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Technical Paper

Automatic Optimization of Pre-Impact Parameters Using Post Impact Trajectories and Rest Positions

When vehicle to vehicle collisions are analyzed using a discrete kinetic time forward simulation, several simulation runs have to be performed, to find a solution, where post impact trajectories and rest positions correspond with the real accident. This paper describes in detail a method to vary the pre-impact parameters automatically and to evaluate the simulation results. In a first step the different pre-impact parameters are discussed. Their influence on the impact and the post impact movement is shown. Furthermore the necessary specifications to define the post crash movement are presented. The necessity to define tire marks and rest positions of the vehicles involved is outlined. An effective evaluation criteria is derived, which is used to calculate a simulation error. This error is then used as a target function to control the optimization process. Two different optimization strategies are presented.
Technical Paper

System Design Model for Parallel Hybrid Powertrains using Design of Experiments

The paper focuses on an optimization methodology, which uses Design of Experiments (DoE) methods to define component parameters of parallel hybrid powertrains such as number of gears, transmission spread, gear ratios, progression factor, electric motor power, electric motor nominal speed, battery voltage and cell capacity. Target is to find the optimal configuration based on specific customer targets (e.g. fuel consumption, performance targets). In the method developed here, the hybrid drive train configuration and the combustion engine are considered as fixed components. The introduced methodology is able to reduce development time and to increase output quality of the early system definition phase. The output parameters are used as a first hint for subsequently performed detailed component development. The methodology integrates existing software tools like AVL CRUISE [5] and AVL CAMEO [1].
Technical Paper

Engine Operating Parameter-based Heat Transfer Simulation to Predict Engine Warm-up

Optimization of engine warm-up behavior has traditionally made use of experimental investigations. However, thermal engine models are a more cost-effective alternative and allow evaluation of the fuel saving potential of thermal management measures in different driving cycles. To simulate the thermal behavior of engines in general and engine warm-up in particular, knowledge of heat distribution throughout all engine components is essential. To this end, gas-side heat transfer inside the combustion chamber and in the exhaust port must be modeled as accurately as possible. Up to now, map-based models have been used to simulate heat transfer and fuel consumption; these two values are calculated as a function of engine speed and load. To extend the scope of these models, it is increasingly desirable to calculate gas-side heat transfer and fuel consumption as a function of engine operating parameters in order to evaluate different ECU databases.
Technical Paper

Precise Dummy Head Trajectories in Crash Tests based on Fusion of Optical and Electrical Data: Influence of Sensor Errors and Initial Values

Precise three-dimensional dummy head trajectories during crash tests are very important for vehicle safety development. To determine precise trajectories with a standard deviation of approximately 5 millimeters, three-dimensional video analysis is an approved method. Therefore the tracked body is to be seen on at least two cameras during the whole crash term, which is often not given (e.g. head dips into the airbag). This non-continuity problem of video analysis is surmounted by numerical integration of differential un-interrupted electrical rotation and acceleration sensor signals mounted into the tracked body. Problems of this approach are unknown sensor calibration errors and unknown initial conditions, which result in trajectory deviations above 10 centimeters.
Technical Paper

Experimental Verification and Drivability Investigations of a Turbo Charged 2-Cylinder Motorcycle Engine

There are several reasons for equipping an internal combustion engine with a turbo-charger. The most important motivation for motorcycle use is to increase the power to weight ratio. Focusing on the special boundary conditions of motorcycles, like the wide engine speed range or the extraordinarily high demands on response behavior, automotive downsizing technologies cannot be transferred directly to this field of application. This led to the main question: Is it possible to design a turbo-charged motorcycle engine with satisfactory drivability and response behavior? The layout of the charged motorcycle engine was derived by simulation and had to be verified by experimental investigations. Main components, like the turbo charger or the waste gate control as well as the influence of the increasing back pressure on the combustion, were verified by test bench measurements. Afterwards the operation strategy in general was investigated and applied to the prototype engine.
Technical Paper

Optimization Approach to Handle Global CO2 Fleet Emission Standards

A worldwide decrease of legal limits for CO2 emissions and fuel economy led to stronger efforts for achieving the required reductions. The task is to evaluate technologies for CO2 reduction and to define a combination of such measures to ensure the targets. The challenge therefor is to find the optimal combination with respect to minimal costs. Individual vehicles as well as the whole fleet have to be considered in the cost analysis - which raises the complexity. Hereby, the focus of this work is the consideration and improvement of a new model series against the background of a fleet and the selection of measures. The ratio between the costs and the effect of the measures can be different for the each vehicle configuration. Also, the determination of targets depends whether a fleet or an individual vehicle is selected and has impact on the selection and optimization process of those measures.
Technical Paper

Application and Validation of the 3D CFD Method for a Hydrogen Fueled IC Engine with Internal Mixture Formation

Hydrogen is seen as a promising energy carrier for a future mobility scenario. Applied as fuel in IC engines with internal mixture formation, hydrogen opens up new vistas for the layout of the combustion system. The 3D CFD simulation of internal mixture formation as well as combustion helps to understand the complex in-cylinder processes and provides a powerful tool to optimize the engine's working cycle. The performance of standard simulation models for mixture formation as well as the performance of a user-defined combustion model applied in a commercial CFD-code is discussed within this article. The 3D CFD simulations are validated with measurements obtained from a thermodynamic and from an optical research engine respectively.
Technical Paper

H2-Direct Injection – A Highly Promising Combustion Concept

Hydrogen is frequently cited as a future energy carrier. Hydrogen allows a further optimization of internal combustion engines, especially with direct injection. In order to assess various concepts, detailed thermodynamic analyses were carried out. Effects, which can be neglected with conventional fuels (e.g. losses due to injection during compression stroke) are considered. These basics as well as several results from test bed investigations are described within this article. Wall heat losses were found to have a major influence on overall efficiency and are thus investigated in detail, based on local surface temperature measurement. Finally, concepts that allow an increase in engine efficiency and lowest NOx emissions are demonstrated.
Journal Article

Different Speed Limiting Strategies for 50cm3 Two-Wheelers and Their Impacts on Exhaust Emissions and Fuel Economy

Usually the power output of 50 cm₃ two wheelers is higher than necessary to reach the maximum permitted vehicle speed, making engine power restriction necessary. This publication deals with different power restriction strategies for four-stroke engines and their effect on exhaust emissions. Alternative power limitation strategies like EGR and leaning were investigated and compared with the common method of spark advance reduction to show the optimization potential for this certain engine operation conditions. From these tests, a substantial set of data showing the pros and cons in terms of emissions, combustion stability and fuel economy could be derived for each speed limiting technique.
Journal Article

A New Approach for the Reduction of Aerodynamic Drag of Long-Distance Transportation Vehicles

The optimization of aerodynamic drag represents an important research area for the fuel consumption reduction of heavy duty commercial vehicles. Today's design of tractor-trailers is significantly influenced by legal conditions regarding the vehicle dimensions and the provision of a maximum transportation volume. These boundary conditions lead to brick-shaped trailer outer geometries, especially at the rear ends. That is the reason why the investigations of aerodynamic optimization of commercial vehicle trailers are predominantly restricted to detail measures up to now. The present publication treats the aerodynamic characteristics of general modifications on the outer contour of long-distance haulage trailers in regard of reducing the drag resistance and, thus, potentially also the fuel consumption in highway traffic. A new approach for the realization of a variable outer contour of trailers provides the possibility to adjust the rear end to an aerodynamically optimized shape.
Journal Article

Novel Range Extender Concepts for 2025 with Regard to Small Engine Technologies

Energy politics and environmental circumstances demand novel strategies for private transport. Several studies have shown that one of these possibilities can be an electric vehicle with a range extender - REX. Today these REX engines are under way as derivation from modern internal combustion engines. As the need for an optimized usage of energy will further increase in the future, alternative energy converter systems have to be investigated. For DENSO, as supplier of components, it is of strong interest how the basic layout of these concepts could look like. This is necessary in order to be prepared for the specific needs of these concepts in terms of auxiliaries, electric / electronic components as well as for the cabin climate & various control strategies. In these REX-concepts all energies have to be considered. A sophisticated usage of energy inside a REX vehicle is required which leads to the investigation of a combined heat and power usage on-board.
Journal Article

Advanced Heat Transfer and Underhood Airflow Investigation with Focus on Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) of Snowmobiles

The presented paper focuses on the computation of heat transfer related to continuously variable transmissions (CVTs). High temperatures are critical for the highly loaded rubber belts and reduce their lifetime significantly. Hence, a sufficient cooling system is inevitable. A numerical tool which is capable of predicting surface heat transfer and maximum temperatures is of high importance for concept design studies. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a suitable method to carry out this task. In this work, a time efficient and accurate simulation strategy is developed to model the complexity of a CVT. The validity of the technique used is underlined by field measurements. Tests have been carried out on a snowmobile CVT, where component temperatures, air temperatures in the CVT vicinity and engine data have been monitored. A corresponding CAD model has been created and the boundary conditions were set according to the testing conditions.
Journal Article

The Potential of 3D-CAD Based Process – Optimization in the Automotive Concept Phase

The time reduction of the vehicle design and creation process is an important key to reduce development costs. Modern CAD systems offer a wide range of possibilities, not only in the standard field of mechanical design, but also in terms of creating advanced control mechanisms concerning part and assembly structures. Integrated design strategies include miscellaneous scripting and programming possibilities as well as implemented functions. An efficient application of these features can help to decrease the development time and to manage the growing functional complexity of automotive engineering processes. Continuously increasing product variants and functionalities call for design strategies and methods, which are capable to handle a quick data control and data transfer supporting an efficient geometry creation and evaluation.