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Journal Article

Lightning Effects on Hydraulic Transport Elements in Composite Aircraft

In this study, lightning effects on hydraulic transport elements in composite aircraft have been considered for the first time. Based on recent test results and analysis, several forms of possible structural damage and system component failures are presented. A unique approach in analysis has been taken to account that hydraulic transport elements, as a part of several aircraft systems, have a common interface with electrical wiring, and become complex electric networks. When an aircraft is exposed to a direct lightning strike, a metal skin on the wings and fuselage will conduct lightning currents in a way that only a small amount of induced electromagnetic energy will be present on hydraulic transport elements. So, in the past, hydraulic tubes, actuators, manifolds, and all other hydro-mechanical devices, as parts of various aircraft systems, have never been considered as lightning sensitive components.
Technical Paper

Heat Exchanger Fouling Diagnosis for an Aircraft Air-Conditioning System

This paper addresses the issue of fault diagnosis in the heat exchanger of an aircraft Air Conditioning System (ACS). The heat exchanger cools the air by transferring the heat to the ram-air. Due to a variety of biological, mechanical and chemical reasons, the heat exchanger may experience fouling conditions that reduces the efficiency and could considerably affect the functionality of the ACS. Since, the access to the heat exchanger is limited and time consuming, it is preferable to implement an early fault diagnosis technique that would facilitate Condition Based Maintenance (CBM). The main contribution of the paper is pre-flight fault assessment of the heat exchanger using a combined model-based and data-driven approach of fault diagnosis. A Simulink model of the ACS, that has been designed and validated by an industry partner, has been used for generation of sensor data for various fouling conditions.
Journal Article

Health Assessment of Liquid Cooling System in Aircrafts: Data Visualization, Reduction, Clustering, and Classification

This paper addresses the issues of data reduction, visualization, clustering and classification for fault diagnosis and prognosis of the Liquid Cooling System (LCS) in an aircraft. LCS is a cooling system that consists of a left and a right loop, where each loop is composed of a variety of components including a heat exchanger, source control units, a compressor, and a pump. The LCS data and the fault correlation analysis used in the paper are provided by Hamilton Sundstrand (HS) - A United Technologies Company (UTC). This data set includes a variety of sensor measurements for system parameters including temperatures and pressures of different components, along with liquid levels and valve positions of the pumps and controllers. A graphical user interface (GUI) is developed in Matlab that facilitates extensive plotting of the parameters versus each other, and/or time to observe the trends in the data.
Technical Paper

Sensory Prognostics and Management System (SPMS)

The Sensory Prognostics and Management Systems (SPMS) program sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration and Boeing developed and evaluated designs to integrate advanced diagnostic and prognostic (i.e., Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) or Health Management (HM)) capabilities onto commercial airplanes. The objective of the program was to propose an advanced HM system appropriate for legacy and new aircraft and examine the technical requirements and their ramifications on the current infrastructure and regulatory guidance. The program approach was to determine the attractive and feasible HM applications, the technologies that are required to cost effectively implement these applications, the technical and certification challenges, and the system level and business consequences of such a system.
Technical Paper

Smoke Detection for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle

The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) requires a smoke detector for the detection of particulate smoke products as part of the Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS) system. The smoke detector described in this paper is an adaptation of a mature commercial aircraft design for manned spaceflight. Changes made to the original design include upgrading the materials and electronics to space-qualified components, and modifying the mechanical design to withstand launch and landing loads. The results of laboratory characterization of the response of the new design to test particles are presented.
Technical Paper

Carrier Injection Positive and Negative Sequence Impedances for Wound Field Synchronous Starter/Generators

Carrier Injection Sensorless (CIS) rotor position estimation for electric machines depends on the rotor saliency “seen” from the stator terminals. Compared to permanent magnet and induction machines, wound field synchronous machine rotor saliency characteristics are more complex. At typical carrier frequencies subtransient characteristics dominate. Injecting positively rotating carrier voltages at the stator terminals of a machine having rotor saliency produces both positively and negatively rotating carrier currents. The impedances relating currents to injected carrier voltages are derived from the dq reference frame synchronous machine model. Analytical results are compared to simulation and limited test results for an aircraft starter/generator.