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Technical Paper

Combustion Optimization by Means of Common Rail Injection System for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

This paper describes the combustion optimizations of heavy-duty diesel engines for the anticipated future emissions regulations by means of an electronically controlled common rail injection system. Tests were conducted on a turbocharged and aftercooled (TCA) prototype heavy-duty diesel engine. To improve both NOx-fuel consumption and NOx-PM trade-offs, fuel injection characteristics including injection timing, injection pressure, pilot injection quantity, and injection interval on emissions and engine performances were explored. Then intake swirl ratio and combustion chamber geometry were modified to optimize air-fuel mixing and to emphasize the pilot injection effects. Finally, for further NOx reductions, the potentials of the combined use of EGR and pilot injection were experimentally examined. The results showed that the NOx-fuel consumption trade-off is improved by an optimum swirl ratio and combustion chamber geometry as well as by a new pilot concept.
Technical Paper

The Spray Models and Their Influence on Ignition

The differences between spray models are investigated by comparing calculation results with experimental data. The calculations are performed using the KIVA-II code. The spray models TAB, which is the original model of KIVA-II, and the model developed by Reitz are calculated and compared. A semi-empirical spray model based on the TAB model is also formulated and compared with the other models. The penetration and droplet size distribution are compared with data from constant pressure bomb tests. The calculated ignition delay is compared with actual engine operating data- Each spray model has different characteristics influencing the atomization process. These differences result in discrepancies during the penetration, evaporation, and ignition.
Technical Paper

Development of a Pre-Alarm Diagnostic System for a Diesel Emission Analyzer

Gaseous emission measurements of a diesel engine including hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and oxide of nitrogen (NOx) are made in accordance with the procedures specified in the Federal Register. However, it is very difficult to maintain constantly the accuracy of these emission measurements due to failure of the emission analyzer. The authors have thus developed the Pre-Alarm Diagnostic System for a Diesel Emission Analyzer. Firstly, the authors have carried out analysis of all failure modes that are classified into initial failure, random failure and wearing-out failure, plus tolerance level for prediction of failures and method of predicting failures. Next, the authors have developed the Pre-Alarm Diagnostic System that is able to easily discover these failures before the exhaust emission test. In this system, 40 sensors, such as pressure, temperature, voltage etc, are laid in each pipe line of connection between exhaust emission sampling pump and analyzer.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Injection Pressure and Fuel Properties on Particulate Emissions from H.D.D.I. Diesel Engine

For the 1990's diesel engines, particulate control has been an important problem. The purpose of this paper is to discuss emission control needs for heavy duty diesel truck engines for the 1990's. This paper will focus on the factors such as fuel injection pressure and fuel properties which most affect particulate emission. The characteristics of diesel spray in the atmosphere and also actual combustion of a turbocharged and charge-cooled H.D. D.I diesel engine were studied as a function of injection pressure ranging from 50 to 150 MPa. Experimental results show that high pressure injection improves the atomization and air entrainment. Though Bosch smoke level, fuel consumption and combustion period decreased with the rise of injection pressure, particulate emission in EPA transient test cycle did not decrease dut to an increase of SOF.
Technical Paper

Low Emission Combustion influences Durability of Fuel Injection Pipe Line and Treatment of the Pipe

In order to reduce particulate and NOx emission from the direct injection diesel engine, most researchers have been expecting the utilization of higher injection pressure and injection rate for improvement of diesel combustion. In the case of pump-line-nozzle system, the injection pipe line is very important with regard to the high injection pressure. Namely, the pipe line must be able to resist not only high pressure but also cavitation erosion. In this paper, the effect of high injection pressure, injection rate and sharp cutting at the end of fuel injection are discussed along with cavitation phenomena on the injection pipe line. And durability tests on the pipe line system under high injection pressure using a test rig are also described. Regarding durability tests, several measures have been taken for the injection pipe. As a result, the authors have found that the best solution for the injection pipe is a composite pipe made with SUS and steel.
Technical Paper

Hino's Advanced Low-Emission Technologies Developed to Meet Stringent Emissions Standards

Japan's new 2005 long-term emissions regulation was implemented in October 2005. Both NOx and PM emissions standards were reduced to 2 g/kWh and 0.027 g/kWh, which were 40 and 85 percent lower than the 2003 new short-term emissions standards, respectively. These emissions standards are as stringent as the Euro5 standards that are scheduled for implementation in 2008. In addition, the transient-cycle test procedure for emissions compliance, labeled JE05, was introduced to replace the D13-mode steady-state test procedure. This paper describes exhaust emissions reduction technologies developed for Hino's 13-liter heavy-duty diesel engine so that it meets the above standards. A production catalyzed wall-flow DPF was employed to reduce PM emissions in both mass and small particles. NOx emissions were reduced by improving combustion with cooled EGR and without use of a NOx aftertreatment device.
Technical Paper

The IP Filter, a DOC-Integrated DPF, for an Advanced PM Aftertreatment System (2): An Evaluation of Fundamental Performance

DPR consists of a multiple fuel-injection system, an electronic engine control unit, and a DPR Cleaner. The DPR cleaner is one assembly unit consisting of a DOC, a catalyzed DPF, and an exhaust silencer. Thus, DPR is a system developed to achieve healthy operation of a DPF with active regeneration regardless of engine operating conditions. The IP Filter was developed to improve the DPR cleaner by reducing the size of the unit and shortening the regeneration time. Both the DOC and DPF are integrated into one unit structure. The IP Filter has open-ended cells on the front face unlike a conventional wall-flow DPF. Instead, the plugs are positioned at the interface between the DOC and DPF. On the rear face of the IP Filter, plugs are installed at the same positions as those of a conventional DPF. The DOC substrate of the IP Filter is made of highly porous, straight honeycomb, the same as that of DPF.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Mechanism of Lubricating Oil Consumption of Diesel Engines - 4th Report: The Measurement of Oil Pressure Under the Piston Oil Ring -

Clarifying the mechanism of the oil consumption of engines is necessary for developing its estimation method. Oil moves upwards on the piston to the combustion chamber through ring sliding surfaces, ring backs and ring gaps. The mechanisms of oil upwards transport through the ring gaps are hardly analyzed. In this report, oil pressure just under the oil ring was successfully measured by newly developed method to clarify the oil transport mechanism at the ring gap. It was showed that the generated oil pressure pushed up the oil at the ring gap.
Technical Paper

Development of Next Generation Gear Oil for Heavy Duty Vehicles

Heavy duty vehicles take a large role in providing global logistics. It is required to have both high durability and reduced CO2 from the viewpoint of global environment conservation. Therefore lubricating oils for transmission and axle/differential gear box are required to have excellent protection and longer drain intervals. However, it is also necessary that the gear oil maintain suitable friction performance for the synchronizers of the transmission. Even with such good performance, both transmission and axle/differential gear box lubricants must balance cost and performance, in particular in the Asian market. The development of gear oil additives for high reliability gear oil must consider the available base oils in various regions as the additive is a global product. In many cases general long drain gear oils for heavy duty vehicles use the group III or IV base oils, but it is desirable to use the group I/II base oils in terms of cost and availability.
Journal Article

Study of the Impact of High Biodiesel Blends on Engine Oil Performance

In Biodiesel Fuel Research Working Group(WG) of Japan Auto-Oil Program(JATOP), some impacts of high biodiesel blends have been investigated from the viewpoints of fuel properties, stability, emissions, exhaust aftertreatment systems, cold driveability, mixing in engine oils, durability/reliability and so on. This report is designed to determine how high biodiesel blends affect oil quality through testing on 2005 regulations engines with DPFs. When blends of 10-20% rapeseed methyl ester (RME) with diesel fuel are employed with 10W-30 engine oil, the oil change interval is reduced to about a half due to a drop in oil pressure. The oil pressure drop occurs because of the reduced kinematic viscosity of engine oil, which resulting from dilution of poorly evaporated RME with engine oil and its accumulation, however, leading to increased wear of piston top rings and cylinder liners.