Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

Activity Based Approach to Manufacturing Systems Modeling

2010-04-12
2010-01-0277
This paper looks at a method for decomposing a manufactured product into what is called an “activity space.” The method uses an activity based costing scheme to structure the model and organize the information. It is discussed how the activity space is used to perform sustainability assessments of a manufactured product and the manufacturing process from different viewpoints and perspectives. The way in which the activity space is used to perform an assessment from several viewpoints is discussed.
Journal Article

Relationship Between Diesel Fuel Spray Vapor Penetration/Dispersion and Local Fuel Mixture Fraction

2011-04-12
2011-01-0686
The fuel-ambient mixture in vaporized fuel jets produced by liquid sprays is fundamental to the performance and operation of engines. Unfortunately, experimental difficulties limit the direct measurement of local fuel-ambient mixture, inhibiting quantitative assessment of mixing. On the other hand, measurement of global quantities, such as the jet penetration rate, is relatively straightforward. Simplified models to predict local fuel-ambient mixture have also been developed, based on these global parameters. However, experimental data to validate these models over a range of conditions is needed. In the current work, we perform measurements of jet global quantities such as vapor-phase penetration, liquid-phase penetration, spreading angle, and nozzle flow coefficients over a range of conditions in a high-temperature, high-pressure vessel.
Technical Paper

Laser Ignition of Multi-Injection Gasoline Sprays

2011-04-12
2011-01-0659
Laser plasma ignition has been pursued by engine researchers as an alternative to electric spark-ignition systems, potentially offering benefits by avoiding quenching surfaces and extending breakdown limits at higher boost pressure and lower equivalence ratio. For this study, we demonstrate another potential benefit: the ability to control the timing of ignition with short, nanosecond pulses, thereby optimizing the type of mixture that burns in rapidly changing, stratified fuel-air mixtures. We study laser ignition at various timings during single and double injections at simulated gasoline engine conditions within a controlled, high-temperature, high-pressure vessel. Laser ignition is accomplished with a single low-energy (10 mJ), short duration (8 ns) Nd:YAG laser beam that is tightly focused (0.015 mm average measured 1/e₂ diameter) at a typical GDI spark plug location.
Journal Article

Kinematic Study of the GM Front-Wheel Drive Two-Mode Transmission and the Toyota Hybrid System THS-II Transmission

2011-04-12
2011-01-0876
General Motors has recently developed a front-wheel drive version of its two planetary two-mode transmission (2-MT) for a hybrid-electric vehicle powertrain [1]. This newer transmission includes two planetary gears with two transfer clutches and two braking clutches. With activation of designated pairs of these four clutches, four fixed-gear ratios between the transmission's input shaft and output shaft are obtained. In addition, activation of specific individual clutches gives two modes of operation whereby the IC engine speed is decoupled from the vehicle velocity thus providing an electrical continuously variable transmission (ECVT). This present paper extends the power-split analysis in [2] by deriving a safe-operating region (SOR) in the plane of IC engine speed vs. vehicle velocity for the four fixed-gear and two ECVT modes. This SOR is bounded by the speed limitations of the 2-MT components. Similar results are presented for the Toyota Hybrid System II (THS-II) transmission.
Journal Article

Model-Based Optimization of a Hydraulic Backhoe using Multi-Attribute Utility Theory

2009-04-20
2009-01-0565
Modeling and simulation are commonly used in all stages of the design process. This is particularly vital to the success of systems engineering projects where the system under consideration is complex and involves interactions between many interdisciplinary subsystems. In the refining stages of the design process (after concept selection), models and simulations can be used to refine and optimize a system with respect to the decision maker’s objectives. In this paper, a dynamic model of a hydraulic backhoe serves as a test-bed for a large-scale sensitivity analysis and subsequent optimization of the most significant design parameters. The model is optimized under uncertainty with respect to a multi-attribute utility function that includes fuel consumption, cost of the key components, and machine performance.
Technical Paper

An Analytic Foundation for the Two-Mode Hybrid-Electric Powertrain with a Comparison to the Single-Mode Toyota Prius THS-II Powertrain

2009-04-20
2009-01-1321
General Motors has introduced a Two-Mode Transmission (2-MT) that provides significant improvements over the Toyota THS-II transmission. These improvements are achieved by employing additional planetaries with clutches and brakes to switch from a Mode-1 to Mode-2 as vehicle speed increases. In addition the 2-MT has four fixed-gear ratios that provide for a purely mechanical energy path from the IC engine to the driven wheels with the electric machines also able to provide additional driving torque. The purpose of this present paper is to extend the methodology in a previous paper [1] to include the 2-MT, thereby presenting an analytic foundation for its operation. The main contribution in this analysis is in the definition of dimensionless separation factors, defined in each mode that govern the power split between the parallel mechanical and electrical energy paths from the IC engine to the driven wheels.
Journal Article

Sustainable Manufacturing Analysis using an Activity Based Object Oriented Method

2009-11-10
2009-01-3229
This article begins by describing the need for a new method and tool for performing a sustainability assessment for manufacturing processes and systems. A brief literature survey is done to highlight the major existing methods and tools, their function, and their shortcomings. The article goes on to describe the general approach of the method before describing a computer aided tool that has been developed to implement the method. The article concludes with a walk through of a generic use case that describes where such a method would be useful and how such a tool would be implemented.
Journal Article

Accounting for the Duration of Analyses in Design Process Decisions

2010-04-12
2010-01-0908
Although the design phase can account for a sizable amount of the resources consumed during the product realization process, the time and costs associated with the design process are often neglected when making design decisions. To investigate this issue, we define a process-centric decision model in which the design-phase consumption of resources, such as time and money, is explicitly modeled. While it is clear that the utility of a design is almost always directly impacted by the monetary costs of the design process, our decision model also accounts for the fact that the profit earned by a product depends strongly on its launch date. The decision model allows us thus to consider the trade-off between the time necessary for analysis and the improvement in product quality that results from the analysis. The decision model is sufficiently generic that almost any set of beliefs about the alternatives or analyses, as well as any utility-based preference structure can be modeled.
Journal Article

Life-Cycle Environmental Impact of Michelin Tweel® Tire for Passenger Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0093
Recently Michelin has been developing a new airless, integrated tire and wheel combination called the Tweel® tire. The Tweel tire aims at performance levels beyond those possible with conventional pneumatic technology because of its shear band design, added suspension, and potentially decreased rolling resistance. In this paper, we will focus on the environmental impact of the Tweel tire during its life-cycle from manufacturing, through use and disposal. Since the Tweel tire is currently still in the research phase and is not manufactured and used on a large scale, there are uncertainties with respect to end-of-life scenarios and rolling resistance estimates that will affect the LCA. Nevertheless, some preliminary conclusions of the Tweel tire's environmental performance in comparison to a conventional radial tire can be drawn.
Technical Paper

Facilitating the Energy Optimization of Aircraft Propulsion and Thermal Management Systems through Integrated Modeling and Simulation

2010-11-02
2010-01-1787
An integrated, multidisciplinary environment of a tactical aircraft platform has been created by leveraging the powerful capabilities of both MATLAB/Simulink and Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). The overall simulation includes propulsion, power, and thermal management subsystem models, which are integrated together and linked to an air vehicle model and mission profile. The model has the capability of tracking temperatures and performance metrics and subsequently controlling characteristics of the propulsion and thermal management subsystems. The integrated model enables system-level trade studies involving the optimization of engine bleed and power extraction and thermal management requirements to be conducted. The simulation can also be used to examine future technologies and advanced thermal management architectures in order to increase mission capability and performance.
Technical Paper

A Methodology for the Prediction of Rotor Blade Ice Formation and Shedding

2011-06-13
2011-38-0090
An integrated approach for modeling the ice accretion and shedding of ice on helicopter rotors is presented. A modular framework is used that includes state of the art computational fluid dynamics, computational structural dynamics, rotor trim, ice accretion, and shedding tools. Results are presented for performance degradation due to icing, collection efficiency, surface temperature and water film properties associated with runback-refreeze phenomena, and shedding. Comparisons with other published simulations and test data are given.
Technical Paper

A General Aviation Aircraft Retrofit with a PEM Fuel Cell

2008-11-11
2008-01-2914
As gas prices and climate change become the preeminent issues of today, more research effort is being directed towards the development of cheaper and cleaner alternative energy sources. These efforts have been further complemented with research into the applicability of these sources to air, land and sea borne vehicles. In this report a notional C-172R general aviation aircraft is retrofitted with a PEM power plant as a case-study. Lower bounds for useful load and range are set in such a way that the results can be useful in determining how much improvement in the technology would be required to power a useful general aviation vehicle. It is seen that even at the predicted 2015 fuel cell technology level (per US Department of Energy projections), PEM systems would still be infeasible for this vehicle due to low specific power. Further investigation revealed that a PEM-battery hybrid system had better chances of feasibility.
Technical Paper

Trail-Braking Driver Input Parameterization for General Corner Geometry

2008-12-02
2008-01-2986
Trail-Braking (TB) is a common cornering technique used in rally racing to negotiate tight corners at (moderately) high speeds. In a previous paper by the authors it has been shown that TB can be generated as the solution to the minimum-time cornering problem, subject to fixed final positioning of the vehicle after the corner. A TB maneuver can then be computed by solving a non-linear programming (NLP). In this work we formulate an optimization problem by relaxing the final positioning of the vehicle with respect to the width of the road in order to study the optimality of late-apex trajectories typically followed by rally drivers. We test the results on a variety of corners. The optimal control inputs are approximated by simple piecewise linear input profiles defined by a small number of parameters. It is shown that the proposed input parameterization can generate close to optimal TB along the various corner geometries.
Technical Paper

A Dynamic Surrogate Model Technique for Power Systems Modeling and Simulation

2008-11-11
2008-01-2887
Heterogeneous physical systems can often be considered as highly complex, consisting of a large number of subsystems and components, along with the associated interactions and hierarchies amongst them. The simulation of a large-scale, complex system can be computationally expensive and the dynamic interactions may be highly nonlinear. One approach to address these challenges is to increase the computing power or resort to a distributed computing environment. An alternative to improve the simulation computational performance and efficiency is to reduce CPU required time through the application of surrogate models. Surrogate modeling techniques for dynamic simulation models can be developed based on Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN).This study will present a method to improve the overall speed of a multi-physics time-domain simulation of a complex naval system using a surrogate modeling technique.
Journal Article

Superconducting Machines and Power Systems for Electric-Drive Aeropropulsion

2008-11-11
2008-01-2862
Societal demands of recent years have increasingly pressured the development of greener technologies in all sectors of the nation's transportation infrastructure, including that of civilian aviation. This study explores the concept of electric-drive aeropropulsion, aided by high-temperature superconducting technology, as an enabler for enhancing the environmental characteristics at the air-vehicle level. Potential improvements in the areas of aircraft noise, emissions, and energy efficiency are discussed in the context of supporting the latest strategic goals of leading governmental organizations.
Technical Paper

Environmental Implications of Recycling Scrap Tire Material into Ultra Fine Rubber Powder

2012-04-16
2012-01-1051
In this paper, we quantify several environmental benefits associated with using ultra fine scrap tire rubber powders in virgin and recycled rubber and plastics compounds. Specifically, we will analyze the savings in oil extraction and rubber production in comparison to the rubber powder production using cryogenic grinding. The analysis uses first hand factory data provided by a rubber powder producer. As will be shown, even though cryogenic nitrogen requires production and use of liquid nitrogen, there is still a net environmental benefit in terms of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.
Journal Article

Transmission Electron Microscopy of Soot Particles Directly Sampled in Diesel Spray Flame - A Comparison between US#2 and Biodiesel Soot

2012-04-16
2012-01-0695
For a better understanding of soot formation and oxidation processes in conventional diesel and biodiesel spray flames, the morphology, microstructure and sizes of soot particles directly sampled in spray flames fuelled with US#2 diesel and soy-methyl ester were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The soot samples were taken at 50mm from the injector nozzle, which corresponds to the peak soot location in the spray flames. The spray flames were generated in a constant-volume combustion chamber under a diesel-like high pressure and high temperature condition (6.7MPa, 1000K). Direct sampling permits a more direct assessment of soot as it is formed and oxidized in the flame, as opposed to exhaust PM measurements. Density of sampled soot particles, diameter of primary particles, size (gyration radius) and compactness (fractal dimension) of soot aggregates were analyzed and compared. No analysis of the soot micro-structure was made.
Journal Article

Power-Split HEV Control Strategy Development with Refined Engine Transients

2012-04-16
2012-01-0629
Power-split hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) employ two power paths between the internal combustion (IC) engine and the driven wheels routed through gearing and electric machines (EMs) composing an electrically variable transmission (EVT). The EVT allows IC engine control such that rotational speed can be independent of vehicle speed at all times. By breaking the rigid mechanical connection between the IC engine and the driven wheels, the EVT allows the IC engine to operate in the most efficient region of its characteristic brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) map. If the most efficient IC engine operating point produces more power than is requested by the driver, the excess IC engine power can be stored in the energy storage system (ESS) and used later. Conversely, if the most efficient IC engine operating point does not meet the power request of the driver, the ESS delivers the difference to the wheels through the EMs.
Technical Paper

Quantifying the Life Cycle Water Consumption of a Passenger Vehicle

2012-04-16
2012-01-0646
Numerous studies have pointed out the growing need to assess the availability of water sources in numerous regions around the world as future forecasts suggest that water demands will increase significantly while freshwater resources are being depleted. In this paper, we highlight the difference between water use versus consumption and analyze the life-cycle water consumption of a car from material extraction through production, use, and final disposition/end of life and determine a car's water footprint using data from the EcoInvent database as well as data collected from literature sources. Although water use is typically metered at the factory level, water consumption (i.e., water lost through evaporation and/or incorporation into a material, part, and/or product) is much harder to quantify. As shown in this paper, the difference can be an order of magnitude or more.
Technical Paper

Active Anti-lock Brake System for Low Powered Vehicles Using Cable-Type Brakes

2010-04-12
2010-01-0076
This paper presents a study of the effects of anti-lock brakes on a vehicle with cable-type brakes with respect to stopping distance and vehicle control. While ABS is common on motorcycles and some hydraulic braking systems for mopeds, little research has been done on the use of anti-locks for low-powered vehicles using non-hydraulic brakes. A bicycle with cable-type brakes has been retrofitted with an active ABS. Experiments were carried out to compare the braking distance when the ABS was activated and deactivated. The study found that ABS did not sacrifice braking distance while improving vehicle control.
X