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Technical Paper

Selection of an Alternate Biocide for the ISS Internal Thermal Control System Coolant - Phase II

2004-07-19
2004-01-2472
The ISS (International Space Station) ITCS (Internal Thermal Control System) includes two internal coolant loops that utilize an aqueous based coolant for heat transfer. A silver salt biocide had previously been utilized as an additive in the coolant formulation to control the growth and proliferation of microorganisms within the coolant loops. Ground-based and in-flight testing demonstrated that the silver salt was rapidly depleted, and did not act as an effective long-term biocide. Efforts to select an optimal alternate biocide for the ITCS coolant application have been underway and are now in the final stages. An extensive evaluation of biocides was conducted to down-select to several candidates for test trials and was reported on previously.
Technical Paper

Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) Cargo Heat Exchanger

2002-07-15
2002-01-2415
This paper describes the New Shuttle Orbiter's Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) Cargo Heat Exchanger (HX) and associated MPLM cooling system. Heat Exchanger (HX) design and system performance characteristics of the system are presented.
Technical Paper

Development of a Miniaturized High Intensity Cryogenic Flow Boiler

2002-07-15
2002-01-2408
An extremely compact heat exchanger is being developed which can boil cryogenic fluids with a liquid heat source at temperatures close to its freezing point. Freezing of the heat source fluid, e.g. water is precluded by the normal flow arrangement. Boiling and superheating of the cryogen occurs as the fluid approaches the heat source in a stack of bonded jet-array laminations. This heat exchanger technology is important in many applications where the storage of fluids at cryogenic temperatures offers substantial advantages in terms of system weight and volume. Often, as in several advanced portable life support system concepts, the advantages include the use of the cryogen as a heat sink in system thermal management. Realizing this benefit and safely conditioning the stored fluid for use requires effective heat transfer between the cryogen and a secondary heat transport fluid.
Technical Paper

Liquid Cooling Garment Adaptation to Enhance Surgical Outcomes

2003-07-07
2003-01-2339
Hypothermia is a well documented problem for surgical patients and is historically addressed by the use of a variety of warming aids and devices applied to the patient before, during, and after surgery. Their effectiveness is limited in many surgeries by practical constraints of surgical access, and hypothermia remains a significant concern. Increasing the temperature of the operating room has been proposed as an alternative solution. However, operating room temperatures must be cool enough to limit thermal stress on the surgical team despite the heat transport barriers imposed by protective sterile garments. Space technology in the form of the liquid cooling garment worn by EVA astronauts answers this need. Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International (HSSSI) has been working with Hartford Hospital to adapt liquid cooling garment technology for use by surgical teams in order to allow them to work comfortably in warmer operating room environments.
Technical Paper

Performance Characteristics of a High Intensity Cryogenic Flow Boiler

2003-07-07
2003-01-2507
Hamilton Sundstrand has been working on the development of a new cryogenic flow boiler based on its patented compact, high-intensity cooler (CHIC) technology intended to provide low weight and volume and overcome freezing problems associated with cryogen use in EVA spacesuit cooling. Tests of the prototype device resulting from that effort have now been completed. The test data demonstrate that the design is extremely resistant to freezing the heat transport fluid as anticipated. Highly effective heat transfer is achieved in a compact device combining the functions of several conventional heat exchangers. This novel heat exchanger, a “normal flow” layered impingement arrangement should provide a very compact solution to any heat transfer applications where the cold fluid operates below the warm fluid's freezing point. Test results are generally consistent with design analyses for the prototype.
Technical Paper

Selection of an Alternate Biocide for the International Space Station Internal Active Thermal Control System Coolant Loops

2003-07-07
2003-01-2568
The International Space Station (ISS) IATCS (Internal Active Thermal Control System) includes two internal coolant loops that use an aqueous based coolant for heat transfer. A silver salt biocide was used initially as an additive in the coolant formulation to control the growth and proliferation of microorganisms in the coolant loops. Ground-based and in-flight testing has demonstrated that the silver salt is rapidly depleted and not effective as a long-term biocide. Efforts are now underway to select an alternate biocide for the IATCS coolant loop with greatly improved performance. An extensive evaluation of biocides was conducted to select several candidates for test trials.
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