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Technical Paper

Reducing Catalytic Converter Pressure Loss with Enhanced Inlet-Header Diffusion

The function of the inlet header of a catalytic converter is to diffuse the inlet exhaust flow, decreasing its velocity and increasing its static pressure with as little loss in total pressure as possible. In practice, very little diffusion takes place in most catalytic converter inlet headers because the flow separates at the interface of the pipe and the tapered section leading to the substrate. This leads to increased converter pressure loss and flow maldistribution. An improved inlet-header design called the Enhanced Diffusion Header (EDH) was developed which combines a short, shallow-angle diffuser with a more abrupt expansion to the substrate cross section. Tests conducted in room air (cold flow) and engine exhaust showed that improved inlet-jet diffusion leads to substantial reductions in converter restriction. EDH performance was not compromised by the presence of a right-angle bend upstream of the converter.
Technical Paper

The Electronically Controlled 6.5L Diesel Engine

For model year 1994, General Motors has completed the roll out of the 6.5L Diesel Engine, with the introduction of the light duty certified naturally aspirated and turbocharged engines. At the heart of the expanded use of the 6.5L is a new electronic powertrain control system. The objectives for this system were to produce an engine that has less variation, is easier to assemble, low cost and capable of meeting both heavy and light duty future emissions requirements. Control features include Fuel Quantity and Timing, EGR, Wastegate, Glow Plugs, Transmission, Cruise Control and Diagnostics.
Technical Paper

Vapor-Locking Tendencies of Fuels A Practical Approach

THIS paper describes what the authors consider to be a simplified method of determining the vapor-locking tendencies of gasolines. The study of vapor lock was undertaken after they found the Reid vapor pressure method to be inadequate. The result of their work was the development of the General Motors vapor pressure, a single number which predicts vapor-locking tendency. The authors point out the following advantages of the new method: It allows direct comparisons of vapor-lock test results of different reference fuel systems; establishes distribution curves of volatility requirements of cars for vapor-lock free operation and of vapor-locking tendencies of gasolines; is a common reference value for both petroleum and automotive engineers. Finally, it more realistically evaluates the effects of small weathering losses on vapor-locking tendency than does Rvp.
Technical Paper

Development for an Aged Tire Durability Standard - Rationale for a Steady State DOE

In response to the TREAD act of 2002, ASTM F09.30 Aged Tire Durability Task Group was formed with the objective of developing a scientifically valid, short duration aged durability test which correlates to field behavior. The target end-of-test condition was belt edge separation (or related damage). One strategy, driven by that objective, has been a steady state design of experiment investigating aging temperature and duration as well as roadwheel speed, pressure and deflection. The rationale behind investigating a steady state test and selecting these parameters and methodology for setting their initial values is reviewed.
Technical Paper

Development for an Aged Tire Durability Standard - Steady State DOE Study

In the work leading to the TREAD Act, some members of Congress expressed the need for some type of aging test on light vehicle tires. Since no industry-wide recommended practice existed, the ASTM F09.30 Aged Tire Durability task group was established in 2002 to develop a scientifically valid, short duration, laboratory aged tire durability test which correlates to in-service aging. The target end-of-test condition was belt edge separation (or related tire conditions). One strategy, driven by that objective, has been a Steady State DOE investigating aging temperature and duration, as well as, roadwheel speed, pressure and deflection. Testing was performed on three tire types, including two where relevant field aging data was publicly available from NHTSA studies. A region of interest, within the design space, was identified where target end-of-test conditions were possible and undesirable (non-target or non-representative of those seen in consumer use) were avoided.
Technical Paper

Diagnosis of Off-Brake Performance Issues with Low Range Pressure Distribution Sensors

Brake caliper and corner behavior in the off-brake condition can lead, at times, to brake system performance issues such as residual drag (and related issues such as pulsation, judder, and loss of fuel economy), and caliper pryback during aggressive driving maneuvers. The dynamics in the brake corner can be strikingly complex, with numerous friction interfaces, rubber component and grease dynamics, deflections of multiple components, and significant dependence on usage conditions. Displacements of moving parts are usually small, and the residual forces in the caliper interfaces involved are also small in comparison with other forces acting on the same components, making direct observation very difficult. The present work attempts to illuminate off-brake behavior in two different conditions - residual drag and pryback - through the use of low-range pressure distribution sensors placed in between the caliper (pistons and fingers) and the brake pad pressure plates.
Technical Paper

The Bulge of Tubes and a Failure Criterion for Tube Hydroforming

The bulge test in hydroforming is a simple fundamental experiment used to obtain basic knowledge in tube expansion. The results can be used to assist design and manufacturing of hydroformed automotive parts. It also can be used to develop a failure criterion for tubes in hydroforming. For these purposes, a section of a long unsupported tube with fixed ends was simulated numerically to obtain the mechanical states of the tube subjected to internal pressure. Steel and aluminum tubes are used. For the bulge tests, the internal pressure reaches a maximum and then decreases in value without failure while the stress, strain and volume of the tube keep increasing. A failure criterion for the bursting of a tube is proposed based on the stress-strain curve of the material.
Technical Paper

Aeroacoustics of an Automotive A-Pillar Raingutter: A Numerical Study with the Ffowcs-Williams Hawkings Method

A numerical simulation of the flow structure around an idealized automotive A-pillar rain-gutter and the sound radiated from it is reported. The idealized rain-gutter is an infinitesimally thin backward facing elbow mounted on a flat plate. It is kept in a virtual wind-tunnel with rectangular cross-section. The transient flow structure around the rain-gutter is described and time-averaged pressure distribution along the base plate is provided. Time-varying static pressure was recorded on every grid point on the base-plate as well as the rain-gutter surfaces and used to calculate sound pressure signal at a microphone held above the rain-gutter using the Ffowcs-Williams-Hawkings (FWH) integral method was used for calculating sound propagation. Both the transient flow simulation as well as the FWH sound calculation were performed using the commercial CFD code FLUENT6.1.22.
Technical Paper

Life Cycle Analysis Framework; A Comparison of HFC-134a, HFC-134a Enhanced, HFC-152a, R744, R744 Enhanced, and R290 Automotive Refrigerant Systems

The goal of this study is to assess the total Life Cycle Global Warming Impact of the current HFC-134a (R134a) refrigeration system and compare it with the effect of proposed alternatives, HFC-134a Enhanced, HFC-152 (R152a), R744, R744 Enhanced and R290, based on life cycle analysis (LCA). The enhanced systems include control strategies to elevate the compressor suction pressure as the evaporator load is reduced. The hydrofluorocarbons HFC-134a and HFC-152a are greenhouse gases (GHGs) and are subject to the Kyoto Protocol timetables, which when the treaty takes effect will require participating developed countries to reduce their overall CO2 equivalent emissions of six GHGs by at least 5% by 2012 from 1990 levels.