvement areas.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Tips Design Analysis

1997-04-08
971518
The air passages in tailpipe end geometries are investigated with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. The overall objective of the simulations is to select an optimum design which has a mimimum capacity for noise generation. This is accomplished by comparing pressure drops between inlet and outlet and by examining the turbulent kinetic energy levels in the flow domain. Two designs for the tailpipe end geometries were evaluated. It was found that turbulent kinetic energy levels and pressure drops were lowest in a single pipe design which had relatively smooth internal contours. We conclude that the present CFD approach can provide useful design information in a short time frame (a few weeks) for exhaust pipe tip geometries for reduced pressure drop and noise generation.
Journal Article

High-Fidelity Transient Thermal Modeling of a Brake Corner

2016-09-18
2016-01-1929
There is an increasing interest in transient thermal simulations of automotive brake systems. This paper presents a high-fidelity CFD tool for modeling complete braking cycles including both the deceleration and acceleration phases. During braking, this model applies the frictional heat at the interface on the contacting rotor and pad surfaces. Based on the conductive heat fluxes within the surrounding parts, the solver divides the frictional heat into energy fluxes entering the solid volumes of the rotor and the pad. The convective heat transfer between the surfaces of solid parts and the cooling airflow is simulated through conjugate heat transfer, and the discrete ordinates model captures the radiative heat exchange between solid surfaces. It is found that modeling the rotor rotation using the sliding mesh approach provides more realistic results than those obtained with the Multiple Reference Frames method.
Technical Paper

Piston Fuel Film Observations in an Optical Access GDI Engine

2001-05-07
2001-01-2022
A gasoline direct injection fuel spray was observed using a fired, optical access, square cross-section single cylinder research engine and high-speed video imaging. Spray interaction with the piston is described qualitatively, and the results are compared with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation results using KIVA-3V version 2. CFD simulations predicted that within the operating window for stratified charge operation, between 1% and 4% of the injected fuel would remain on the piston as a liquid film, dependent primarily on piston temperature. The experimental results support the CFD simulations qualitatively, but the amount of fuel film remaining on the piston appears to be under-predicted. High-speed video footage shows a vigorous spray impingement on the piston crown, resulting in vapor production.
Technical Paper

Automotive A/C System Integrated with Electrically-Controlled Variable Capacity Scroll Compressor and Fuzzy Logic Refrigerant Flow Management

2001-03-05
2001-01-0587
This paper describes the recent efforts on developing an automotive climate control system throughout integrating an electrically-controlled variable capacity scroll compressor with a fuzzy logic control-based refrigerant flow management. Applying electrically-controlled variable capacity compressor technology to climate control systems has a significant impact on improving vehicle fuel economy, achieving higher passenger comfort level, and extending air and refrigerant temperature controllability as well. In this regard, it is very important for automotive climate control engineers to layout a system-level temperature control strategy so that the operation of variable capacity compressor can be optimized through integrating the component control schemes into the system-level temperature control. Electronically controlled expansion devices have become widely available in automotive air conditioning (A/C) systems for the future vehicle applications(1, 2, 3 and 4).
Technical Paper

A Parametric Approach for Rapid Design and Analysis of Automotive HVAC Defrost Systems

2001-03-05
2001-01-0584
The overall vision of this project was to develop a new technology that will be an enabler to reduce design and development time of HVAC systems by an order of magnitude. The objective initially was to develop a parametric model of an automotive HVAC Windshield Defrost Duct coupled to a passenger compartment. It can be used early on in the design cycle for conducting coarse packaging studies by quickly exploring “what-if” design alternatives. In addition to the packaging studies, performance of these design scenarios can be quickly studied by undertaking CFD simulation and analyzing flow distribution and windshield melting patterns. The validated geometry and CFD models can also be used as knowledge building tools to create knowledge data warehouses or repositories for precious lessons learned.
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