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Technical Paper

Low Speed Canard-Tip-Vortex Airfoil Interaction

This paper describes a series of ongoing experiments to capture the details of perpendicular vortex-airfoil interaction. Three test cases explored are: 1) a 21% thick symmetric airfoil at 1.1° angle of attack, 2)a thin flat plate of 2.5% thickness with rounded leading edge, sharp trailing edge and zero angle of attack and 3) A 12% thick symmetric airfoil at zero angle of attack. The tip vortex was generated by a NACA0016 wing at 5° AOA. The strength of the vortex was computed from the velocity profile measured upstream for the first two cases. Pressure measurements on the 21% airfoil were used to quantify the effect of the vortex as a function of its stand-off distance from the airfoil. Vortex trajectories over the airfoils were obtained from laser sheet videography. The vortex motion conforms to potential flow expectations except in regions of pressure gradient and during head-on interaction.
Technical Paper

Aircraft Control Using Stagnation Point Displacement

A Stagnation Point Actuator is used to control the lateral dynamics of vortices generated over a sharp-pointed forebody, at high angles of attack, and the resulting rolling moment is studied. Effective roll control is demonstrated, including the ability to suppress the wing rock phenomenon. Piecewise-linear transfer functions are developed from experimental data for the changes in roll moment and pressure difference with actuator frequency content. These transfer functions are reduced to compact form in the frequency domain, and then to a time-domain model using 2 gains and 2 time scales. The roll response is classified according to angle of attack range. Some long time scales are observed in the surface pressure, velocity field and rolling moment, making the response relatively insensitive to speed. Thus over substantial speed ranges, linear transfer functions are shown to effectively describe the roll response to motion of the Stagnation Point Actuator.
Technical Paper

Exploration of Turbulent Atomization Mechanisms for Diesel Spray Simulations

The atomization and initial spray formation processes in direct injection engines are not well understood due to the experimental and computational challenges associated with resolving these processes. Although different physical mechanisms, such as aerodynamic-induced instabilities and nozzle-generated turbulence and cavitation, have been proposed in the literature to describe these processes, direct validation of the theoretical basis of these models under engine-relevant conditions has not been possible to date. Recent developments in droplet sizing measurement techniques offer a new opportunity to evaluate droplet size distributions formed in the central and peripheral regions of the spray. There is therefore a need to understand how these measurements might be utilized to validate unobservable physics in the near nozzle-region.
Technical Paper

Low Pressure Timed Injection and Control System for the Otto Cycle Engine

The present use of the carburetor to supply fuel to the Otto cycle engine has placed it in a difficult competitive position with the diesel engine, which has successfully operated with a fuel injection system. The purpose of this study was to consider the feasibility of utilizing a low pressure injection system for the Otto cycle engine. The proposed design is discussed in detail. As the author points out, this system will allow design changes in the engine that would be impossible if the carburetor were retained, and thus considerable improvement in performance and efficiency can be realized for the Otto cycle engine.
Technical Paper

Transmission Electron Microscopy of Soot Particles sampled directly from a Biodiesel Spray Flame

For better understanding of soot formation and oxidation processes in a biodiesel spray flame, the morphology, microstructure and sizes of soot particles directly sampled in a spray flame fuelled with soy-methyl ester were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The soot samples were taken at different axial locations in the spray flame, 40, 50 and 70 mm from injector nozzle, which correspond to soot formation, peak, and oxidation zones, respectively. The biodiesel spray flame was generated in a constant-volume combustion chamber under a diesel-like high pressure and temperature condition (6.7 MPa, 1000K). Density, diameter of primary particles and radius of gyration of soot aggregates reached a peak at 50 mm from the injector nozzle and was lower or smaller in the formation or oxidation zones of the spray.
Technical Paper

Slung Load Divergence Speed Predictions for Vehicle Shapes

Loads slung under aircraft can go into divergent oscillations coupling multiple degrees of freedom. Predicting the highest safe flight speed for a vehicle-load combination is a critical challenge, both for military missions over hostile areas, and for evacuation/rescue operations. The primary difficulty was that of obtaining well-resolved airload maps covering the arbitrary attitudes that a slung load may take. High speed rotorcraft using tilting rotors and co-axial rotors can fly at speeds that imply high dynamic pressure, making aerodynamic loads significant even on very dense loads such as armored vehicles, artillery weapons, and ammunition. The Continuous Rotation method demonstrated in our prior work enables routine prediction of divergence speeds. We build on prior work to explore the prediction of divergence speed for practical configurations such as military vehicles, which often have complex bluff body shapes.
Technical Paper

Pressure Field Evolution on Rotor Blades at High Advance Ratio

The design of advanced rotorcraft requires knowledge of the flowfield and loads on the rotor blade at extreme advance ratios (ratios of the forward flight speed to rotor tip speed). In this domain, strong vortices form below the rotor, and their evolution has a sharp influence on the aero-dynamics loads experienced by the rotor, particularly the loads experienced at pitch links. To understand the load distribution, the surface pressure distribution must be captured. This has posed a severe problem in wind tunnel experiments. In our experiments, a 2-bladed teetering rotor with collective and cyclic pitch controls is used in a low speed subsonic wind tunnel in reverse flow. Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry is used to measure the three component spatial velocity field. Measurement accuracy is now adequate for velocity data, and can be converted to pressure both at and away from the blade surface.
Journal Article

Transmission Electron Microscopy of Soot Particles Directly Sampled in Diesel Spray Flame - A Comparison between US#2 and Biodiesel Soot

For a better understanding of soot formation and oxidation processes in conventional diesel and biodiesel spray flames, the morphology, microstructure and sizes of soot particles directly sampled in spray flames fuelled with US#2 diesel and soy-methyl ester were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The soot samples were taken at 50mm from the injector nozzle, which corresponds to the peak soot location in the spray flames. The spray flames were generated in a constant-volume combustion chamber under a diesel-like high pressure and high temperature condition (6.7MPa, 1000K). Direct sampling permits a more direct assessment of soot as it is formed and oxidized in the flame, as opposed to exhaust PM measurements. Density of sampled soot particles, diameter of primary particles, size (gyration radius) and compactness (fractal dimension) of soot aggregates were analyzed and compared. No analysis of the soot micro-structure was made.
Journal Article

Combustion Recession after End of Injection in Diesel Sprays

This work contributes to the understanding of physical mechanisms that control flashback, or more appropriately combustion recession, in diesel sprays. A large dataset, comprising many fuels, injection pressures, ambient temperatures, ambient oxygen concentrations, ambient densities, and nozzle diameters is used to explore experimental trends for the behavior of combustion recession. Then, a reduced-order model, capable of modeling non-reacting and reacting conditions, is used to help interpret the experimental trends. Finally, the reduced-order model is used to predict how a controlled ramp-down rate-of-injection can enhance the likelihood of combustion recession for conditions that would not normally exhibit combustion recession. In general, fuel, ambient conditions, and the end-of-injection transient determine the success or failure of combustion recession.
Journal Article

Superconducting Machines and Power Systems for Electric-Drive Aeropropulsion

Societal demands of recent years have increasingly pressured the development of greener technologies in all sectors of the nation's transportation infrastructure, including that of civilian aviation. This study explores the concept of electric-drive aeropropulsion, aided by high-temperature superconducting technology, as an enabler for enhancing the environmental characteristics at the air-vehicle level. Potential improvements in the areas of aircraft noise, emissions, and energy efficiency are discussed in the context of supporting the latest strategic goals of leading governmental organizations.