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Technical Paper

The Steering Characterizing Functions (SCFs) and Their Use in Steering System Specification, Simulation, and Synthesis

2001-03-05
2001-01-1353
A set of functions for characterizing the mechanical properties of a steering “short gear” is described. They cover the kinematic, stiffness, assist, and friction performance of a power assisted (or manual) steering gear from the input shaft to the inner ends of the tie rods. Their use in describing the performance of a generalized steering gear is described. They have particular application to describing the steering feel performance of a vehicle. They can be used to specify the steering subsystem performance for desired steering feel for a given vehicle. They can also be used for experimental characterization of steering subsystems, can be used in vehicle dynamics simulations, and can be synthesized from a set of vehicle level performance targets. Along with their description, their use in simulation and methods to synthesize their values are described.
Technical Paper

Accelerated Glass Reveal Molding Test

1998-02-23
980718
Over the past 20 years, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) has almost replaced metal in stationary glass reveal moldings with dramatic part cost savings on cars and trucks world-wide. The process of assembly is generally simple and convenient but to replace a reveal molding can be difficult. Many times, in order to replace the molding, it may also be necessary to replace or reseal the glass. In short, PVC reveal moldings, relatively inexpensive parts, are very expensive to service. Outside of general assembly and processing issues, there are 5 variables that may cause a failure in the performance of a stationary glass reveal molding. They are as follows: material degradation, crystallization, plasticizer loss, material properties, and molded-in stress. Because of modern standard PVC formulations and the material requirements of most automotive companies, material degradation, crystallization and plasticizer loss do not commonly cause failure. Material properties and molded-in stress do.
Technical Paper

Plating on Plastics - Exterior Trim Part Properties

2008-04-14
2008-01-1460
Chrome plated automotive exterior parts continue to be popular. A good understanding of the properties of the unplated and plated parts is required to have the lowest cost successful design. In this work, traditional mechanical properties are compared between plated and unplated ABS and ABS+PC grades of plastic. Additional findings are shared for the thermal growth properties that are important to the designer who is trying to minimize gaps to adjacent components and for the engineer who wants the plated parts to resist cracking or peeling. Finally, some bend testing results are reviewed to understand better the susceptibility of the chrome plated plastics to crack when bent. In total, these results will help the exterior trim part designers optimize for cost, fit and finish.
Technical Paper

Early Noise Analysis for Robust Quiet Brake Design

2009-04-20
2009-01-0858
At the early design stage it is easier to achieve impacts on the brake noise. However most noise analyses are applied later in the development stage when the design space is limited and changes are costly. Early noise analysis is seldom applied due to lack of credible inputs for the finite element modeling, the sensitive nature of the noise, and reservations on the noise event screening of the analysis. A high quality brake finite element model of good components’ and system representation is the necessary basis for credible early noise analysis. That usually requires the inputs from existing production hardware. On the other hand in vehicle braking the frequency contents and propensity of many noise cases are sensitive to minor component design modifications, environmental factors and hardware variations in mass production. Screening the noisy modes and their sensitivity levels helps confirm the major noisy event at the early design stage.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Pressure Control System Development for an Automatic Transmission

2009-04-20
2009-01-0951
This paper presents the development of a transmission closed loop pressure control system. The objective of this system is to improve transmission pressure control accuracy by employing closed-loop technology. The control system design includes both feed forward and feedback control. The feed forward control algorithm continuously learns solenoid P-I characteristics. The closed loop feedback control has a conventional PID control with multi-level gain selections for each control channel, as well as different operating points. To further improve the system performance, Robust Optimization is carried out to determine the optimal set of control parameters and controller hardware design factors. The optimized design is verified via an L18 experiment on spin dynamometer. The design is also tested on vehicle.
Technical Paper

Simulation and Test Results for Several Variable-Valve-Actuation Mechanisms

2009-04-20
2009-01-0229
We start our study with a survey of existing variable valve actuation (VVA) devices. We then describe our work, taken place over a time period from 2001 to 2007, on several VVA concepts. All of our projects described include pre-design modeling and simulation. Also, for each one of the proposed designs, a bench-top motorized test fixture was built and ran for proof of concept. Our projects represent a mixture of exploratory research and production-related development work. They can be classified in four broad categories: discrete-step systems; mechanical continuously-variable systems; active stationary-hydraulic lash adjusters; cam-driven hydraulic-lost-motion mechanism. These devices differ in their complexity and versatility but offer a spectrum of design solutions applicable to a range of products. Specific attributes of these different approaches are analyzed and discussed, and some test results are presented.
Technical Paper

High Capacity Electric A/C Compressor with Integrated Inverter for Hybrid Automotive and Commercial Vehicles

2008-10-07
2008-01-2619
The market growth for electric-hybrid passenger vehicles has been very significant and is expected to reach nearly 25% of all vehicles sold in the US by 2015. Hybrid commercial vehicles are also being developed by several OEM's. This paper discusses the progress of Delphi Thermal Systems in developing an integrated electric compressor drive with high cooling capacity (9 kW+), sufficient for large hybrid SUV's and commercial vehicles such as Class 8 tractors with sleeper. An important driver for use of the electric compressor in the hybrid truck application is the reduction of engine idling time while maintaining comfort in the cab or sleeper. Design details of a compact 5 kW SPM motor, its inverter drive, and issues related to its integration into the compressor housing are described. Test results are given confirming excellent performance.
Technical Paper

Switching Roller Finger Follower Meets Lifetime Passenger Car Durability Requirements

2012-09-10
2012-01-1640
An advanced variable valve actuation (VVA) system is characterized following end-of-life testing to enable fuel economy solutions for passenger car applications. The system consists of a switching roller finger follower (SRFF) combined with a dual feed hydraulic lash adjuster and an oil control valve that are integrated into a four cylinder gasoline engine. The SRFF provides discrete valve lift capability on the intake valves. The motivation for designing this type of VVA system is targeted to improve fuel economy by reducing the air pumping losses during part load engine operation. This paper addresses the durability of a SRFF for meeting passenger car durability requirements. Extensive durability tests were conducted for high speed, low speed, switching, and cold start operation. High engine speed test results show stable valvetrain dynamics above 7000 engine rpm. System wear requirements met end-of-life criteria for the switching, sliding, rolling and torsion spring interfaces.
Technical Paper

Least-Enthalpy Based Control of Cabin Air Recirculation

2015-04-14
2015-01-0372
The vehicle air-conditioning system has significant impact on fuel economy and range of electric vehicles. Improving the fuel economy of vehicles therefore demand for energy efficient climate control systems. Also the emissions regulations motivate the reduced use of fuel for vehicle's cabin climate control. Solar heat gain of the passenger compartment by greenhouse effect is generally treated as the peak thermal load of the climate control system. Although the use of advanced glazing is considered first to reduce solar heat gain other means such as ventilation of parked car and recirculation of cabin air also have impetus for reducing the climate control loads.
Technical Paper

Bolt-load Retention Testing of Magnesium Alloys for Automotive Applications

2006-04-03
2006-01-0072
For automotive applications at elevated temperatures, the need for sufficient creep resistance of Mg alloys is often associated with retaining appropriate percentages of initial clamp loads in bolt joints. This engineering property is often referred to as bolt-load retention (BLR); BLR testing is a practical method to quantify the bolt load with time for engineering purposes. Therefore, standard BLR test procedures for automotive applications are desired. This report summarizes the effort in the Structural Cast Magnesium Development (SCMD) project under the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP), to provide a technical basis for recommending a general-purpose and a design-purpose BLR test procedures for BLR testing of Mg alloys for automotive applications. The summary includes results of factors influencing BLR and related test techniques from open literature, automotive industry and research carried out in this laboratory project.
Technical Paper

Static Load Sharing Characteristics of Transmission Planetary Gear Sets: Model and Experiment

1999-03-01
1999-01-1050
One of the most common applications of planetary (epi-cyclic) gear sets is found in automotive transmissions. A planetary gear set typically total torque applied to be shared by multiple planets making a higher power density possible. This advantage of the planetary gear sets relies heavily on the assumption that each pinion carries an equal share of the total torque applied. However, in production, gear manufacturing and assembly variations along with certain design parameters may prevent equal load sharing among the planets. Here, a generalized mathematical model of a single-stage planetary gear set having n planets is developed to predict load shared by each planet under quasi-static conditions. The model takes into account effects of two most common errors including pinion carrier errors and gear run-out errors. Results of an experimental test program are used to validate the predictions of the model. Generalized guidelines for equal load sharing are also presented.
Technical Paper

PEM Fuel Cell System Solutions for Transportation

2000-03-06
2000-01-0373
PEM Fuel Cell technology has been advancing rapidly during the last several years as evidenced by various vehicle demonstrations by the major automotive companies. As the development continues to bring hardware to automotive system level solutions, many engineering challenges arise. This paper will deal with two (2) of these areas from an automotive system level perspective: Thermal Management and the Fuel Cell Stack. Both of these sub-system areas are critical to the success of the technology in meeting the requirements of tomorrow's automotive customer.
Technical Paper

SAE Standard Procedure J2747 for Measuring Hydraulic Pump Airborne Noise

2007-05-15
2007-01-2408
This work discusses the development of SAE procedure J2747, “Hydraulic Pump Airborne Noise Bench Test”. This is a test procedure describing a standard method for measuring radiated sound power levels from hydraulic pumps of the type typically used in automotive power steering systems, though it can be extended for use with other types of pumps. This standard was developed by a committee of industry representatives from OEM's, suppliers and NVH testing firms familiar with NVH measurement requirements for automotive hydraulic pumps. Details of the test standard are discussed. The hardware configuration of the test bench and the configuration of the test article are described. Test conditions, data acquisition and post-processing specifics are also included. Contextual information regarding the reasoning and priorities applied by the development committee is provided to further explain the strengths, limitations and intended usage of the test procedure.
Technical Paper

Gear Mesh Excitation Models for Assessing Gear Rattle and Gear Whine of Torque Transmission Systems with Planetary Gear Sets

2007-05-15
2007-01-2245
This paper presents four methodologies for modeling gear mesh excitations in simple and compound planetary gear sets. The gear mesh excitations use simplified representations of the gear mesh contact phenomenon so that they can be implemented in a numerically efficient manner. This allows the gear mesh excitations to be included in transmission system-level, multibody dynamic models for the assessment of operating noise and vibration levels. After presenting the four approaches, a description is made regarding how they have been implemented in software. Finally, example models are used to do a comparison between the methods
Technical Paper

The Importance of Sealing Pass-Through Locations Via the Front of Dash Barrier Assembly

1999-05-17
1999-01-1802
An improvement in a vehicle's front of dash barrier assembly's acoustical performance has in the past been addressed by both adding individual absorbers and increasing the overall weight of the dash sound barrier assembly. Depending upon the target market of the vehicle, adding mass may not be an option for improved acoustical performance. Understanding the value of an increase in vehicle mass and / or cost for a specific level of improved acoustical performance continues to plague both Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) Engineers and Purchasing representatives. This paper examines the importance of properly sealing the front of dash pass-through areas and offers recommendations which can improve the overall vehicle acoustical performance without the addition of cost and mass to the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Optimal Mount Selection with Scattered and Bundled Stiffness Rates

2006-04-03
2006-01-0736
The optimal selection of vehicle body and powertrain mounts from “mount libraries” is one of the major undertakings to achieve optimal vehicle dynamics and N&V performance through the reuse of existing mount designs. The great challenges of the process are due to the facts that conventional optimization procedures, either through simulation or DOE, can not be used directly because the stiffness rates of the mounts are scattered and bundled. Sorting out the best through hardware tests is generally unrealistic simply due to the huge number of mount combinations. This paper presents a new approach to the optimal mount selection, and demonstrates through applications that it is efficient and reliable. This approach characterizes a mount by its effective stiffness rate and evaluates its deviation from an associated target. Continuous dummy variables are used to determine the selection targets through conventional processes for performance optimization.
Technical Paper

Bulkhead Loading Calculation of an Aluminum Engine Block Coupled with a Rotating Crankshaft through Elastohydrodynamic Bearings

2007-04-16
2007-01-0267
During a new engine development program, or the adaptation of an existing engine to new platform architectures, testing is performed to determine the durability characteristics of the basic engine structure. Such testing helps to uncover High Cycle durability-related issues that can occur at the bulkhead walls as well as cap bolt thread areas in an aluminum cylinder block. When this class of issues occurs, an Elastohydrodynamic (EHD) bearing simulation capability is required. In this study, analytical methods and processes are established to calculate the localized distributed load on the bulkhead. The complexity in performing a system analysis is due to the nonlinear coupling between the bearing hydrodynamic pressure distribution and the crankshaft and block deformation. A system approach for studying the crankshaft-block interaction requires a crankshaft flexible body dynamics model, an engine block assembly flexible body dynamics model and a main bearing lubrication model.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Technique Based on Finite Element and Experimental Data for Automotive Applications

2007-04-16
2007-01-0466
This paper presents the hybrid technique application in identifying the noise transfer paths and the force transmissibility between the interfaces of the different components in the vehicle. It is the stiffness based formulation and is being applied for the low to mid frequency range for the vibration and structure borne noise. The frequency response functions such as dynamic compliance, mobility, inertance, and acoustic sensitivity, employed in the hybrid method, can either be from the test data or finite element solution or both. The Source-Path-Receiver concept is used. The sources can be from the road surface, engine, transmission, transfer case, prop-shaft, differential, rotating components, chain drives, pumps, etc., and the receiver can be driver/passenger ears, steering column, seats, etc.
Technical Paper

Future Truck Steering Effort Optimization

2007-04-16
2007-01-1155
In an endeavor to improve upon historically subjective and hardware-based steering tuning development, a team was formed to find an optimal and objective solution using Design For Six Sigma (DFSS). The goal was to determine the best valve assembly design within a hydraulic power-steering assist system to yield improved steering effort and feel robustness for all vehicle models in a future truck program. The methodology utilized was not only multifaceted with several Design of Experiments (DOEs), but also took advantage of a CAE-based approach leveraging modeling capabilities in ADAMS for simulating full-vehicle, On-Center Handling behavior. The team investigated thirteen control factors to determine which minimized a realistic, compounded noise strategy while also considering the ideal steering effort function (SEF) desired by the customer. In the end, it was found that response-dependent variability dominated the physics of our valve assembly design concept.
Technical Paper

Simulating Neck Injury in Frontal Impact using LS-DYNA

2007-04-16
2007-01-0677
Neck injury assessment is part of the FMVSS208 requirements. Hardware tests are often conducted to validate whether the vehicle safety system meets the requirements. This paper presents a full vehicle finite element model using LS-DYNA, including structural components, restraint system components, and dummies. In the case of a frontal impact at 30deg angle, in the areas of neck compression, neck extension and neck kinematics, it is demonstrated that a good correlation is achieved between the response of a FE dummy in the model and those of ATDs in the physical hardware tests. It is concluded that the math tool may be applied to comprehend test and design variations that may arise throughout a vehicle development lifecycle and to help develop a vehicle restraint system.
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