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Technical Paper

Experimental Modal Analysis for Cylinder Block-Crankshaft Substructure Systems of Six-cylinder In-line Diesel Engines

2001-04-30
2001-01-1421
A newly developed OHC (Over-Head Camshaft) prototype of a six-cylinder in-line diesel engine (with bore size: 114mm, stroke size: 130mm) was studied, comparing with the previous version of OHV (Over-Head Valve) type engine (with bore size: 110mm, stroke size: 130mm). It was found that the new type of cylinder block (with 130.8 kg of mass) has significantly lower natural frequencies than those for the previous type of cylinder block (with 133.2 kg of mass). Furthermore, slightly more predominant engine noise and vibration were induced in the new engine. The vibration behavior and the excitation force transmission characteristics were investigated by EMA (Experimental Modal Analysis). We performed a series of impact tests for (1) free-free cylinder block, (2) free-free crankshaft substructure with torsional damper and flywheel attached, and (3) the case where (1) and (2) are assembled together.
Technical Paper

Noise Generating Mechanism at Idling for a Four-cylinder In-line Diesel Engine

2003-05-05
2003-01-1720
The separation of combustion noise and mechanical noise from the total noise of a four-cylinder in-line diesel engine at idling was carried out with high accuracy by changing the fuel injection timing. The mechanical noise, which accounts for the major share at 93%, was then separated into noises from the typical mechanical causes, and the valve train was found to be the major noise source. From analysis of the noise generating mechanism for the valve train, it was clarified that the noise was caused mainly by the gear rattling owing to the variation in the camshaft drive torque.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Diesel Exhaust Emission of Advanced Emission Control Technologies using various Diesel Fuels, and Sulfur Effect on Performance after Mileage Accumulation. -JCAP Diesel WG (fuel) Report for Step II study-

2003-05-19
2003-01-1907
To investigate the future direction of diesel emission control technologies and fuel technologies, exhaust emissions tests of diesel vehicles/engines with advanced after-treatments such as NSR catalyst, CR-DPF, and Urea-SCR or a combination of these, were conducted using various fuels, and fuel sulfur effect on performance of the after-treatments after mileage accumulation was also evaluated in step II study of JCAP Diesel WG. Overall results shows that the after-treatments have significant effects on reducing emission and reducing fuel sulfur have significant effects on function of the after-treatments in term of decrease of sulfate and SOF, and less deterioration of function of after-treatments after mileage accumulation.
Technical Paper

A New Concept for Low Emission Diesel Combustion

1997-02-24
970891
A new concept for diesel combustion was investigated by means of numerical simulation, engine experiment, and combustion observation in order to realize a simultaneous reduction of NOx and particulate emission. This concept (HiMICS: Homogeneous charge intelligent Multiple Injection Combustion System) is based on pre-mixed compression ignition combustion combined with multiple injection. Combustion characteristics of HiMICS concept was investigated by comparing with both a standard single injection and a pilot injection. In HiMICS concept, the pre-mixture is formed by a preliminary injection performed during a period from the early stage of the induction stroke to the middle stage of the compression stroke. Modified KIVA-II code was used to predict engine performances and emissions of each injection method. The simulation results show a capability of considerable improvement in the trade-off relation between NOx emissions and fuel consumption of HiMICS.
Technical Paper

Development of J-Series Engine and Adoption of Common-Rail Fuel Injection System

1997-02-24
970818
Hino has developed new J-series medium-duty diesel engines for trucks and buses. The new J-series comprises four, five and six-cylinder engines with the same cylinder bore and stroke and with both naturally aspirated and charge air cooled. Both output and torque have been enhanced along with fuel efficiency in an engine that is lighter and more compact than ever and reaches new heights of durability and reliability. J-series engine features a 4-valve system and OHC valve train design, which achieved an uniform combustion by a centered nozzle and combustion chamber design. This decreases the maximum combustion temperature and hence improved the NOx,smoke and PM emissions. And a reduced pumping loss results in improving the fuel consumption. J-series engines thus meet the Japanese 1994 emission regulations. Another feature is a fully electronically controlled common-rail fuel injection system, which is equipped in a specified engine of naturally aspirated 6 cylinder.
Technical Paper

Combustion Optimization by Means of Common Rail Injection System for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

1998-10-19
982679
This paper describes the combustion optimizations of heavy-duty diesel engines for the anticipated future emissions regulations by means of an electronically controlled common rail injection system. Tests were conducted on a turbocharged and aftercooled (TCA) prototype heavy-duty diesel engine. To improve both NOx-fuel consumption and NOx-PM trade-offs, fuel injection characteristics including injection timing, injection pressure, pilot injection quantity, and injection interval on emissions and engine performances were explored. Then intake swirl ratio and combustion chamber geometry were modified to optimize air-fuel mixing and to emphasize the pilot injection effects. Finally, for further NOx reductions, the potentials of the combined use of EGR and pilot injection were experimentally examined. The results showed that the NOx-fuel consumption trade-off is improved by an optimum swirl ratio and combustion chamber geometry as well as by a new pilot concept.
Technical Paper

A Study on Cam Wear Mechanism with a Newly Developed Friction Measurement Apparatus

1998-10-19
982663
The requirements for emission control, lower fuel consumption and higher engine output have changed the engine valve train system to 4-valve/cylinder and higher cam lift designs, and these changes make the cam/tappet lubrication conditions more severe than before. Under such a working condition, there is a high possibility that cam/tappet surface damages such as scuffing, pitting and wear may occur. Among the damages, the wear of cam/tappet is the most difficult to predict since the wear mechanism still remains unclear. To understand the lubrication condition and therefore, the wear mechanism at the cam/tappet contact, friction was measured with a newly developed apparatus. Measurement results showed that the lubrication condition between cam and tappet is predominantly in the mixed and boundary lubrication conditions.
Technical Paper

A New Concept for Low Emission Diesel Combustion (2nd Rep. : Reduction of HC and CO Emission, and Improvement of Fuel Consumption by EGR and MTBE Blended Fuel)

1998-08-11
981933
A new concept for diesel combustion has been investigated by means of engine experiments and combustion observations in order to realize a simultaneous reduction of NOx and particulate emissions. The concept is based on pre-mixed compression ignition combustion combined with multiple injection. In this method, some part of fuel is injected at an early stage of the process to form a homogeneous lean pre-mixture, then the remaining fuel is injected at around the TDC in the same manner as a conventional diesel injection. The emissions, ROHR (rate of heat release), and combustion pictures of conventional combustion, pilot injection combustion, and this new combustion concept were compared and analyzed. Engine tests were carried out using a single cylinder research engine equipped with a common rail injection system.
Technical Paper

The Spray Models and Their Influence on Ignition

1995-02-01
950279
The differences between spray models are investigated by comparing calculation results with experimental data. The calculations are performed using the KIVA-II code. The spray models TAB, which is the original model of KIVA-II, and the model developed by Reitz are calculated and compared. A semi-empirical spray model based on the TAB model is also formulated and compared with the other models. The penetration and droplet size distribution are compared with data from constant pressure bomb tests. The calculated ignition delay is compared with actual engine operating data- Each spray model has different characteristics influencing the atomization process. These differences result in discrepancies during the penetration, evaporation, and ignition.
Technical Paper

The Analysis of Combustion Flame Under EGR Conditions in a DI Diesel Engine

1996-02-01
960323
Since in-cylinder flame temperature has a direct effect on an engine's NOx characteristics, this phenomena has been studied in detail in a multi-cylinder DI diesel engine using a new method allowing the in-cylider temperature distribution to be measured by the two color method. An endoscope is installed in the combustion chamber and flame light introduced from the endoscope is divided into two colors by filters. The images of combustion phenomena using the two wavelengths are recorded with a framing streak camera which includes a CCD camera. The flame temperature and KL factor are immediately calculated by a computer using the two color images from the CCD camera. In the case of EGR, the test was conducted under 75% load conditions. The flame temperature was reduced according to an increase of EGR rate.
Technical Paper

Energy Regeneration of Heavy Duty Diesel Powered Vehicles

1998-02-23
980891
The objective of this study is to improve fuel economy and reduce carbon dioxide emissions in diesel-electric hybrid automotive powertrains by developing an exhaust gas turbine generator system which utilizes exhaust gas energy from the turbocharger waste gate. The design of the exhaust gas turbine generator was based on a conventional turbocharger for a direct-injection diesel engine. Data from steady-state bench tests using air indicates about 50% of the turbine input energy can be converted to electric energy. Turbine generator output averaged 3 kW, while a maximum of about 6 kW was observed. Based on this data, we estimate that energy consumption in a vehicle could be reduced between 5% and 10%. Engine tests were conducted under both steady-state and transient conditions. These tests revealed that optimal performance occurred under high-speed, high-load conditions, typical of highway or uphill driving, and that performance at low-speed, low-loads was relatively poor.
Technical Paper

Formability of Deep Oil Sump for Heavy-Duty Truck Engines Using Vibration Damping Steel Sheets

1994-03-01
940944
Recently, as one of the effective measures for engine noise reduction, vibration damping steel sheets (VDSS) have been increasingly applied to engine oil sumps. This paper describes the formability of VDSS. Various factors closely related to drawability are considered. This study has been carried out in a production engineering process of manufacturing exceedingly deep, single blank sheet, oil sump for heavy-duty truck diesel engines. Some treatment of the surface of the VDSS was found to be a principal factor influencing deep drawability.
Technical Paper

The Visualization and Its Analysis of Combustion Flame in a DI Diesel Engine

1998-02-23
980141
Since in-cylinder flame temperature has a direct effect on an engine's NOx characteristics, these phenomena have been studied in detail in a DI diesel engine using a newly developed method allowing the in-cylinder temperature distribution to be measured by the two color method. The flame light introduced from the visualized combustion chamber of the engine is divided into two colors by filters. The images of combustion phenomena using the two wavelengths are recorded with a framing streak camera which includes a CCD camera. The flame temperature is immediately calculated by a computer using two color images from the CCD camera. A parameter study was then carried out to determine the influence of intake valve number of the engine, and fuel injection rate (pilot injection) on the in-cylinder temperature distribution.
Technical Paper

Development of Diesel Combustion for Commercial Vehicles

1997-08-06
972685
Historically the high speed diesel engine for commercial vehicles has been developed along with its combustion system in compliance with political and economical changes. After the 1970's, stricter exhaust emission regulations and fuel economy requirements induced combustion developments and application of turbocharged and inter cooled engines. From the late 1980's, high pressure fuel injection has been investigated and recognized as an essential tool for lowering emissions especially of particulate matter. Although turbulence effects on both in-cylinder air motion and during the combustion process are quite effective, they show different phenomena in conventional and advanced high pressure fuel injection systems. In the 1990's, multiple injection with high pressure has been attempted for further reduction of NOx and particulate matter.
Technical Paper

Development of “Camion” Truck Winner at '97 Dakar Rally

1998-11-16
983065
In the '97 Dakar Rally, Hino FT model, 8,000cc engine truck, won 1st, 2nd and 3rd places by defeating upper class trucks having engine of 19,000cc. The average speed of the '97 Hino model was increased more than 15 km/h over the '96 model by improving the riding comfort and handling stability. Larger diameter tires, and softer parabolic leaf springs with long and inclined axle-locus for reducing road impact, gas charged dampers, suspension rods which control compliance-steer-motion and wind-up motion of unsprung masses were adopted for the '97 model.
Technical Paper

New Medium Duty Truck Model “HINO FA14 Series” for the U.S. Market

1988-10-01
881852
Hino Motors is about to launch a new truck model FA as a family product of the model FB class 5 category trucks which have been sold since 1986, Model FA, a class 3 category cab-over-engine truck has a GVW of 13,500 Lbs. and is powered by a 3.8 liter direct injection turbocharged diesel engine which produces 125 HP in conformity with federal exhaust gas emission regulations for 50 states. The new truck was designed and developed to satisfy several principal design objectives such as excellent maneuverability, driving comfort, superior fuel economy as well as sufficient reliability and durability within the simplest possible structure. This paper describes its design objectives, features focusing on cab and engine and technologies devoted to the development.
Technical Paper

Noise Reduction of Diesel Engine for Heavy Duty Vehicles

1989-02-01
890128
Noise reduction of diesel engines installed in heavy duty vehicles is one of the highest priorities from the viewpoints of meeting the regulations for urban traffic noise abatement and noise reduction in the cabin for lightening fatigue with comfortable long driving. It is necessary that noise reduction measures then be applied to those causes. Noise reduction measures for the diesel engine can be classified into five categories on the noise radiation block-diagram. These are, reduction of combustion and mechanical forces, deformation and vibration control of cylinder block, vibration control of fastened components, prevention of standing wave and close fitting shields. All noise reduction measures for the diesel engine researched for the purpose of practical use are fully described in this paper.
Technical Paper

Development of a Pre-Alarm Diagnostic System for a Diesel Emission Analyzer

1989-02-01
890186
Gaseous emission measurements of a diesel engine including hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and oxide of nitrogen (NOx) are made in accordance with the procedures specified in the Federal Register. However, it is very difficult to maintain constantly the accuracy of these emission measurements due to failure of the emission analyzer. The authors have thus developed the Pre-Alarm Diagnostic System for a Diesel Emission Analyzer. Firstly, the authors have carried out analysis of all failure modes that are classified into initial failure, random failure and wearing-out failure, plus tolerance level for prediction of failures and method of predicting failures. Next, the authors have developed the Pre-Alarm Diagnostic System that is able to easily discover these failures before the exhaust emission test. In this system, 40 sensors, such as pressure, temperature, voltage etc, are laid in each pipe line of connection between exhaust emission sampling pump and analyzer.
Technical Paper

The Development of High-Performance Viscous-Rubber Damper for Higher Boost Turbocharged and Charge-Cooled Diesel Engine

1991-02-01
910630
A newly developed viscous-rubber damper, which employed an innovative structure and a new heat resistant rubber, solved some tough problems. This paper dealt more closely with the features of the new viscous-rubber damper and the new calculation method for the viscous-rubber damper. This damper has been employed for Hino new K13C (K-II) higher boost turbocharged and air to air charge-cooled diesel engine, which has extreme severity on the torsional vibration.
Technical Paper

Development of Diesel Particulate Trap Systems for City Buses

1991-02-01
910138
Diesel particulate trap systems are one of the effective means for the control of particulate emission from diesel vehicles. Hino has been researching and developing various diesel particulate trap systems for city buses. This paper describes two of the systems. One uses a wall flow filter equipped with an electric heater and a sensing device for particulate loading for the purpose of filter regeneration. Another makes use of a special filter named “Cross Flow Filter” with an epoch-making regeneration method called “Reverse Jet Cleaning”, by which it becomes possible to separate the part for particulate burning from the filter. Both systems roughly have come to satisfy the functions of trap systems for city buses, but their durability and reliability for city buses are not yet sufficient.
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