Refine Your Search

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 4 of 4
Technical Paper

Research Issues on the Biomechanics of Seating Discomfort: An Overview with Focus on Issues of the Elderly and Low-Back Pain

1992-02-01
920130
This paper reviews issues relating to seats including design for comfort and restraint, mechanics of discomfort and irritability, older occupants, and low-back pain. It focuses on the interface between seating technology and occupant comfort, and involves a technical review of medical-engineering information. The dramatic increase in the number of features currently available on seats outreaches the technical understanding of occupant accommodation and ride comfort. Thus, the current understanding of seat design parameters may not adequately encompass occupant needs. The review has found many pathways between seating features and riding comfort, each of which requires more specific information on the biomechanics of discomfort by pressure distribution, body support, ride vibration, material breathability, and other factors. These inputs stimulate mechanisms of discomfort that need to be quantified in terms of mechanical requirements for seat design and function.
Technical Paper

FLARE: An Integrated Software Package for Friction and Lubrication Analysis of Automotive Engines - Part I: Overview and Applications

1992-02-01
920487
A comprehensive computer package, FLARE, has been developed for carrying out Friction and Lubrication Analysis of Reciprocating Engines. FLARE considers four major lubricated components in an automotive engine -- piston skirt, piston rings, bearings, and valve train. Hydrodynamic, mixed, and boundary lubrication models are used, as appropriate, to model the lubrication phenomena. All the analytical models are based on solution of governing equations. Three levels of analyses with varying degrees of detail have been developed. Availability of different levels provides the flexibility of matching the complexity and accuracy of the analysis with the objective of the analysis. An empirical engine friction model, which is based on experimental data, is also available. Many user-friendly features are built into the FLARE system to make it easier to use for design engineers. This paper gives a brief overview of all the analysis sub-models incorporated into FLARE.
Technical Paper

A Review of Engine Bearing Analysis Methods at General Motors

1992-02-01
920489
An array of engine bearing analysis methods has been developed at General Motors over the years. All of these analyses consider wedge and squeeze effects, finite-length bearing, variation of load with crank angle, and cavitation effects. The simplest among them utilizes the so-called mobility method for solving the governing Reynolds equation. Others include finite-element solution for bearings with arbitrary geometry and grooving, finite-element solution for elastohydrodynamic lubrication, mass-conserving finite-volume solution, non-Newtonian lubricant analysis, and thermohydrodynamic analysis. This paper reviews these methods, describes when and how these methods are used, compares results and describes some applications.
Technical Paper

The Scavenging Flow Field in a Crankcase-Compression Two-Stroke Engine - A Three-Dimensional Laser-Velocimetry Survey

1992-02-01
920417
Transfer-port and in-cylinder flow fields have been mapped in a crankcase-compression, loop-scavenged two-stroke engine under motored conditions (1600 r/min; delivery ratio: 0.5). The impulsive, high-velocity flow (initially ≳2200 m/s) issuing from the transfer ports is fairly uniform and symmetric in space. The resulting in-cylinder flow field displays a classic scavenging loop pattern, but is complex and asymmetric. The data also characterize backflow from the cylinder into the transfer ports and the spin-up and breakdown of the scavenging-loop vortex during compression. The detailed LDV results provide some quantitative support for the widely used Jante scavenging test. FOR THE GREATER PART OF A CENTURY, the scavenging process has been recognized as critical to the performance of two-stroke-cycle engines.
X