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Technical Paper

Low Pressure Timed Injection and Control System for the Otto Cycle Engine

1963-01-01
630468
The present use of the carburetor to supply fuel to the Otto cycle engine has placed it in a difficult competitive position with the diesel engine, which has successfully operated with a fuel injection system. The purpose of this study was to consider the feasibility of utilizing a low pressure injection system for the Otto cycle engine. The proposed design is discussed in detail. As the author points out, this system will allow design changes in the engine that would be impossible if the carburetor were retained, and thus considerable improvement in performance and efficiency can be realized for the Otto cycle engine.
Technical Paper

Novel, Compact Devices for Reducing Fluid-Borne Noise

2011-05-17
2011-01-1533
Hydraulic systems pose a particular problem for noise control. Due to the high speed of sound in hydraulic fluids, components typically designed to reduce fluid-borne noise can easily exceed practical size constraints. This paper presents novel solutions to creating compact and effective noise control devices for fluid power systems. A hydraulic silencer is presented that utilizes a voided polymer lining in lieu of a pressurized bladder. Theoretical modeling is developed which predicts device performance and can assist in future design work. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the performance of the device. Both voided and non-voided liners are tested to show the effect of the voiding on the performance. In addition, theoretical modeling and experimental results are presented for a prototype Helmholtz resonator that is two orders of magnitude smaller than previously developed devices.
Technical Paper

Laser Ignition of Multi-Injection Gasoline Sprays

2011-04-12
2011-01-0659
Laser plasma ignition has been pursued by engine researchers as an alternative to electric spark-ignition systems, potentially offering benefits by avoiding quenching surfaces and extending breakdown limits at higher boost pressure and lower equivalence ratio. For this study, we demonstrate another potential benefit: the ability to control the timing of ignition with short, nanosecond pulses, thereby optimizing the type of mixture that burns in rapidly changing, stratified fuel-air mixtures. We study laser ignition at various timings during single and double injections at simulated gasoline engine conditions within a controlled, high-temperature, high-pressure vessel. Laser ignition is accomplished with a single low-energy (10 mJ), short duration (8 ns) Nd:YAG laser beam that is tightly focused (0.015 mm average measured 1/e₂ diameter) at a typical GDI spark plug location.
Technical Paper

A Model for Water Consumption in Vehicle Use within Urban Regions

2011-04-12
2011-01-1152
The recent development of electric vehicles creates a new area of interest regarding their potential impacts on natural resource and energy networks. Water consumption is of particular interest, as water scarcity becomes a growing problem in many regions of the world. Water usage can be traced to the production of gasoline, as well as electricity, for regular operation of these vehicles. This paper focuses on the development of a framework to analyze the amount of water consumed in the operation of both conventional and electric vehicles. Using the Systems Modeling Language, a model was developed based on the water consumed directly in energy generation and processing as well as water consumed in obtaining and processing a vehicle's fuels. This model and framework will use the above water consumption breakdown to examine conventional and electric vehicles in metropolitan Atlanta to assess their impacts on that and other urban networks.
Journal Article

Relationship Between Diesel Fuel Spray Vapor Penetration/Dispersion and Local Fuel Mixture Fraction

2011-04-12
2011-01-0686
The fuel-ambient mixture in vaporized fuel jets produced by liquid sprays is fundamental to the performance and operation of engines. Unfortunately, experimental difficulties limit the direct measurement of local fuel-ambient mixture, inhibiting quantitative assessment of mixing. On the other hand, measurement of global quantities, such as the jet penetration rate, is relatively straightforward. Simplified models to predict local fuel-ambient mixture have also been developed, based on these global parameters. However, experimental data to validate these models over a range of conditions is needed. In the current work, we perform measurements of jet global quantities such as vapor-phase penetration, liquid-phase penetration, spreading angle, and nozzle flow coefficients over a range of conditions in a high-temperature, high-pressure vessel.
Journal Article

Kinematic Study of the GM Front-Wheel Drive Two-Mode Transmission and the Toyota Hybrid System THS-II Transmission

2011-04-12
2011-01-0876
General Motors has recently developed a front-wheel drive version of its two planetary two-mode transmission (2-MT) for a hybrid-electric vehicle powertrain [1]. This newer transmission includes two planetary gears with two transfer clutches and two braking clutches. With activation of designated pairs of these four clutches, four fixed-gear ratios between the transmission's input shaft and output shaft are obtained. In addition, activation of specific individual clutches gives two modes of operation whereby the IC engine speed is decoupled from the vehicle velocity thus providing an electrical continuously variable transmission (ECVT). This present paper extends the power-split analysis in [2] by deriving a safe-operating region (SOR) in the plane of IC engine speed vs. vehicle velocity for the four fixed-gear and two ECVT modes. This SOR is bounded by the speed limitations of the 2-MT components. Similar results are presented for the Toyota Hybrid System II (THS-II) transmission.
Journal Article

Backward-Looking Simulation of the Toyota Prius and General Motors Two-Mode Power-Split HEV Powertrains

2011-04-12
2011-01-0948
This paper presents a comparative analysis of two different power-split hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) powertrains using backward-looking simulations. Compared are the front-wheel drive (FWD) Toyota Hybrid System II (THS-II) and the FWD General Motors Allison Hybrid System II (GM AHS-II). The Toyota system employs a one-mode electrically variable transmission (EVT), while the GM system employs a two-mode EVT. Both powertrains are modeled with the same assumed mid-size sedan chassis parameters. Each design employs their native internal combustion (IC) engine because the transmission's characteristic ratios are designed for the respective brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) maps. Due to the similarities (e.g., power, torque, displacement, and thermal efficiency) between the two IC engines, their fuel consumption and performance differences are neglected in this comparison.
Technical Paper

The Integrated Electric Lifestyle: The Economic and Environmental Benefits of an Efficient Home-Vehicle System

2013-04-08
2013-01-0495
In recent years, the residential and transportation sectors have made significant strides in reducing energy consumption, mainly by focusing efforts on low-hanging fruit in each sector independently. This independent viewpoint has been successful in the past because the user needs met and resources consumed in each sector have been clearly distinct. However, the trend towards vehicle electrification has blurred the boundary between the sectors. With both the home and vehicle now relying upon the same energy source, interactions between the systems can no longer be neglected. For example, when tiered utility pricing schemes are considered, the energy consumption of each system affects the cost of the other. In this paper, the authors present an integrated Home-Vehicle Simulation Model (HVSM), allowing the designer to take a holistic view.
Technical Paper

Influence of Liquid Penetration Metrics on Diesel Spray Model Validation

2013-04-08
2013-01-1102
It is common practice to validate diesel spray models against experimental diesel-spray images based on elastic light scattering, but the metric used to define the liquid boundary in a modeled spray can be physically inconsistent with the liquid boundary detected by light scattering measurements. In particular, spray models typically define liquid penetration based on a liquid mass threshold, while light scattering signal intensities are based on droplet size and volume fraction. These metrics have different response characteristics to changes in ambient conditions and fuel properties. Thus, when spray models are “tuned” or calibrated to match these types of measurements, the predictive capabilities of these models can be compromised. In this work, we compare two different liquid length metrics of an evaporating, non-reacting n-dodecane spray under diesel-like conditions using KIVA-3V.
Journal Article

Life-Cycle Environmental Impact of Michelin Tweel® Tire for Passenger Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0093
Recently Michelin has been developing a new airless, integrated tire and wheel combination called the Tweel® tire. The Tweel tire aims at performance levels beyond those possible with conventional pneumatic technology because of its shear band design, added suspension, and potentially decreased rolling resistance. In this paper, we will focus on the environmental impact of the Tweel tire during its life-cycle from manufacturing, through use and disposal. Since the Tweel tire is currently still in the research phase and is not manufactured and used on a large scale, there are uncertainties with respect to end-of-life scenarios and rolling resistance estimates that will affect the LCA. Nevertheless, some preliminary conclusions of the Tweel tire's environmental performance in comparison to a conventional radial tire can be drawn.
Technical Paper

Active Anti-lock Brake System for Low Powered Vehicles Using Cable-Type Brakes

2010-04-12
2010-01-0076
This paper presents a study of the effects of anti-lock brakes on a vehicle with cable-type brakes with respect to stopping distance and vehicle control. While ABS is common on motorcycles and some hydraulic braking systems for mopeds, little research has been done on the use of anti-locks for low-powered vehicles using non-hydraulic brakes. A bicycle with cable-type brakes has been retrofitted with an active ABS. Experiments were carried out to compare the braking distance when the ABS was activated and deactivated. The study found that ABS did not sacrifice braking distance while improving vehicle control.
Technical Paper

Activity Based Approach to Manufacturing Systems Modeling

2010-04-12
2010-01-0277
This paper looks at a method for decomposing a manufactured product into what is called an “activity space.” The method uses an activity based costing scheme to structure the model and organize the information. It is discussed how the activity space is used to perform sustainability assessments of a manufactured product and the manufacturing process from different viewpoints and perspectives. The way in which the activity space is used to perform an assessment from several viewpoints is discussed.
Journal Article

Accounting for the Duration of Analyses in Design Process Decisions

2010-04-12
2010-01-0908
Although the design phase can account for a sizable amount of the resources consumed during the product realization process, the time and costs associated with the design process are often neglected when making design decisions. To investigate this issue, we define a process-centric decision model in which the design-phase consumption of resources, such as time and money, is explicitly modeled. While it is clear that the utility of a design is almost always directly impacted by the monetary costs of the design process, our decision model also accounts for the fact that the profit earned by a product depends strongly on its launch date. The decision model allows us thus to consider the trade-off between the time necessary for analysis and the improvement in product quality that results from the analysis. The decision model is sufficiently generic that almost any set of beliefs about the alternatives or analyses, as well as any utility-based preference structure can be modeled.
Technical Paper

Facilitating the Energy Optimization of Aircraft Propulsion and Thermal Management Systems through Integrated Modeling and Simulation

2010-11-02
2010-01-1787
An integrated, multidisciplinary environment of a tactical aircraft platform has been created by leveraging the powerful capabilities of both MATLAB/Simulink and Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). The overall simulation includes propulsion, power, and thermal management subsystem models, which are integrated together and linked to an air vehicle model and mission profile. The model has the capability of tracking temperatures and performance metrics and subsequently controlling characteristics of the propulsion and thermal management subsystems. The integrated model enables system-level trade studies involving the optimization of engine bleed and power extraction and thermal management requirements to be conducted. The simulation can also be used to examine future technologies and advanced thermal management architectures in order to increase mission capability and performance.
Technical Paper

Transmission Electron Microscopy of Soot Particles sampled directly from a Biodiesel Spray Flame

2011-08-30
2011-01-2046
For better understanding of soot formation and oxidation processes in a biodiesel spray flame, the morphology, microstructure and sizes of soot particles directly sampled in a spray flame fuelled with soy-methyl ester were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The soot samples were taken at different axial locations in the spray flame, 40, 50 and 70 mm from injector nozzle, which correspond to soot formation, peak, and oxidation zones, respectively. The biodiesel spray flame was generated in a constant-volume combustion chamber under a diesel-like high pressure and temperature condition (6.7 MPa, 1000K). Density, diameter of primary particles and radius of gyration of soot aggregates reached a peak at 50 mm from the injector nozzle and was lower or smaller in the formation or oxidation zones of the spray.
Journal Article

New Attempts on Vehicle Suspension Systems Modeling and Its Application on Dynamical Load Analysis

2011-09-13
2011-01-2171
Suspension system dynamics can be obtained by various methods and vehicle design has gained great advantages over the dynamics analysis. By employing the new Udwadia-Kalaba equation, we endeavor some attempts on its application to dynamic modeling of vehicle suspension systems. The modeling approach first segments the suspension system into several component subsystems with kinematic constraints at the segment points released. The equations of motion of the unconstrained subsystems are thus easily obtained. Then by applying the second order constraints, the suspension system dynamics is then obtained. The equations are of closed-form. Having the equations obtained, we then show its application on dynamical load analysis. The solutions for the dynamical loads at interested hard points are obtained. We use the double wishbone suspension to show the systematic approach is easy handling.
Technical Paper

Environmental Implications of Recycling Scrap Tire Material into Ultra Fine Rubber Powder

2012-04-16
2012-01-1051
In this paper, we quantify several environmental benefits associated with using ultra fine scrap tire rubber powders in virgin and recycled rubber and plastics compounds. Specifically, we will analyze the savings in oil extraction and rubber production in comparison to the rubber powder production using cryogenic grinding. The analysis uses first hand factory data provided by a rubber powder producer. As will be shown, even though cryogenic nitrogen requires production and use of liquid nitrogen, there is still a net environmental benefit in terms of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.
Journal Article

Technology Selection for Optimal Power Distribution Efficiency in a Turboelectric Propulsion System

2012-10-22
2012-01-2180
Turboelectric propulsion is a technology that can potentially reduce aircraft noise, increase fuel efficiency, and decrease harmful emissions. In a turbo-electric system, the propulsor (fans) is no longer connected to the turbine through a mechanical connection. Instead, a superconducting generator connected to a gas turbine produces electrical power which is delivered to distributed fans. This configuration can potentially decrease fuel burn by 10% [1]. One of the primary challenges in implementing turboelectric electric propulsion is designing the power distribution system to transmit power from the generator to the fans. The power distribution system is required to transmit 40 MW of power from the generator to the electrical loads on the aircraft. A conventional aircraft distribution cannot efficiently or reliably transmit this large amount of power; therefore, new power distribution technologies must be considered.
Journal Article

Power-Split HEV Control Strategy Development with Refined Engine Transients

2012-04-16
2012-01-0629
Power-split hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) employ two power paths between the internal combustion (IC) engine and the driven wheels routed through gearing and electric machines (EMs) composing an electrically variable transmission (EVT). The EVT allows IC engine control such that rotational speed can be independent of vehicle speed at all times. By breaking the rigid mechanical connection between the IC engine and the driven wheels, the EVT allows the IC engine to operate in the most efficient region of its characteristic brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) map. If the most efficient IC engine operating point produces more power than is requested by the driver, the excess IC engine power can be stored in the energy storage system (ESS) and used later. Conversely, if the most efficient IC engine operating point does not meet the power request of the driver, the ESS delivers the difference to the wheels through the EMs.
Technical Paper

A Methodology for the Prediction of Rotor Blade Ice Formation and Shedding

2011-06-13
2011-38-0090
An integrated approach for modeling the ice accretion and shedding of ice on helicopter rotors is presented. A modular framework is used that includes state of the art computational fluid dynamics, computational structural dynamics, rotor trim, ice accretion, and shedding tools. Results are presented for performance degradation due to icing, collection efficiency, surface temperature and water film properties associated with runback-refreeze phenomena, and shedding. Comparisons with other published simulations and test data are given.
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