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Technical Paper

A Probabilistic Design Methodology for Commercial Aircraft Engine Cycle Selection

1998-09-28
985510
The objective of this paper is to examine ways in which to implement probabilistic design methods in the aircraft engine preliminary design process. Specifically, the focus is on analytically determining the impact of uncertainty in engine component performance on the overall performance of a notional large commercial transport, particularly the impact on design range, fuel burn, and engine weight. The emphasis is twofold: first is to find ways to reduce the impact of this uncertainty through appropriate engine cycle selections, and second is on finding ways to leverage existing design margin to squeeze more performance out of current technology. One of the fundamental results shown herein is that uncertainty in component performance has a significant impact on the overall aircraft performance (it is on the same order of magnitude as the impact of the cycle itself).
Technical Paper

New Approaches to Conceptual and Preliminary Aircraft Design: A Comparative Assessment of a Neural Network Formulation and a Response Surface Methodology

1998-09-28
985509
This paper critically evaluates the use of Neural Networks (NNs) as metamodels for design applications. The specifics of implementing a NN approach are researched and discussed, including the type and architecture appropriate for design-related tasks, the processes of collecting training and validation data, and training the network, resulting in a sound process, which is described. This approach is then contrasted to the Response Surface Methodology (RSM). As illustrative problems, two equations to be approximated and a real-world problem from a Stability and Controls scenario, where it is desirable to predict the static longitudinal stability for a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) at takeoff, are presented. This research examines Response Surface Equations (RSEs) as Taylor series approximations, and explains their high performance as a proven approach to approximate functions that are known to be quadratic or near quadratic in nature.
Technical Paper

New Approaches to Multidisciplinary Synthesis: An Aero-Structures-Control Application Using Statistical Techniques

1996-10-01
965501
An evolving aircraft synthesis simulation environment which offers improvements to existing methods at multiple levels of a design process is described in this paper. As design databases become obsolete due to the introduction of new technologies and classes of vehicles and as sophisticated analysis codes are often too computationally expensive for iterative applications, the design engineer may find a lack of usable information needed for decision making. Within the environment developed in this paper, rapid sensitivity analysis is possible through a unique representation of the relationship between fundamental design variables and system objectives. The combined use of the Design of Experiments and Response Surface techniques provides the ability to form this design relationship among system variables and target values, which is termed design-oriented in nature.
Technical Paper

Formulation of an IPPD Methodology for the Design of a Supersonic Business Jet

1996-10-01
965591
The growth of international markets as well as business partnerships between U.S. and Asian-based firms has lead to an increased interest in an economically viable business jet capable of supersonic cruise and trans-Pacific range with one stop over (or non-stop trans-Atlantic range)1. Such an aircraft would reduce the travel time to these regions by as much as 50% by increasing cruise Mach number from roughly 0.85 to 2.0. In response to this interest, the 1996 AIAA / United Technologies / Pratt & Whitney Individual Undergraduate Design Competition has issued a Request for Proposal for the conceptual design of a supersonic cruise business jet. The design of this aircraft considered both performance and economic issues in the conceptual design phase. Through the use of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Design of Experiments (DoE) techniques, the aerodynamics of this vehicle were modeled and incorporated into an aircraft sizing code, FLOPS.
Technical Paper

An Assessment of a Reaction Driven Stopped Rotor/Wing Using Circulation Control in Forward Flight

1996-10-01
965612
The desire of achieving faster cruise speed for rotorcraft vehicles has been around since the inception of the helicopter. Many unconventional concepts have been considered and researched such as the advanced tilt rotor with canards, the tilt-wing, the folding tiltrotor, the coaxial propfan/folding tiltrotor, the variable diameter tiltrotor, and the stopped rotor/wing concept, in order to fulfill this goal. The most notable program which addressed the technology challenges of accomplishing a high speed civil transport mission is the High Speed Rotorcraft Concept (HSRC) program. Among the long list of potential configurations to fulfill the HSRC intended mission, the stopped rotor/wing is the least investigated due to the fact that the existing rotorcraft synthesis codes cannot handle this type of vehicle. In order to develop such a tool, a designer must understand the physics behind this unique concept.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Tiltwing Aircraft Configuration Potential

1996-11-18
962290
This paper outlines work performed by the Aeronautical Systems Division of the Aerospace and Transportation Laboratory at the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI). The paper provides limited, but pertinent information relative to the technical viability of a tiltwing configurations as civil powered-lift aircraft. Emphasis has been placed on identifying the complexity differences with tiltrotor and helicopter configurations. Complexity differences normally impact both acquisition and/or operating and support costs, although specific cost estimates are not presented.
Technical Paper

Designing Ranged Sets of Top-Level Design Specifications for a Family of Aircraft: An Application of Design Capability Indices

1997-10-01
975513
Design capability indices provide a metric to assess the capability of a family of designs, represented by a range of top-level design specifications, to satisfy a ranged set of design requirements. Design capability indices can be used to manage design freedom in the early stages of the design process when design requirements for a system may be uncertain. To illustrate the use of design capability indices, the design of a family of General Aviation aircraft is presented: design capability indices are used to simultaneously design a family of three aircraft around a two, a four, and a six seater configuration. The results are compared against two of our previous studies.
Technical Paper

A Probabilistic Approach to Multivariate Constrained Robust Design Simulation

1997-10-01
975508
Several approaches to robust design have been proposed in the past. Only few acknowledged the paradigm shift from performance based design to design for cost. The incorporation of economics in the design process, however, makes a probabilistic approach to design necessary, due to the inherent ambiguity of assumptions and requirements as well as the operating environment of future aircraft. The approach previously proposed by the authors, linking Response Surface Methodology with Monte Carlo Simulations, has revealed itself to be cumbersome and at times impractical for multi-constraint, multi-objective problems. In addition, prediction accuracy problems were observed for certain scenarios that could not easily be resolved. Hence, this paper proposes an alternate approach to probabilistic design, which is based on a Fast Probability Integration technique.
Technical Paper

Aircraft Control Using Stagnation Point Displacement

1997-10-01
975590
A Stagnation Point Actuator is used to control the lateral dynamics of vortices generated over a sharp-pointed forebody, at high angles of attack, and the resulting rolling moment is studied. Effective roll control is demonstrated, including the ability to suppress the wing rock phenomenon. Piecewise-linear transfer functions are developed from experimental data for the changes in roll moment and pressure difference with actuator frequency content. These transfer functions are reduced to compact form in the frequency domain, and then to a time-domain model using 2 gains and 2 time scales. The roll response is classified according to angle of attack range. Some long time scales are observed in the surface pressure, velocity field and rolling moment, making the response relatively insensitive to speed. Thus over substantial speed ranges, linear transfer functions are shown to effectively describe the roll response to motion of the Stagnation Point Actuator.
Technical Paper

Nonlinear Adaptive Control of Tiltrotor Aircraft Using Neural Networks

1997-10-13
975613
Neural network augmented model inversion control is used to provide a civilian tilt-rotor aircraft with consistent response characteristics throughout its operating envelope, including conversion flight. The implemented response types are Attitude Command Attitude Hold in the longitudinal channel, and Rate Command Attitude Hold about the roll and yaw axes. This article describes the augmentation in the roll channel and the augmentation for the yaw motion including Heading Hold at low airspeeds and automatic Turn Coordination at cruise flight. Conventional methods require extensive gain scheduling with tilt-rotor nacelle angle and airspeed. A control architecture is developed that can alleviate this requirement and thus has the potential to reduce development time. It also facilitates the implementation of desired handling qualities, and permits compensation for partial failures.
Technical Paper

Development of Response Surface Equations for High-Speed Civil Transport Takeoff and Landing Noise

1997-10-01
975570
As an element of a design optimization study of high speed civil transport (HSCT), response surface equations (RSEs) were developed with the goal of accurately predicting the sideline, takeoff, and approach noise levels for any combination of selected design variables. These RSEs were needed during vehicle synthesis to constrain the aircraft design to meet FAR 36, Stage 3 noise levels. Development of the RSEs was useful as an application of response surface methodology to a previously untested discipline. Noise levels were predicted using the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP), with additional corrections to account for inlet and exhaust duct lining, mixer-ejector nozzles, multiple fan stages, and wing reflection. The fan, jet, and airframe contributions were considered in the aircraft source noise prediction.
Technical Paper

Aerothermodynamic Design of Supersonic Channel Airfoils for Drag Reduction

1997-10-01
975572
A supersonic channel airfoil (SCA) concept that can be applied to the leading edges of wings, tails, fins, struts, and other appendages of aircraft, atmospheric entry vehicles and missiles in supersonic flight for drag reduction is described. It is designed to be beneficial at conditions in which the leading edge is significantly blunted and the Mach number normal to the leading edge is supersonic. The concept is found to result in significantly reduced wave drag and total drag (including skin friction drag) and significantly increased L/D. While this reduction over varying flight conditions has been quantified, some leading edge geometries result in adverse increases in peak heat transfer rates. To evaluate the effectiveness of SCAs in reducing drag without paying any penalties in other areas like lifting capacity, heating rates or enclosed volume, the design space was studied in greater detail using MDO methods.
Technical Paper

Probabilistic Analysis of an HSCT Modeled with an Equivalent Laminated Plate Wing

1997-10-01
975571
The High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT), a supersonic commercial transport currently under development, presents several challenges to traditional conceptual design. The current historical database used by many commercial transport design processes only include data for subsonic transports and therefore does not apply to innovative new configurations such as the HSCT. Therefore, physics-based, preliminary design tools must be used to model the characteristics of advanced aircraft in conceptual sizing routines. In addition, the evaluation of the aircraft design space often requires the analysis of many configurations in order to assess the impact of design constraints and determine the attainable range of system level metrics, a process which is very time consuming in both modeling and computer run time.
Technical Paper

Demonstration of a Probabilistic Technique for the Determination of Aircraft Economic Viability

1997-10-01
975585
Over the past few years, modern aircraft design has experienced a paradigm shift from designing for performance to designing for affordability. This paper contains a probabilistic approach that will allow traditional deterministic design methods to be extended to account for disciplinary, economic, and technological uncertainty. The probabilistic approach was facilitated by the Fast Probability Integration (FPI) technique; a technique which allows the designer to gather valuable information about the vehicle's behavior in the design space. This technique is efficient for assessing multi-attribute, multi-constraint problems in a more realistic fashion. For implementation purposes, this technique is applied to illustrate how both economic and technological uncertainty associated with a Very Large Transport aircraft may be assessed.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Assessment of High Speed Rotorcraft Concepts (HSRC): Reaction Driven Stopped Rotor/Wing Versus Variable Diameter Tiltrotor

1997-10-01
975548
The objective of this paper is to illustrate the methods and tools developed to size and synthesize a stopped rotor/wing vehicle using a reaction drive system, including how this design capability is incorporated into a sizing and synthesis tool, VASCOMP II. This new capability is used to design a vehicle capable of performing a V-22 escort mission, and a sized vehicle description with performance characteristics is presented. The resulting vehicle is then compared side-by-side to a variable diameter tiltrotor designed for the same mission. Results of this analysis indicate that the reaction-driven rotor concept holds promise relative to alternative concepts, but that the variable diameter tiltrotor has several inherent performance advantages. Additionally, the stopped rotor/wing needs considerably more development to reach maturity.
Technical Paper

A Technique for Testing and Evaluation of Aircraft Flight Performance During Early Design Phases

1997-10-01
975541
A technique is proposed for examining complex behaviors in the “pilot - vehicle - operational conditions” system using an autonomous situational model of flight. The goal is to identify potentially critical flight situations in the system behavior early in the design process. An exhaustive set of flight scenarios can be constructed and modeled on a computer by the designer in accordance with test certification requirements or other inputs. Distinguishing features of the technique include the autonomy of experimentation (the pilot and a flight simulator are not involved) and easy planning and quick modeling of complex multi-factor flight cases. An example of mapping airworthiness requirements into formal scenarios is presented. Simulation results for various flight situations and aircraft types are also demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Forecasting the Impact of Technology Infusion on Subsonic Transport Affordability

1998-09-28
985576
The design of complex systems, such as commercial aircraft, has drastically changed since the middle 1970's. Budgetary and airline requirements have forced many aerospace companies to reduce the amount of time and monetary investments in future revolutionary concepts and design methods. The current NASA administration has noticed this shift in aviation focus and responded with the “Three Pillars for Success” program. This program is a roadmap for the development of research, innovative ideas, and technology implementation goals for the next 20 years. As a response to this program, the Aerospace Systems Design Laboratory at Georgia Tech is developing methods whereby forecasting techniques will aid in the proper assessment of future vehicle concepts. This method is called Technology Impact Forecasting (TIF). This method is applied to a medium-range, intra-continental, commercial transport concept.
Technical Paper

A General Effectiveness Methodology for Aircraft Survivability Assessments

1987-10-01
871905
The quantification of aircraft survivability in modern battlefield environments is a complex mathematical problem. In general, consideration must be given to the quantification of aircraft vulnerability to individual weapon systems, single encounter aircraft survivability, and the mathematical mapping of single encounter aircraft survivability into mission attrition. A methodology for quantifying the impacts of electronic warfare (EW) upon aircraft survivability is realized by the General Effectiveness Methodology (GEM) which is based upon a hierarchy of computer models. This paper describes this hierarchy of computer simulation tools which extensively employs probability theory to estimate the various engagement events such as aircraft detection, acquisition, missile launch, missile intercept, and probability of aircraft kill.
Technical Paper

Facilitating the Energy Optimization of Aircraft Propulsion and Thermal Management Systems through Integrated Modeling and Simulation

2010-11-02
2010-01-1787
An integrated, multidisciplinary environment of a tactical aircraft platform has been created by leveraging the powerful capabilities of both MATLAB/Simulink and Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). The overall simulation includes propulsion, power, and thermal management subsystem models, which are integrated together and linked to an air vehicle model and mission profile. The model has the capability of tracking temperatures and performance metrics and subsequently controlling characteristics of the propulsion and thermal management subsystems. The integrated model enables system-level trade studies involving the optimization of engine bleed and power extraction and thermal management requirements to be conducted. The simulation can also be used to examine future technologies and advanced thermal management architectures in order to increase mission capability and performance.
Technical Paper

A General Aviation Aircraft Retrofit with a PEM Fuel Cell

2008-11-11
2008-01-2914
As gas prices and climate change become the preeminent issues of today, more research effort is being directed towards the development of cheaper and cleaner alternative energy sources. These efforts have been further complemented with research into the applicability of these sources to air, land and sea borne vehicles. In this report a notional C-172R general aviation aircraft is retrofitted with a PEM power plant as a case-study. Lower bounds for useful load and range are set in such a way that the results can be useful in determining how much improvement in the technology would be required to power a useful general aviation vehicle. It is seen that even at the predicted 2015 fuel cell technology level (per US Department of Energy projections), PEM systems would still be infeasible for this vehicle due to low specific power. Further investigation revealed that a PEM-battery hybrid system had better chances of feasibility.
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