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Technical Paper

Exhaust Backpressure Estimation for an Internal Combustion Engine with a Variable Geometry Turbo Charger

Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is one of the key approaches applied to reduce emissions for an internal combustion engine. Recirculating a desired amount of EGR requires accurately estimating EGR mass flow. This can be calculated either from the gas flow equation of an orifice, or from the difference between charge air mass flow and fresh air mass flow. Both calculations need engine exhaust pressure as an input variable. This paper presents a method to estimate exhaust pressure for a variable geometry turbo charged diesel engine. The method is accurate and simple to fit production ECU application, therefore, saves cost of using a physical sensor.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Pressure Control System Development for an Automatic Transmission

This paper presents the development of a transmission closed loop pressure control system. The objective of this system is to improve transmission pressure control accuracy by employing closed-loop technology. The control system design includes both feed forward and feedback control. The feed forward control algorithm continuously learns solenoid P-I characteristics. The closed loop feedback control has a conventional PID control with multi-level gain selections for each control channel, as well as different operating points. To further improve the system performance, Robust Optimization is carried out to determine the optimal set of control parameters and controller hardware design factors. The optimized design is verified via an L18 experiment on spin dynamometer. The design is also tested on vehicle.
Technical Paper

Brake Noise Analysis with Lining Wear

It is well known that lining reduction through wear affects contact pressure profile and noise generation. Due to high complexity in brake noise analysis, many factors were not included in previous analyses. In this paper, a new analysis process is performed by running brake “burnishing” cycles first, followed by noise analysis. In the paper, brake lining reduction due to wear is assumed to be proportional to the applied brake pressure with ABAQUS analysis. Brake pads go through four brake application-releasing cycles until the linings settle to a more stable pressure distribution. The resulting pressure profiles show lining cupping and high pressure spots shifting. The pressure distributions are compared to TekScan measurements. Brake noise analysis is then conducted with complex eigenvalue analysis steps; the resulting stability chart is better correlated to testing when the wear is comprehended.
Technical Paper

Computational Aeroacoustics Investigation of Automobile Sunroof Buffeting

A numerical investigation of automobile sunroof buffeting on a prototype sport utility vehicle (SUV) is presented, including experimental validation. Buffeting is an unpleasant low frequency booming caused by flow-excited Helmholtz resonance of the interior cabin. Accurate prediction of this phenomenon requires accounting for the bi-directional coupling between the transient shear layer aerodynamics (vortex shedding) and the acoustic response of the cabin. Numerical simulations were performed using the PowerFLOW code, a CFD/CAA software package from Exa Corporation based on the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM). The well established LBM approach provides the time-dependent solution to the compressible Navier-Stokes equations, and directly captures both turbulent and acoustic pressure fluctuations over a wide range of scales given adequate computational grid resolution.
Technical Paper

Acoustical Advantages of a New Polypropylene Absorbing Material

Sound absorption is one way to control noise in automotive passenger compartments. Fibrous or porous materials absorb sound in a cavity by dissipating energy associated with a propagating sound wave. The objective of this study was to evaluate the acoustic performance of a cotton fiber absorbing material in comparison to a new polypropylene fibrous material, called ECOSORB ®. The acoustical evaluation was done using measurements of material properties along with sound pressure level from road testing of a fully-assembled vehicle. The new polypropylene fibrous material showed significant advantages over the cotton fiber materials in material properties testing and also in-vehicle measurements. In addition to the performance benefits, the polypropylene absorber provided weight savings over the cotton fiber material.
Technical Paper

An Engineering Method for Part-load Engine Simulation

This work provides an effective engineering method of building a part-load engine simulation model from a wide-open throttle (WOT) engine model and available dynamometer data. It shows how to perform part-load engine simulation using optimizer for targeted manifold absolute air pressure (MAP) on a basic matrix of engine speed and MAP. Key combustion parameters were estimated to cover the entire part-load region based on affordable assumptions and limitations. Engine rubbing friction and pumping friction were combined to compare against the motoring torque. The emission data from GM dynamometer laboratory were used to compare against engine simulation results after attaching the RLT sensor to record emission data in the engine simulation model.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of the Flow Around a Generic SUV

The results of an experimental investigation of the flow in the near wake of a generic Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV) model are presented. The main goals of the study are to gain a better understanding of the external aerodynamics of SUVs, and to obtain a comprehensive experimental database that can be used as a benchmark to validate math-based CFD simulations for external aerodynamics. Data obtained in this study include the instantaneous and mean pressures, as well as mean velocities and turbulent quantities at various locations in the near wake. Mean pressure coefficients on the base of the SUV model vary from −0.23 to −0.1. The spectrum of the pressure coefficient fluctuation at the base of the model has a weak peak at a Strouhal number of 0.07. PIV measurements show a complex three-dimensional recirculation region behind the model of length approximately 1.2 times the width of the model.
Technical Paper

Development and Optimization of a Small-Displacement Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Engine - Stratified Operation

Superior fuel economy was achieved for a small-displacement spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine by optimizing the stratified combustion operation. The optimization was performed using computational analyses and subsequently testing the most promising configurations experimentally. The fuel economy savings are achieved by the use of a multihole injector with novel spray shape, which allows ultra-lean stratification for a wide range of part-load operating conditions without compromising smoke and hydrocarbon emissions. In this regard, a key challenge for wall-controlled SIDI engines is the minimization of wall wetting to prevent smoke, which may require advanced injection timings, while at the same time minimizing hydrocarbon emissions, which may require retarding injection and thereby preventing over-mixing of the fuel vapor.
Technical Paper

Free Expansion Bulge Testing of Tubes For Automotive Hydroform Applications

Free expansion of straight tubes is the simplest test to evaluate tube properties for hydroforming applications and to provide basic understanding of the mechanics of tube hydroforming. A circular cylindrical tube is sealed at both ends and fluid, usually water, is pumped into the tube to increase its internal pressure to bulge and burst the tube. Previous numerical simulations of the free expansion tube test were limited to modeling the midsection of the tube under various assumptions of deformation path. The simulation results obtained deviated from the experimental results under all simulation conditions considered. A new model is developed in this paper in which the whole tube is simulated instead of considering only its mid-section. Judged by the pressure-expansion relations, the model accurately predicted free expansion hydroforming tests results.
Technical Paper

Simulation Based Development of Quick Plastic Forming

A computer assisted development technique for Quick Plastic Forming parts [1] is described, based on the simulation program PAM-STAMP [2]. The technique allows thickness changes during forming to be accurately considered in the development process without physical trials. Process pressure cycles, which provide for maximal material formability, can be determined with a single simulation. The paper describes new program features, which reduce modeling effort and increase simulation accuracy. Various validation examples and industrial case studies are also presented, demonstrating current capabilities.
Technical Paper

Standard Interfaces and Standard Software Architecture as a Means For “Go Fast” Engineering

The global market pressure of requiring high quality vehicles at lower prices has forced automotive manufacturers to change the way they engineer their products. In the electrical/electronic part of the automobile business, a strategy of reusing common hardware and software components was needed to support these market pressures. The General Motors strategy was to develop a standard electrical architecture. This paper will identify what a standard electrical architecture is, how a standard electrical architecture helps General Motors meet market demands, and issues that General Motors encountered in trying to implement this standard electrical architecture.
Technical Paper

A New Method of Measuring Aeration and Deaeration of Fluids

This paper describes the design and functionality of an in-situ air entrainment measuring device for analysis of the air entrainment and air release properties of lubricating fluids. The apparatus allows for a variety of measurement techniques for the aeration and deaeration of the lubricating fluid at various temperatures, pressures, and agitation speeds. This test apparatus is patent pending because of its unique ability to allow for continuous, in-situ measurement of the fluid properties and the rates of change of these properties. Most other measurement techniques and apparatuses do not allow for uninterrupted measurement. This apparatus is also unique in that it is capable of detecting minor fluid density changes at a lower level and with more accuracy than all other current techniques or apparatuses.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of the Near Wake of a Pick-up Truck

The results of an experimental investigation of the flow over a pickup truck are presented. The main objectives of the study are to gain a better understanding of the flow structure in near wake region, and to obtain a detailed quantitative data set for validation of numerical simulations of this flow. Experiments were conducted at moderate Reynolds numbers (∼3×105) in the open return tunnel at the University of Michigan. Measured quantities include: the mean pressure on the symmetry plane, unsteady pressure in the bed, and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements of the flow in the near wake. The unsteady pressure results show that pressure fluctuations in the forward section of the bed are small and increase significantly at the edge of the tailgate. Pressure fluctuation spectra at the edge of the tailgate show a spectral peak at a Strouhal number of 0.07 and large energy content at very low frequency.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Pressure Data Quality Checks and Procedures to Maximize Data Accuracy

Cylinder pressure data is so completely integral to the combustion system development process that ensuring measurements of the highest possible accuracy is of paramount importance. Three main areas of the pressure measurement and analysis process control the accuracy of measured cylinder pressure and its derived metrics: 1) Association of the pressure data to the engine's crankshaft position or cylinder volume 2) Pegging, or referencing, the pressure sensor output to a known, absolute pressure level 3) The raw, relative pressure output of the piezoelectric cylinder pressure sensor Certain cylinder pressure-based metrics, such as mean effective pressures (MEP) and heat release parameters, require knowledge of the cylinder volume associated with the sampled pressure data. Accurate determination of the cylinder volume is dependent on knowing the rotational position of the crankshaft.
Technical Paper

Predicting Running Vehicle Exhaust Back Pressure in a Laboratory Using Air Flowing at Room Temperature and Spreadsheet Calculations

In today’s highly competitive automotive environment people are always looking to develop processes that are fast, efficient, and effective. Moving testing from expensive prototype vehicles into the laboratory is an approach being implemented for many different vehicle subsystems. Specifically a process has recently been developed at General Motors that predicts exhaust back pressure performance for a running vehicle using laboratory testing and spreadsheet calculations. This paper describes the laboratory facility and procedure, the theory behind the calculations, and the correlation between vehicle test and laboratory based results. It also comments on the benefits of the process with respect to reduction in design iterations, quicker availability of results, and money savings.
Technical Paper

Aeroacoustics of an Automobile A-Pillar Rain Gutter: Computational and Experimental Study

Noise due to the flow over an automobile A-pillar rain gutter in isolation was computed using a two step procedure. Initially the flow solution was obtained by solving the Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations. Acoustical Sources were extracted from the flow solution and propagated to the far-field using the Lighthill-Curle equation. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the computations. Compared results include steady pressures, time dependent pressures, and sound intensity levels. Computed results and experimental data were reduced in a similar way to ensure a one to one comparison. Computed results are in good agreement with the experimental values. A-weighted noise levels are predicted reasonably well.